Saw nurding as an art and science. Supported education. Said the environment directly affects one's health. Cleanliness, Light, Pure air and water.
Defined the nurse-client relationship. Stranger, Resource person, Teacher Leader Surrogate, and Counselor
Defined nursing as assisting a person in the performance of acitivites that will contribute to health or a peacful death. Stressed independence of client
Conservation theory- Energy, Structural Intergrity, Personal Intergrity, and Social Integrity.
I am Nursing. Looked at action by the nurse client and family and said those things are integrated together. Important that the patients do what they can on their own.
Stressors- Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Extrapersonal
stresses within (fear of flying)
Between 2 individuals (getting into with someone)
Outside the individual (raining)
Culrture care and culture belief. Accomodation or negotiation (We respect cultural beliefs).
Sister Calista Roy
Aaptation model- Nursing attempts to alter the environment when the person in not adapting well (i.e. if patient has a problem getting out of the bed, get them a walker). Use of coping systems-Nursing attempts to assist hte client in coping mechanisms.
Human caring. Care and love are the basis for humanity.
Unitary human beings
Nursing as an art and science. Energy fields. Looked at humans as structures that cannot ve seperated into pieces.
National Patient Safety Goals
Improve accuracy of client identification
Reduce risk of health care associated infection
Improve effectiveness of communication
Improve safety of usig high-alert med
Prevent errors in surgery
Improve safety of infusion pumps
Effectiveness of clinical alarm systems
Reduce the risk of patient harm resulting form falls
Client behavior accident
Burns/poisonings, Self inflicted cuts
Therapeutic procedure accidents
Client transfer falls
Always there. Hands washing alone will not get rid of it. Must use friction by rubbing the hands and scrubbing the nails.
Brief can get rid of with hand-washing.
Biological Agents (chain of infection)
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, Rickettsia
Chemical agents (chain of infection)
Pesticides, food additives, medications, and industrial chemicals
Physical agents (chain of infection)
Machine, heat, light, noise, radiation, and machinery
Person who lacks resistance to an agent and is vulnerable to disease
Compromised host- a person whose normal defenxe mechanims are impaired and is susceptivle to infection
Modes of transmission
Sexually transmitted diseases
Host contacts droplet nuclei or dust particles suspended in the air
Contaminated inanimate objects such as water, food, drugs and blood
mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, lice and other animals
Stages of infection
Time interval between entry of an infectious agent in the host and the onset of symptoms.
Non specific symptoms
Disappearance of acute symptoms until the client returns to the previous state of health
Emerging Infections- Don't know where they are at or going
West Nile Virus/Hantavirus
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola)
Nosocomial Infections (most common infection sites greatest to least)
Assesing client in inpatient setting
Fall risk every shift
Infection (local or systemic)
Assesing client in home
Asses prior to patient's discharge
Magic number for leukocytes
Increase in acute sever infection (bacterial)
Increase in chronic bacterial infections
increased in protozoan and rickettsial infections and tuberculosis
Eosinophils and basophils
Unaltered in an infectious process
Erthrocytes Sedimentation rate (ESR)
Elevated in infection
pH in urine, gastric or vaginal secretion
Elevated in infection
Three things to focus on to reduce exposure to radiation.
less time, more distance, and more shielding
infection control practice used to reduce number, growth and spread of microorganisms.
Examples of medical asepsis
Gloves, changing linens daily, cleaning floors, hospital furniture and hand hygiene
Eliminates microorganisms and spores
Examples of surgical asepsis
Sterile technique, donning sterile gloves,donning surgical attire, surgical hand antisepis, gowning and closed gloving
In addition to standard
Perform areas with contaminated areas when?
In addtion to standard
Fluid resistant procedure mask
Keep door closed
N95 respirator mask
When to use contact precaution
MRSA, VRE, C.difficile, major wounds with significant damage