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Argue that the existence of God cannot be proven.
In Hindu meditation yama means Self-control which is the fundamental reorientation of the personality away from selfishness. It involves practicing Ahimsa which means not hurting living beings. Hinduism
Supreme god in Islam
Reality is that each person and each thing is not only changing but is made up of parts that are also constantly changing, a concept referred to as “ no permanent identity.” In the case of people, it is called “ no permanent soul” or “ no self” because of the Buddha’s refusal to accept the Hindu notion of timeless, unchanging reality ( Atman ) underlying everything— people, things, essences, and gods.
A worldview that sees all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits.
tendency for human beings to regard themselves as the central and most significant entities in the universe, or the assessment of reality though exclusively human perspective.
any attribute of human characteristics to non-human, non-living, material states, or abstract concepts such as spirits or deities.
Ashes also have widespread use among religious traditions to suggest death and the spirit world: ashes are used by tribal religions in dance ceremonies, by Hindu holy men to represent asceticism and detachment, and by some Christians, whose foreheads are marked by ashes in observance of Ash Wednesday.
The spiritual essence of all individual human beings. The notion of Atman is related to Brahman and is an equally important term in the Upanishads. Although Atman is sometimes translated as “ self” or “ soul,” the notion of Atman in the Upanishads is different from the notion of an individual soul. Perhaps the term Atman would be better translated as “ deepest self.” ( Sometimes it is translated as “ subtle self.”). Hinduism
An earthly embodiment of a deity. Hinduism
Bhagavad Gita -
Also simply known as Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, but is frequently treated as a freestanding text, and in particular, as an Upanishad in its own right, one of the several books that comprise the more general Vedic tradition. The context of the Gita is a converstation between Lord Krishna and the Pandava prince Arjuna taking place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra War. Responding to Arjuna’s confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins who command a tyranny imposed on a captured state, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince, and elaborates on different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life.
The scriptures sacred to Christians, consisting of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. Christianity.
“Enlightened being”; in Mahayana, a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana but is constantly reborn to help others; a heavenly being of compassion.
God of creation. Hinduism
The spiritual essence of the universe. Hinduism
Member of the priestly caste. Hinduism
The mysterious origin of the universe, which is present and visible in everything.
The Five K's
- 1. Kesh - uncut hair and beard.
- 2. Khanga - hair comb to hold long hair in place
- 3. Kach - special underwear - to indicate alertness and readiness to fight.
- 4. Kirpan - sword - for defense.
- 5. Kara - bracelet of steel - to symbolize strength
- 1. Creed - no god but allah and muhammad is his messenger.
- 2. Prayer - devout muslims pray five times a day.
- 3. Charity to the Poor - muhammad troubled by poverty demand people give to poor, donate a percentage of their total income to the poor each year.
- 4. Fasting during Ramadan - To discipline oneself and develop sympathy for the poor and hungry and give others what one would have eaten.
- 5. Pilgramage to Mecca - religious journey to the sacred site, everyone expected to travel at least once in their lifetime.
Four Noble Truths
- 1. To Live Is To Suffer - Accept that pain is a part of life.
- 2. Suffering Comes From Desire
- 3. To End Suffering, End Desire
- 4. Release From Suffering Is Possible And Can Be Attained by Follow the Noble Eightfold Path.
The Noble Eightfold Path
- 1. Right understanding I recognize the impermanence of life, the mecha-nism of desire, and the cause of suffering.
- 2. Right intention My thoughts and motives are pure, not tainted by my emotions and selfish desires.
- 3. Right speech I speak honestly and kindly, in positive ways, avoiding lies, exaggeration, harsh words.
- 4. Right action My actions do not hurt any other being that can feel hurt, including animals; I avoid stealing and sexual conduct that would bring hurt.
- 5. Right work My job does no harm to myself or others.
- 6. Right effort With moderation, I consistently strive to improve.
- 7. Right meditation ( right mindfulness ) I use the disciplines of meditation ( dhyana ) and focused awareness to contemplate the nature of reality more deeply.
- 8. Right contemplation I cultivate states of blissful inner peace ( samadhi ).
An account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term “gospel” may refer to the Good News message of the New Testament.
“Recollection”; remembrance of an act or saying of Muhammad. Islam
Indigenous Religion -
Indigenous religion refers to those religions which are native to indigenous peoples around the world. They are one of the three broad divisions into which religions are categorised, along with world religions and new religious movements. The majority of the world's many thousands of religions fit into this category, although most indigenous religions have a limited popularity.
“Struggle”; the ideals both of spreading Islamic belief and of heroic self-sacrifice.
In Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect (i.e., the cycle called saṃsāra) originating in ancient India and treated in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh philosophies.
is one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. Mahāyāna Buddhism originated in India.The Mahāyāna tradition is the larger of the two major traditions of Buddhism existing today, the other being that of the Theravāda school. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."
A savior figure to be sent by God, awaited by the Jews. Also, “anointed” (hebrew); a special messenger sent by God, foretold in the Hebrew scriptures and believe by Christians to be Jesus. Judaism, Christianity.
In Indian religions, literally "release", is the liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation.
is any philosophical view which holds that there is unity in a given field of inquiry. Accordingly, some philosophers may hold that the universe is one rather than dualistic or pluralistic. Monisms may be theologically syncretic by proposing that there is one God who has many manifestations in the diverse religious traditions. Hinduism is a primary proponent of Monism. In the Hindu religion, Brahman (Devanāgarī: ब्रह्मन् bráhman) is the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe.
is the belief in the existence of one god, as distinguished from polytheism, the belief in more than one god, and atheism, the absence of belief in any god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Judaism, Islam, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism. It is difficult to delineate monotheism from beliefs such as pantheism and monism as in the Advaita traditions of Hinduism.
is the pursuit of communion with, identity with, or conscious awareness of an ultimate reality, divinity, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, instinct or insight. Mysticism usually centers on a practice or practices intended to nurture those experiences or awareness. Mysticism may be dualistic, maintaining a distinction between the self and the divine, or may be nondualistic.
The release from suffering and rebirth that brings inner peace. Buddhism
is the view that the Universe (Nature) and God (or divinity) are identical. Pantheists thus do not believe in a personal, anthropomorphic or creator god. The word derives from the Ancient Greek: πᾶν (pan) meaning "all" and θεός (theos) meaning "God". As such, Pantheism denotes the idea that "God" is best seen as a process of relating to the Universe. Although there are divergences within Pantheism, the central ideas found in almost all versions are the Cosmos as an all-encompassing unity and the sacredness of Nature.
literally "a temple of all gods", is a set of all the gods of a particular polytheistic religion or mythology.
“Father” Latin and Greek; the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church; the term is also used for the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria.
is the act of attempting to convert people to another opinion and, particularly, another religion. The word proselytize is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix 'πρός' (toward) and the verb 'ηλυτος' (went). Historically in the Koine Greek Septuagint and New Testament, the word proselyte denoted a gentile who was considering conversion to Judaism. Though the word proselytism originally referred to Early Christianity (and earlier Gentiles), it also refers to other religions' attempts to convert people to their beliefs or even any attempt to convert people to another point of view, religious or not. Today, the connotations of proselytizing are often negative and the word is commonly used to describe attempts to force people to convert; however, this article will be using it in the more neutral meaning of attempting to convert.
is one of the three major groupings (Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Protestantism) within Christianity. It is a movement that began in central Europe in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. The doctrines of the various Protestant denominations vary, but most include justification by grace through faith alone, known as Sola Fide, the priesthood of all believers, and the Bible as the ultimate authority in matters of faith and order, known as Sola Scriptura, which is Latin for 'by scripture alone'.
“Recitation”; God’s words as revealed to and recited by Muhammad; an authorized edition of the written words that appeared after Muhammad’s death.
Reincarnation is believed to occur when the soul or spirit, after the death of the body, comes back to life in a new form, such as another animal or anything that is living. However, once born sometime things from a person's previous life are forgotten. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions, such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism; the Buddhist concept of rebirth is also often referred to as reincarnation. The idea was also fundamental to some Greek philosophers and religions as well as other religions, such as Druidism, and later on, Spiritism, and Eckankar. It is also found in many small-scale societies around the world, in places such as Siberia, West Africa, North America, and Australia.
Constant rebirth and the attendant suffering; the everyday world of change.
Path”; the whole body of Islamic law, which guides a Muslim’s life.
A minority branch of Islam, which holds that Muhammad’s genuine successors desceded from his son-in-law Ali.
In Buddhist phenomenology and soteriology, the skandhas (Sanskrit) or khandhas (Pāli, aggregates in English) are any of five types of phenomena that serve as objects of clinging and bases for a sense of self. The Buddha teaches that nothing among them is really "I" or "mine". In the Theravada tradition, suffering arises when one identifies with or otherwise clings to an aggregate; hence, suffering is extinguished by relinquishing attachments to aggregates. The Mahayana tradition further puts forth that ultimate freedom is realized by deeply penetrating the nature of all aggregates as intrinsically empty of independent existence.
A group of devotional movements in Islam.
The majority branch of Islam, which holds that genuine succession from Muhammad did not depend on hereditary descent from his son-in-law Ali.
is the combining of different beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. The term means "combining," but see below for the origin of the word. Syncretism may involve the merger and analogising of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. This can occur for many reasons, and the latter scenario happens quite commonly in areas where multiple religious traditions exist in proximity and function actively in the culture, or when a culture is conquered, and the conquerors bring their religious beliefs with them, but do not succeed in entirely eradicating the old beliefs or, especially, practices.
iterally means "thirst," figuratively denotes unwholesome "desire" or "craving," and is traditionally juxtaposed with "peace of mind" (upekkha).
literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching", is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in Nepal. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (now about 70% of the population) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). Theravada is also practiced by minorities in parts of southwest China (by the Shan and Tai ethnic groups), Vietnam (by the Khmer Krom), Bangladesh (by the ethnic groups of Baruas, Chakma, and Magh), Malaysia and Indonesia, while recently gaining popularity in Singapore and the Western world. Today Theravada Buddhists, otherwise known as Theravadins, number over 100 million worldwide, and in recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West and in the Buddhist revival in Nepal.
- The three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge.
- The Three Jewels are:
- Sanskrit, Pali: The Enlightened or Awakened One; Chn: Depending on one's interpretation, can mean the historical Buddha (Shakyamuni) or the Buddha nature—the ideal or highest spiritual potential that exists within all beings;
- Sanskrit: The Teaching; the teachings of the Buddha.
- Sanskrit, Pali: The Community; The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists
“Teaching,” “instruction”; the first of five books of the Hebrew scriptures; also, the additional instructions of God, believe by many to have been transmitted orally from Moses through a succession of teachers and rabbis. Judaism.
Buddhism - in buddhism, transcendence, by definition, belongs to the beings of the formless realms of existence. However, although such beings are at the peak of Samsara, Buddhism considers the development of transcendence to be a spiritual cul-de-sac, which does not eventuate a permanent cessation of Samsara. This assertion was a primary differentiator from the other Sramana teachers during Gautama Buddha’s own training and development.
Christianity - Christians pick up on the historical dynamism of the future-orientate plan of the Old Testament and follow the immanent workings of the transcendant God in the word of Christ. The Holy Spirit lives through theme and through him they fear nothing except for Him. For if He be for me, who can be against me? They, too, believe that God’s existence is ontologically distinct and fully independent of the material universe, and yet that He interacts directly with it.
Hinduism - transcendence is described and viewed from a number of diverse perspectives within Hinduism and its multi-faceted scriptual metaphysics. Some traditions view transcendence in the form of ‘God’ as the Nurguna Brahman (God without attribute - indeed even without “god-ness”), transcdence being absolute. Other traditions view transcendence as God with attributes - Saguna Brahman, the Absolute being a personal deity such as Vishnu or Shiva.
concept of Hindhuism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva the destroyer or transformer. These three deities have been called the Hindu triad or the Great Trinity.
are philosophical texts considered to be an early source of Hindu religion. More than 200 are known, of which the first dozen or so, the old and most important, are variously referred to as the principal, main or old Upanishads. The oldest of these were composed during the pre-Buddhist era of India. All upanishads have been passed down in oral tradition.
are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. The texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. According to Hindu, the Vedas are not of human agency, are supposed to have been directly revealed and thus are called “what is heard”. The various Indian philosophies and sects have taken differing positions of the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vidas as their scriptural authority are classified as “orthodox”. Other traditions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities are referred to by traditional Hindu tests as “non-orthodox” schools.
name of the biblical god. The bible describes Yahweh as the god who delivered Israel from Egypt and gave the Ten Commandments and says that Yahweh revealed himself to Israel as a god who would not permit his people to make idols or worship other gods. Worship of Yahweh alone is a central idea of historical Judaism. Much of Christianity views Jesus as the human incarnation of Yahweh. The importance of the divine name and the character of the “one true god” revealed as Yahweh are often transted with the significantly different character of rival deities known by different names in traditional polytheistic religions.
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