with conceptual ideas, and is fundamentally about deciding how
organisations should interact with their environments
n order to achieve their goals.
Strategy implementation deals with
on the other hand, deals with the translation of these conceptual ideas
into concrete activities that – it is intended – should be the manifestations of intended
environmental interactions. So, strategy implementation is fundamentally about manipulating the
organisation's interactions with its environment in order to achieve its objectives. Strategy
implementation is, in short, about making strategy work.
Implementation should be important to all managers,
Common Themes for Definition of Strategy.
There are a number themes
that are common to these definitions of strategy:
1. determination of long-term objectives/goals/mission/purpose;
2. policies for achieving these objectives including:
a. allocation of resources,
b, managing the interaction with, and direction within, the environment,
c. limitation of market/product scope of business
Strategic Implimention can become more difficult by:
1, Over complication strategic decision-making and other organizational activities that affect implementation of strategy
2 Failing to make strategy and the way in which it is to be implemented clear to their staff
3. seprating planning and execution and nit involving the right people in each.
Planned Strategy is
As the pattern of interaction that an organization plans to have with its environment in order to achieve its mission.
Emergent Strategy is
As the pattern of interactions than an organization has been and is having its environment.
Strategic Planning id defined as: (purpose of text)
The process of manipulating (directly or indirectly) the pattern of interaction that an organization has with its environment, in order to achieve its mission,.
Principle Agent Problem:
Owners and managers are principle must recruit and motivate agents (staff) The problems are to get agents to act as the principles want (incentives) and to ensure the agents are aligned with the organizations wishes (strategy implementation).
Success Attribution makes Strategy Implementation challenging because of the following issues:
1. Desired future state must be clear. But must also enable planning of those activities. Must be clear planning and objective. Few organizations have.
2. Business environments constantly change.
Therefore environment can cause barriers to change and for implementation of the strategy.
3. Managers must relied on others, especially in large organizations. Principle/Agent problem can also exist.
4. Needs good feedback from correct people. Only with good feedback can you have really good implementation.
5. Making correct decisions can be very difficult.
Face Bounded rationality.
This theme runs through the course. This is about the multiple aspects of an organization, ie the activities, processes, systems, behaviors, goals, measures, all working together to acheive consistent outcomes.
Line of Sight
Strong alignment in organizations creates a line of sight from the top of the organization, (ie board members, directors,) to the bottom (ie sales person, admin). It makes explicit linkages of actiivities and their ultimate outcome. Alignment allows to ID performance problems and accurate diagonis. If used correctly can greatly help with organizations success.
Kinds of Management Thinking
1. Management consultancy
2. Business conferences
3. Management writers.
4. Magazines and Journals
5, Business Schools.
6. Professional Bodies
7. Non Profit Organizations
8, Industry Representative Bodies
Problems of Managment Thinking
1. Know source from where it comes.
2. Are they effective to give desired outcome
3. Relevant and appropriate action
4. unrealistic implementation
Need to fully check the ideas as their worthiness of implementation.
Key Issues to Implement Strategy:
1. Organization Structure
8. Motivation to change
9. Reward systems
10. Sequencing change
11. Control systems
Phases of Strategic Planning
1. Phase 1 - Life in the west is easy 1945 to 1970's
2. Phase 2 - Others are catching up (roughly 1970's to early 1990's)
3. Phase 3 - There is a War on and continuing - 1990's to present day.
Reason's Present Day Pressures
1. Deregulation - Pressure to reduce prices.
2. Educated Workforce
3. Few Uncontested markets= No Free expansion opportuntities
4. The internet - pressure to reduce prices.
5. Markets are unforgiving- Pressure to increase service levels and quality continously.
6. Technological Advances short-lived - Pressure to Continious innovation.
7. Capacity Greater than Demand - pressure to reduce prices.
Fragmentation of Existing Value Chains
This is now taking place.
Many organizations involved in work down the value chain, yet prices not increased alot in many cases they are much lower than before