Company Officer Ch. 4
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- Logic is the ability to use rational thinking and reasoning to determine the correct answer
- Ability to recognize fallacies in the arguments of others and refute or correct the opposing position
What are the 2 types of reasoning?
- Inductive-arrive at a conclusion based on specific examples or data; documentation is important
- Deductive- based on a general statement or principle via syllogism; major and minor premise must be true; difficult to make decisions
How to prevent misuse of stats
- Use reliable sources
- Valid data
- Accurate conclusion
What is analogical reasoning?
Based on a comparison between two similar cases. It infers that what is true in the first case will also be true in the second case
Types of Fallacies used in communication
(fallacies are false or falacious reasoning to persuade others w/o evidence)
- Casual-faulty link between cause and effect; 2nd event not always related to first
- Bandwagon-everyone doing so it's correct
- Strawman-weak easily refuted argument to draw away attention from main point
- Hasty generalization-argument based on insufficient evidence;stereotyping
- Red Herring-irrelavant facts to distract listener from main issue; avoid answering ?'s
- Non-sequitor-concludes something based on something that doesn't follow main premise
- Slippery Slope-series of worsening outcomes that are assumed will result from decision or action
What are the 5 Elements of an ethics program?
- 1. Distinguish between what is ethical and legal-laws are written after conduct has become a threat
- 2. Enforce program provisions
- 3. Conduct formal training-mandatory
- 4. Involve employees in the development
- 5. Evaluate and revise
What are the 7 steps to ethical decision making?
- 1. recognize and define situation
- 2. Obtain all the facts
- 3. List all options of response
- 4. Compare options to est. criteria
- 5. select best option
- 6. double check decision
- 7. take action and implement
What are the decision making models?
- 1. Rational-gather info and make decision based on best alternative; usually used in exceptional decisions w/ high risk and uncertainty
- 2. Bounded rationality-select decision that satisfies min requirements; usually applied to generic decisions w/ certainty
- Fear-main personal barrier; overcome by asking what is the worst that can happen
- Ego or Self-Esteem- Overconfident ignores advice of others
- Indecisivness-events will overtake need for a decision; a poor decision is better than no decision
- Distrust- in one's own ability, others ability; result of low self esteem
- Antagonism-opposition forces compromise which may not be best solution;cause by ego,personalities,jealousy;overcome with communication and listening
- Jealousy-causes irrationality and ignoring suggestions; overcome with communication and respect
- Unethical motives-personal gain, enhanced image at the expense of others
6 Ornganization(external) Barriers
- 1. Lack of data-can result in no decision; overcome by gathering most accurate, reliable, recent and unbiased info
- 2. Lack of accurate analysis-wrong decision when data is sufficient;look at total picture
- 3. Lack of resources-delays decisions;prevents best decision from being made leading to unacceptable comprimise; implement in phases
- 4-Lack of management/member support-doomed from start;team build communicate empower members
- 5- Lack of commitment- ineffective decisions; use oral and written public commitment to overcome
- 6- Lack of capacity-authority and ability...overcoming may require building of political alliances
What is the Abilene Paradox?
- Go along w/ group decision even though they may disagree instead of dissenting the group
- 1. members agree in private about problem
- 2. agree in private about solution
- 3. fail to communicate their private desires to each other
- 4. this failure lead to group making counterproductive decisions
- 5. process frustrates members
- 6. cycle repeats until communication improves
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