Chemistry

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benmfox
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96979
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Chemistry
Updated:
2011-08-13 22:06:15
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AP Chemistry Basics
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  1. cation
    possitive ion
  2. +1 charge
    All of family 1, Ag (silver)
  3. +2 charge
    All of family 2, Zn (zinc)
  4. +3
    Al (aluminum), Ga (gallium)
  5. Copper
    +1, 2
  6. mercury
    Hg2+2 (which is called mercury (1)) and Hg+2
  7. Gold
    +1, 3
  8. Chromium
    +2, 3
  9. Nickel
    +2, 3
  10. Iron
    +2, 3
  11. Lead
    +2, 4
  12. Tin
    +2, 4
  13. Platinum
    +2, 4
  14. Manganese
    +2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  15. Intermolecular forces (London dispersion forces, induced dipoles or debye forces, dipole-dipole interactions...)
    forces between two molecules
  16. London Dispersion forces
    caused by correlated movement of electrons
  17. Induced dipoles or debye forces
    caused by polar molecule coming close to a non-polar molecule and moving the electrons of the NP one
  18. Dipole-Dipole interactions
    electrostatic interactions of permanent dipole molecules to align to increase attraction
  19. intermolecular hydrogen "bonding"
    an interaction between a hydrogen and a highly electronegative atom (N, O, F) on another molecule actually bonded to H
  20. Anion
    negative ion
  21. -1
    All of family 17
  22. -2
    All of family 16
  23. -3
    All of family 15
  24. NH4+
    ammonium (only possitive polyatomic ion)
  25. C2H3O2-(CH3COO-)
    acetate
  26. CN-
    cyanide
  27. SCN-
    thiocyanate
  28. MnO4-
    permanganate
  29. NO3-
    nitrate
  30. OH-
    hydroxide
  31. IO3-
    iodate
  32. ClO3-
    chlorate
  33. ClO4-
    perchlorate
  34. Cr2O7-2
    dichromate
  35. CrO4-2
    chromate
  36. C2O4-2
    oxalate
  37. SO4-2
    sulfate
  38. S2O3-2
    thiosulfate
  39. CO3-2
    carbonate
  40. SiO3-2
    silicate
  41. O2-2
    peroxide (oxidation number on each oxygen is -1)
  42. PO4-3
    phosphate
  43. "ite" on a polyatomic ion means
    one less oxygen but the same charge
  44. "hypo...ite"
    one less oxygen than "-ite" but same charge
  45. "per...ate"
    one more oxygen than "-ate" but same charge
  46. "bi-" or "hydrogen..." means
    one hydrogen is added to the polyatomic ion and the charge becomes more possitive by one. ie HCO3- (hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate) H2SO4- (hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate)
  47. Polyatomic elements
    H2 Br2 O2 N2 Cl2 I2 F2 (H BrONClIF), P4 S8 (PS)
  48. Acid
    contains hydrogen
  49. Strong acids
    ice cream scoop
  50. HI
    hydroiodic acid (SA)
  51. HBr
    Hydrobromic acid (SA)
  52. HCl
    hydrochloric acid (SA)
  53. HClO4
    perchloric acid (SA)
  54. H2SO4
    sulfuric acid (SA)
  55. HNO3
    nitric acid (SA)
  56. HC2H3O2
    acetic acid (WA)
  57. H2CO3
    carbonic acid (WA)
  58. H3BO3
    boric acid (WA)
  59. Base
    most strong bases contain hydroxide (OH)
  60. Strong bases
    tetras piece
  61. LiOH
    lithium hydroxide (SB)
  62. NaOH
    sodium hydroxide (SB)
  63. KOH
    potassium hydroxide (SB)
  64. Ca(OH)2
    Calcium hydroxide (SB)
  65. Sr(OH)2
    strontium hydroxide (SB)
  66. Ba(OH)2
    barium hydroxide (SB)
  67. Strong bases that dont exist
    RbOH, CsOH, FrOH
  68. NH3
    ammonia (WB)
  69. CH4
    methane
  70. C6H6
    benzene
  71. CaCO3
    calcium carbonate aka limestone aka chalk aka marble
  72. H2O
    water
  73. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4
    rust
  74. NH3
    ammonia
  75. NaHCO3
    baking soda aka sodium hydrogen carbonate
  76. NaOCl
    bleach
  77. NaOH
    lye aka sodium hydroxide
  78. SiO2
    sand or quartz
  79. N2H4
    hydrazine
  80. HC2H3O2 (CH3COOH)
    vinegar aka acetic acid
  81. CO2 (LD)
    ::O=C=O::
  82. CO (LD)
    :C=-O:
  83. N2 (LD)
    :N=-N:
  84. HCN (LD)
    H-C=-N:
  85. SPANC
    always soluble
  86. S (SPANC)
    sodium
  87. P (SPANC)
    potassium
  88. A (SPANC)
    ammonium
  89. N (SPANC)
    nitrate
  90. C (SPANC)
    chlorates
  91. CrABCHOPS
    insoluble
  92. Cr (CrABCHOPS)
    chromates
  93. A (CrABCHOPS)
    arsenates
  94. B (CrABCHOPS)
    borates
  95. C (CrABCHOPS)
    carbonates
  96. H (CrABCHOPS)
    hydroxides
  97. O (CrABCHOPS)
    oxides
  98. P (CrABCHOPS)
    phosphates
  99. S (CrABCHOPS)
    sulfides
  100. Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are always
    soluble unless they are with silver, lead, or mercury
  101. Sulfate is always
    soluble unless with calcium, strontium, barium, lead, or mercury
  102. Acetates are
    soluble unless they are with iron, aluminum, or mercury
  103. Co+2 sln (color)
    pink
  104. Cr2O7-2 (color)
    orange
  105. CrO4-2 (color)
    yellow
  106. Ni+2 sln (color)
    green
  107. Cu+2 sln (color)
    blue
  108. MnO4-1 (color)
    purple
  109. Zn+2 sln (color)
    colorless

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