Pharm II Meds Midterm

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  1. Actigall
    • Gallstone-Solubilizing Agent: Urosdiol
    • reduces cholesterol content of bile, emulsifies bile salts
    • used for small, non calcified stones (see on US but not x-ray)
  2. Allylamines
    • Lamisil
    • new class on antifungals
    • also Butenafine, Terbinafine
  3. Amikacin
    • Aminoglycoside
    • broadest spectrum
    • least vulnerable to inactivation by bacterial enzymes
    • reserved for when other things really dont work
    • SE: nephrotoxic, ototoxic
  4. Amoxicillin
    • Broad Spectrum: Aminopenicillin
    • Tx: H. Pylori, Otitis media
    • best in neutral pH
    • better absorbed & fewer SE than ampicillin
    • PO only
  5. Ampicillin
    • Broad Spectrum: Aminopenicillin
    • Primarily IV, can be PO
    • generally not tolerated very well
  6. Amphogel, Alternagel
    • Antacid: Aluminum Hydroxide
    • use in pts w renal failure
    • Can also bring down phos levels - binds w PO4
    • avoid in HTN, FH - has high Na+
    • SE: constipation, inc CO2 production
  7. Amphotericin B
    • Antifungal
    • Tx: systemic mycoses
    • Broad spectrum, resistance is rare
    • highly toxic, difficult for pt - binds to ergosterol in cell membrane, humans have sterols in membrane also
    • fungicidal or fungistatic depending on conc
    • no PO, IV - 6-8 weeks, may be up to 3-4 months to finish
    • dont know how its excreted, stays in body for long time
    • SE: phlebitis, fever, chills, rigors (demerol or Dantrolene), N, HA, nephrotoxic in all (BUN & Creat up), hypokalemia (related to kidney)
    • SE start 1-3 hours after, pretreat w Tylenol/Aspirin and Benadryl
    • Interactions: nephrotoxic meds, Flucytosine (synergistic, can be used to lower dose of Ampho B)
    • rotate site, infuse slowly, alternate day dosing
  8. Antivert
    • Anticholinergic/Antihistamine: Meclizine
    • Tx: Motion Sickness
    • SE: Sedation, anticholinergic effects
  9. Augmentin
    • Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (Beta-Lactam Inhibitor)
    • PO
    • more diarrhea than just amoxicillin
  10. Azithromycin
    • Macrolide Antibiotic: Zithromax, Z-pack
    • very specific dosing
    • take w or w/o food, not w antacids
    • newer - stronger, longer-half life = may be done taking before everything clears up
    • Tx: mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis
  11. Aztreonam
    • Monobactam Antibiotic
    • Tx: gram neg aerobes only, very specific use, may need ID consult
    • can give w PCN allergy
    • affects cell wall but not beta-lactamase sensitive
  12. Azulfadine
    • 5-aminosalicylic acid derivate: Sulfasalazine
    • Tx: IBD
    • suppresses inflammation
    • SE: from Sulfa (photosensitivity, dec granulocytes, N, rash), less if given as enema
    • Contraindications: sulfa or aspirin allergy
  13. Bismuth
    • pepto Bismol
    • treatment of H. Pylori
    • antimicrobial agents that is local in GI tract
    • diarrhea, turns tongue and stool black
  14. Carafate
    • Sucralfate: Mucosal Protectant
    • aluminum salt & sulfated sucrose
    • acts locally like a BandAid, take PO and goes to place
    • Does not neutralize or reduce acid
    • SE: Constipation and reduced absorption of meds absorbed in stomach
  15. Cardura
    • Alpha1 Adrenergic Blocker: doxazosin
    • Tx: BPH
    • relax smooth muscle in prostate capsule, prostatic urethra and bladder neck
    • SE: dec BP, especially if on bp med, nitro, viagra
    • lifelong
  16. Castor Oil
    • stimulant laxative
    • works in small intestine
    • PO
    • not really used any more except sometime in emergencies to clear bowel before surgery
  17. Cefazolin
    • Cephalosporin Antibiotic - 1st Gen
    • Affects cell wall
  18. Ceftazadime
    • Cephalosporin Antibiotic - 3rd Gen
    • Affects cell wall
  19. Ceftriaxone
    • Cephalosporin Antibiotic - 3rd Gen
    • Affects cell wall
  20. Chlorampenicol
    • Broad spectrum, also kills normal flora
    • IV only
    • SE: bone marrow suppression, Gray syndrome, Aplastic anemia
    • only used if safer agent not avail
    • Grey syndrome: in newborns bc kidney and liver are immature, trouble clearing med - CV collapse and even death
    • can cross into placenta and breast milk
  21. Cinobac
    • Cinoxacin
    • Urinary Tract Antiseptic
  22. Cipro
    • Fluoroquinolone: Ciprofloxacin
    • broad spectrum, inhibits DNA gyrase
    • Tx: anthrax, UTI, prostatitis, pneumonia...
    • SE: GI, CNS (HA), tendon rupture, suprainrection (ex candida)
    • Drug and food interactions in PO only: Al and MG antacids, Fe and Zinc salts, dairy, Sucralfate
  23. Citrucel
    • Bulk Forming Laxative: methylcellulose
    • also used in tx of diarrhea, absorbs fecal water
  24. Clarithromycin
    • Macrolide Antibiotic: Biaxin
    • Tx: H. Pylori, Mycobacterium avium Complex prophylaxis
    • distortion of taste, nausea, diarrhea
    • extended release must be taken w meal
    • newer - stronger, longer half-life = may be done taking before everything is cleared up
  25. Clindamycin
    • Lincosamide Antibiotic
    • Tx: anaerobic infections outside CNS, acne
    • IV, PO, topical (vaginal)
    • SE: Pseudomembranous Colitis, rapid admin can cause EKG changes and hypotension
    • PO - take w full glass of H2O
  26. Colace
    • Surfactant Laxative: Docusate
    • stool softner
    • facilitates addition of fat & water over a few days
    • prophylactic
    • give w full glass of water, important to drink enough
  27. Compazine
    • Anti-emetic/Dopamine Antagonist: Prochloroperazine
    • Phenothiazine
    • EPS and sleepy due to dopamine blockade at chemoreceptor site(cant drive home)
    • very cheap but bad SE
    • PO, IM, IV, suppository
    • make sure they have call bell bc EPS will scare them
  28. Cytotec
    • Misoprostol: Antisecretory agent
    • synthetic form of prostaglandin
    • Tx: prevention of NSAID induced Gastric ulcers (not duodenal)
    • Promotes secretion of bicarb, mucus and blood flow and reduces secretion of acid
    • SE: Diarrhea, abd pain, utrine contractions, spotting & dysmenorrhea (Category X)
  29. Dapsone
    • Antimycobacterial
    • Tx: Leprosy
    • SE: GI, HA, rash, usually well tolerated tho
    • blocks synthesis of folic acid
    • Bactericidal, related to sulfonamides
    • used in combo w rifampin & clofazimine
  30. Dicloxacillin
    • PCNase resistant
    • narrow spectrum
    • MRSA resistant
  31. Doxycycline
    • Long Acting Tetracycline Antibiotic: Vibramycin
    • Tx: Lyme, Chlamydia, Malaria prophylaxis
    • longer half-life, better absorbed than tetracycline, can take w meal
  32. Dramamine
    • Anticholinergic/Antihistamine: Dimenhydrinate
    • Tx: Motion Sickness
    • Decs neural stimulation on neural pathway btwn inner ear and VC
    • SE: anticholinergic effects
  33. Dulcolax
    • Stimulant & Irritant Laxative: Bisacodyl
    • suppositories work in 15-60 mins
  34. Erythromycin
    • Macrolide Antibiotic
    • Tx: Better in Gram +, gastroparesis (separate effect)
    • PO, IV, topical (eye ointment)
    • alternate for PCN allergy
    • SE: Gi upset (common), Suprainfection, QT prolongation (rare)
    • Food generally decs absorption
  35. Ethambutol
    • Antimycobacterial
    • Tx: TB, active Mycobacterium avium
    • bacteristatic
    • SE: optic neuritis, allergy, hyperuricemia, GI discomfort
  36. Flomax
    • Alpha1 Adrenergic Blocker: tamsulosin
    • Tx: BPH
    • relax smooth muscle in prostate capsule, prostatic urethra and bladder neck
    • SE: dec BP less likely bc selective to prostate
  37. Flutamide
    • Androgen Receptor Blocker: Eulexin
    • Tx: Prostate CA
    • blocks testosterone, really only works for ~2 yrs
    • SE: gynecomastia, N/V/D, liver toxicity
    • combined w surgical or chem castration
  38. Folic Acid
    • Water Sol
    • Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects
    • No neurologic effect
    • common in alcoholics
    • excess really doesnt cause a problem
  39. Furadantin
    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Urinary Tract Antiseptic
  40. Gentamicin
    • Aminoglycoside Antibiotic
    • Tx: serious gram - aerobic infections
    • not effective on anaerobic
    • can b used in empiric tx, but mostly specific tx
    • IM or intrathecal, PO (only for GI)
    • SE: neprotoxic, ototoxic, neuromuscular blockade (not common) - high peaks not dangerous, just high trough - monitor peak and trough
    • can be given daily (better, only draw trough) or 2-3 smaller doses (both)
    • serum levels vary greatly btwn pts, not just on ht/wt
    • Caution: using other nepro- or ototoxic meds
    • used in combo w PCN bc it breaks down cell wall but dont run through same IC
  41. Glycerine
    • suppository laxative
    • gentle, safe in infants and children
    • just softens stool, no stimulant effect
    • helps re-establish bowel patterns after abuse
  42. GoLYTELY
    • polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solutions
    • isometric w body fluids: no fluid or electrolyte loss
    • Use: diagnostic procedure prep
    • drink 4L in 2-3 hours
    • safe in pts w dehydration
    • yellow, Gatorade like color
  43. Griseofulvin
    • Tx: dermatophytic infections
    • deposited in keratin precursor cells, newly formed keratin is resistant to fungal infections
    • 3-8 weeks for skin
    • 2-3 months for palms
    • up to 1 yr+ for nails
  44. Hydrocortisone
    • Corticosteroid
    • Tx: IBD
    • IV
  45. Imipenem
    • Carbapenem Antibiotic
    • IM or IV only
    • admin w Cilastin to inc urine excretion
    • PCN allergy cross sensitivity
    • affects cell wall
  46. Immodium
    • Antidiarrheal: Loperamide
    • Tx: gastroenteritis (acute or chronic diarrhea)
    • chem related to opioids but cant get high - dont need atropine so less SE
    • Slows motility
  47. Imuran
    • Immunomodulator: Azathioprine
    • Tx: refractory IBD
    • onset may be up to 6 months
    • SE: pancreatitis, bone marrow suppression, can be hepato- and nephrotoxic
    • monitor CBC
  48. INH
    • Isoniazid, Laniazid
    • Antituberculis/Antimycobacterial
    • primary agent, bactericidal
    • SE: peripheral neuropathy (Vit B6), hepatotoxic, optic neuritis, anemia
  49. Iron
    • Ferrous Sulfate
    • Deficiency: microcystic, hypochromic anemia (pale, tired, SOB, weakness)
    • Can be caused by chronic blood loss, pregnancy, also in infancy & early childhood
    • SE: GI (N/V, constipation, dark/green stool), Anaphylaxis w parenteral(usually do small skin test)
    • children at greatest risk of toxicity
    • better absorption btwn meals but food decs GI irritation, Vit C promotes absorption
    • can stain teeth
  50. Ivermectin
    • Stromectol
    • Tx: mites and lice
    • causes paralysis, disrupts nerve and muscle function
    • single dose, off label
    • still need to use comb to remove eggs
  51. Ketoconazole
    • Tx: systemic and superficial mycoses, less severe
    • less toxic, but less effective than Ampho B
    • Broad Spectrum, fungistatic & Fungicidal
    • inhibits synthesis of ergosterol
    • SE: N/V, hepatotoxic, effects sex hormone
    • Interactions: meds that inc gastric pH, inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, rifampin
  52. Lactulose
    • synthetic disaccharide of galactose & fructose
    • metabolized: by bacteria into acids & CO2, draws H2O into stool
    • tx: hepatic encephalopathy - acid draws ammonia in
    • cant b digested and is poorly absorbed
    • soft formed stool in 1-3 days
    • SE: cramping and flatulence
  53. Lamodil
    • Antidiarrheal: Diphenoxylate HCL w Atropine
    • opioid w atropine to deter abuse, can get morphine like high if you take alot, but very bad SE
    • Schedule V
    • SE: anticholinergic effects, opioid effects (CNS depression, constipation)
    • Drug interaction: MAOIs
    • Contraindications: infectious diarrhea, obstructed jaundice, under 2 years
  54. Lotronex
    • IBS: Alosetron
    • for women only
    • Risk management program: Fatal GI effects (obstructions, ischemia, perforations)
    • reduces urgency and freq of BMs
  55. Lupron
    • Leuprolide
    • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist
    • suppresses testosterone prod
    • SE: hot flashes, impotence, loss of libido, osteoporosis in men
    • chemical castration
  56. Maalox
    • Antacid
    • combination of aluminum (constipating) and magnesium (diarrhea) to balance out
  57. Malathion
    • Ovide
    • Organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor
    • 0.5%lotion
    • Tx: lice and their ova
    • apply to hair, let air dry
    • flammable - high alcohol content
    • still need to use comb to remove eggs
  58. Mandelamine
    • Methenamine
    • Urinary Tract Antiseptic
  59. Marinol
    • Antiemetic/Cannabinoid: Dronabinol
    • Tx: N/V associated w chemo, appetite stimulant in AIDS, dementia
    • SE: dissociation, dysphoria
    • Caution: in cardiac pts - can drop bp and have palpations
    • Schedule III
    • Slow onset of action
  60. Mesalamine
    • 5-aminosalicylic acid derivate: Asacol or Pentasa
    • Tx: IBD
    • similar to sulfasalazine but w/o sulfa part, so less SE
    • Contraindication: aspirin allergy
  61. Metamucil
    • Bulk Forming Laxative: Psyllium
    • Unlabeled use: cholesterol lowering agent
  62. Methylprednisolone
    • Corticosteroid
    • Tx: IBD
    • PO, IV
  63. Metronidazole
    • Antiprotozoal: Flagyl, Metizol, Protostat
    • Tx: H. Pylori, Pseudomembranous Colitis, intestinal amebiasis, giardiasis, T. vaginalis
    • Broad spectrum, high resistance
    • Pro drug - need anaerobic enviro (our cells are aerobicc)
    • SE: N/V, HA, dry mouth, metallic taste, stomatitis, diarrhea, insomnia, vertigo, weakness, darkening of urine
    • Interactions: disulfiram, inhibits inactivation of warfarin, incs levels of Phenytoin, lithium, fluorouricil, Cyclosporin, Tacrolimus, binds w Cholesyramine (2 hours btwn), drugs that effect CYP3A4
    • Caution: in renal pts, dont use in 1st tri, caution after, dont use in CNS pts
  64. Milk of Magnesia
    • Antacid: Magnesium Hydroxide
    • Osmotic Laxative
    • generally more for constipation
    • SE: diarrhea, substantial fluid and electrolyte loss
    • Caution in pts w renal failure & HF, can inc mag level
    • Avoid w undiagnosed abd pain
    • Incs effect of sulfonylureas, quinidine & dicumarol
  65. Mineral Oil
    • Emollient or Lubricant laxative
    • excessive oral admin decs absorption of fat sol vits
    • poorly absorbed
    • not really used much anymore, was used in "healthy" chips
  66. Nafcillin
    • PCNase resistant
    • narrow spectrum
    • MRSA resistant
  67. NegGram
    • Nalidixic acid
    • Urinary Tract Antiseptic
  68. Neomycin
    • Aminoglycoside
    • highest risk for toxicity
    • PO, topically, NOT IV
    • Tx: suppress bowel flore before surgery
  69. Nystatin
    • polyene antibiotic
    • Tx: candidiasis only
    • PO (pill or suspension) & topical (powder)
  70. Orlistat
    • Lipase Inhibitor: Xenical
    • Tx: obesity
    • reduces absorption of dietary fats
    • must be obese (BMI 30) or overwt (27) w related health problems/CV risk factors
    • Contraindications: malabsorption syndrome, cholestasis, caution w kidney stones, delayed bladder emptying
    • SE: oily fecal incontinence, dec absorption of fat sol vitamins
  71. Oxacillin
    • PCNase resistant
    • narrow spectrum
    • MRSA resistant
  72. Pancrelipase
    • lipase, protease & amylse
    • enteric coated - dont cut or crush
    • Contraindications: hypersensitivities to porcine proteins, acute or chronic flares (will be NPO)
    • give w a meal or snack
    • Pancreatin - same action and indication but less conc
    • monitor albumin, prealbumin, pancreatic enzymes
  73. PCN G
    • Forms: Potassium PCN, Procaine PCN, Benzathine PCN - salts dissociate to release PCN G
    • Dont give PO, only K can be given IV
    • Distribution: inflammation incs penetration into CSF, joints and eye
    • not metabolized, so make sure no kidney problems
    • SE: allergy, pain at site, neurotoxicity w high blood levels, hyperkalemia w lg Iv doses
    • Interactions: Aminoglycosides inactivated when they are mixed - separate admin!
  74. PCN V
    • PCN VK, Pen-Vee K
    • PO only - usually w meal to reduce GI SE
    • Tx: dental work/issues, strep...
  75. Pepcid
    • Famotidine: H2 Receptor antagonist
    • does not inhibit hepat drug metabolizing enzymes
    • Same uses and SE as Zantac
  76. Pepto Bismol
    • Bismuth Subsalicylate
    • Antidiarrheal
    • antimicrobial effects in GI, reduces inflammation, soothes bowel, ins H2O absorption
    • SE: discoloration of tongue and stool
    • Contraindications: aspirin allergy, kids (Reye's), IBD (bursting)
  77. Lindane
    • Kwell, G-well
    • Tx: scabies, lice, pruritis (min effect)
    • causes seizure in parasite, can in pt too, esp if hx of seizure
    • SE: eye and mucus membrane irritation, seizure
    • Contraindication: Seizure d/o, elderly, less than 110 lbs
    • Caution: open sores, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis
  78. Permethrin
    • Nix, Elimite, Acticin
    • 1% liquid
    • Tx: scabies and lice
    • causes paralysis of insect
    • SE: not many - itching/burning
    • for scabies: apply to entire body (massage in), leave overnight, shower in morning
    • For lice: wash hair before, apply, leave 10 days, can retreat in 7
    • resistance in 5%
  79. Phenergan
    • Anti-emetic/Dopamine Antagonist: Promethazine
    • Phenothiazine
    • EPS and sleepy due to dopamine blockade at chemoreceptor site(cant drive home)
    • very cheap but bad SE
    • PO, IM, IV, suppository
    • make sure they have call bell bc EPS will scare them
    • Phenergan extravassation - necrosis,
    • death, finger and hand amputation – need to be very careful giving IV, some hospitals have pulled it, - if giving dilute it w NSS, only use a very good site, stay to watch it go in
  80. Piperacillin
    • Extended Spectrum: Antipseudomonal PCN
    • IV
    • PCNase sensitive
  81. Prednisone
    • Corticosteroid
    • Tx: IBD
    • PO
  82. Prilosec
    • omeprazole - PPI
    • Tx: GERD, PUD, Zollinger-Ellison, Dyspepsia
    • newer and more effective in dec gastric acid than H2 blockers
  83. Proscar
    • 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor: Finasteride
    • Tx: urinary symptoms of BPH
    • inc effect w inc enlargement
    • decs prostate size
    • SE: gynecomastia, dec libido, dec ejaculate volume
    • effects begin in 6-12 mo
    • indefinite tx, prostate will re-enlarge
    • monitor PSA, should go down
    • preg X = cant donate blood for certain period
  84. Pyrazinamide
    • Antimycobacterial
    • Tx: TB
    • Bactericidal
    • SE: hepatotoxic, photosensitivity
  85. Reglan
    • antiemetic/prokinetic agent: metoclopromide
    • Tx: N/V related to gastroparesis, GERD, psot-op, chemo
    • sensitizes tissue to acetylcholine, incs peristalsis & gastric emptying, Dopamine antagonist
    • SE: CNS depression, EPS, Diarrhea
  86. Rifampin
    • Antimycobacterial: Rifadin
    • Tx: TB, Leprosy, H flu, Legionella
    • SE: hepatitis, body fluid discoloration (red), optic neuritis
    • Interactions: cytochrome P450 meds (coumadin, contraceptives, HIV meds - incs metab
    • consult eye dr about contacts bc body fluids
  87. Scopolamine
    • Anticholinergic/Muscarinic Antagonist
    • Tx: Motion Sickness
    • SE: dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness (anticholinergic effects)
    • patch and pill
    • dec neural stimulation on pathway btwn inner ear and vomiting center
  88. Senokot
    • Stimulant Laxative: Anthraquinones
    • herbal source
    • change in urine color to dark yellow
    • red/brown pill
  89. Sodium Bicarbonate
    • Antacid
    • not an agent of choice
    • can make body pH rise
    • avoid Na+ load in pts w hx of HTN & HF
  90. Synercid
    • Streptgramin Antibiotic: Quinupristin/Dalfopristin (always come together in set ratio)
    • Tx: MRSA, VRE - require ID approval
    • Caution: pts w dec hepat func - monitor liver enzymes, bilirubin
    • Interactions: saline, heparin (flush line w D5W)
    • metabolized by liver
    • monitor for thrombophlebitis (flush line regularly)
  91. Tagamet
    • Cimetidine
    • PO, IM, IV
    • H2 Receptor Antagonist
    • treatment of PUD, GERD, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, Dyspepsia, prevention of aspiration pneumonitis
    • Blocks Histamine (messenger) at receptor site, histamine causes inc gastric acid prod. from parietal cells
    • Dont really use any more bc bad SE: antiandrogenic confusion (esp in elderly), inhibits hepatic drug metabolizing
    • Dont take w Antacids
  92. Terazosin
    • Alpha1 Adrenergic Blocker: Hytrin
    • Tx: BPH
    • relax smooth muscle in prostate capsule, prostatic urethra and bladder neck
    • SE: dec BP, especially if on bp med, nitro, viagra
    • lifelong
  93. Tetracycline
    • Tx: H. Pylori, acne
    • SE: stains teeth, photosensitivity, GI irritation, suprainfection
    • PO, topical
    • Contraindicated: pregnancy, breastfeeding, under 8
    • Take on empty stomach, space 2 hours from Ca, Fe, MG-form non-absorbable compounds)
  94. Thiamin
    • Vit B1 - Water Sol
    • Deficiency: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (CNS effects), common in alcoholics
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff requires IV replacement
  95. Ticarcillin
    • Extended Spectrum: Antipseudomonal PCN
    • IV
    • PCNase sensitive
  96. Timentin
    • Ticaricillin + Clavulanic acid (Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor)
    • IV
  97. Tobramycin
    • Aminoglycoside
    • same interactions and SE as gentamicin
  98. Trimethroprim
    • Suppresses synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein (more sensitive to bacterial cells)
    • Bactericidal or Bacteriosatic
    • SE: rash, itching, GI upset, but generally well tolerated
    • not recommended druing preg (exacerbates folate deficiency)
  99. TMP-SMZ
    • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole: Bactrim, Cotrim, Spetra (comes pre-mixed 1:5)
    • Tx: broad spectrum of Gram - and +, UTI, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia-PCP, Shigellosis, community MRSA
    • Action: inhibits production of nucleic acids and proteins
    • very effective and low resistance bc working at 2 points of protein synthesis process
    • PO or IV, well distributed
    • SE: N/V, rash, sulfonamide reactions, sulfa allergy, GI upset (common)
    • dose based on TMP component
    • Interactions: Coumadin, Phenytoin, Sulfonylureas (intensifies)
  100. TUMS
    • Antacid: Calcium Carbonate
    • SE: acid rebound, constipation, eructation due to inc CO2 production
  101. Unasyn
    • Ampicillin + Sulbactam (Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor)
    • IV
  102. Vancomycin
    • Tx: MRSA, pseudomembranous colitis, gram + infections
    • Safe in PCN allergy
    • SE: redman/neck syndrome, ototoxic, nephrotoxic
    • monitor peak, trough, and infusion time
    • IV, PO (only for GI) - cant be IM
    • Redman: flushed, anxious - directly related to infusion time
  103. Viagra
    • Sildenafil
    • PDE5 inhibitor
    • also Cialis, Levitra (prolongs QT)
    • Tx: ED
    • Selective inhibition
    • PRN! 1/day, works for whole day
    • SE: hypotension, Priapism, MI, Sudden death, HA, flushing, dyspepsia, nonartereic ischemic optic neuropathy
    • augments effects of nitric oxide resulting in inc blood flow
    • most insurance wont cover
    • Interactions: nitrates, alpha1 antagonists, hepatic pathway, high fat foods delay absorption
    • make sure they're able to tolerate activity
  104. Vit A
    • Fat Sol
    • Deficiency: night blindness
    • Toxicity: birth defects, liver injury, bone related D/Os
    • Teratogenic:
    • From: anything that is orange, fish, meats, dairy
  105. Vit B6
    • Pyridoxine - Water Soluble
    • Deficiency: peripheral neuritis - common in alchohilcs and pts on INH
    • Interactions: interferes w Levodopa
  106. Vit B12
    • Cyanocobalamin - Water Sol
    • Deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, parasthesias that can progress to permanent neurologic changes
    • Generally from impaired absorption (lack of intrinsic factor), also from celiac and gastric surgery
    • May require life long monthly IM
  107. Vit D
    • Fat Sol
    • Deficiency: rickets/osteomalacia
    • Toxicity: hypercalcemia
    • From: sun, fortified foods, not many foods naturally have it
    • incs Ca absorption
  108. Vit E
    • Fat sol
    • Deficiency: neurologic effects - rare, except malabsorption syndromes
    • Toxicity: risk of bleeding at very high doses
  109. Vit C
    • Water Sol
    • Deficiency: Scurvy - bone and tooth development, bleeding from gums, loose teeth
    • From: citrus fruits
    • involved in production of collagen
  110. Vit K
    • Fat Sol
    • Deficiency: bleeding tendency
    • Toxicity: its not really stores so its hard to reach toxic levels
    • Uses: in neonates, warfarin OD
    • PO, IV (risk of hypersensitivity)
    • causes blood clotting, Coumadin blocks it
    • From: green leafy veggies, synthesized by bacteria in GI
  111. Zantac
    • Ranitidine - H2 Receptor Antagonist
    • more powerful than tagamet w fewer SE and drug interactions: no antiandrogenic effects, doesnt cross BBB, weak inhibitor of hepat drug metab enzymes
    • antacids can dec absorption
    • Uses: GERD, PUD, Zollinger-Ellison, Dyspepsia
  112. Zofran
    • 5-HT3 receptor antagonist: ondansetron
    • very good, not just for Ca tx
    • comes PO, IV and dissolving tab
  113. Zosyn
    • Piperacillin + Tazobactam (Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor)
    • IV
  114. Zyvox
    • Oxazolidinone Antibiotic: Linezolid
    • Tx: MRSA and VRE - require ID approval, $5,000 bottle of wine
    • SE: Myelosuppression, N/V, Diarrhea, headache
    • Interactions: MAOI and Sympathomimetics (HTN crisis), SSRI (serotonin syndrome
    • IV or PO
  115. Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Prevacid, Protonix, Nexium, Aciphex
    • 1st 3 can be IV, all others PO
    • -prazole
    • Nexium metabolizes slower than Prilosec
    • prevent production of acid itself
    • take ac and 2 hours pc, do not crush/chew, needs to reach duodenum
    • 4-8 weeks recommended use to promote healing bc dec acid can lead to inc gastrin (neg feedback), can cause Ca
Author
ID
97159
Card Set
Pharm II Meds Midterm
Description
Pharm II Midterm
Updated
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