Chapter X4.txt

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tsanami
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Chapter X4.txt
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2011-08-16 11:19:13
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  1. Youth Training
    • - Sallis and colleagues defines adolescence as 11-21 years
    • - guide lines for training largely based on age range
    • - Adolescents should exercise minimum 20 minutes, 3 or more days of the week
    • - In younger childeren National Association for Sport and Physcial Education promotes physcial activity at least 30-60 minutes on most or all days of the week
  2. Physiologic Difference Between Children and Adults
    • - peak oxygen uptake
    • - submaximal oxygen demand - economy of movement
    • - glycolytic enzyme - enzymes used in glycolysis energy pathway
    • - sweating rate
    • Simialrity in peak oxygen uptake values between children and adults allows for childer to perform endurance related tasks fairly well, enables them to train in Phase 1
    • Higher submaximal oxygen demand, combined with lower sweating rate, contritubes to less tolerance to temperatue extremes; vigorious exercise in high temperatures and humidty should be restricted to less than 30 minutes
    • Lower glycolytic enzymes decreases their ability to perform higher intensity for long periods of time
  3. Resistance Training in Youth Populations
    • . Resistance training 5-14 year olds, associated with decreased number of common injuries
    • . Most common injuires: sprains and strains
    • . Simple Movement Assessment
    • - 10 body weight squats and 10 push ups
    • . On average untrained childern have 30-40% increased strength
    • . Resistance training has postive effects on
    • - motor skills (jumping and sprinting)
    • - body composition
    • - bone mineral density
    • . Progression into Phase 2 thru 5 should be based on
    • - maturity level
    • - dynamic postural control (flexibility and stability)
    • - advice from physcian
    • . Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training
    • - study Table 14.2 pg 379
  4. Seniors
    • . Estimated by middle of century number of Americans older than 65 will reach aprox. 70 million
    • . Forms of degeneration in older adults
    • - osteoporosis
    • - arthritis
    • - low back pain
    • - obesity
    • . Prehypertensive Blood Pressure - 135 Hg / 85 Hg
  5. . As adults age following functions decrease
    • - maximum attainable HR
    • - cardiac output
    • - balance
    • - coordination (MS efficiency)
    • - connective tissue elasticity
    • - bone mineral density
    • These degenerative processes can lead to decrease strength and proprioceptive responses
    • . Most import functional capacity affected = walking
    • . SMR and static static stretching are advised for older adults
    • . Stages I and II will be appropriate levels of CR training
    • . Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior
    • - study Table 14.4 pg 381
  6. Obesity � condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass
    • - Fastest growing problem in America and most industrialized cultures
    • - Approx. 33% of adults and 15% of childern older than 6 are obsese
    • - 2/3 of population may be overweight
  7. Body Mass Index
    • - most reliable measure of overweight and obesity
    • - BMI = total body wt. (kg) / height (m2)
    • - Normal range of BMI = 18.5-24.9
    • - 25-29.9 = overweight and 30 = obese
    • - 2/3 of Americans have BMI more than 25
    • - Medically supervised fasting or surgery reserved for BMI over 40
  8. Cause of obesity is due to energy balance
    • - Adults not involved in exercise lose aprox. 5 lbs of muscle per decade while adding 15 lbs of fat
    • - Between ages of 30-80 average person will have 15% decrease in fat free mass (FFM)
    • - Body fat not age related
    • - Sedenatry people show the daily activity level accounts for more than 75% of the variablity of body fat storage in men
  9. Obesity and Training
    • . Research has shown correlation between weight of person and functional capacity of their gait
    • . Effective weight loss, caloric expenditure should be approx. 200-300 kcal per day, minimum output more than 1250 kcal with exercise and increased to 2000 kcal
  10. Basic Exercise Guidelines for Overweight or Obese
    - study Table 14.6 pg 385
  11. Diabetes � Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fat and protein
    • - Insulin � hormone secreted by pancreas to help deliver glucose to cells
    • - Nearly 6% of Americans has diabetes, with 1 million new cases per year
    • - Diabetes is 7th leading cause of death in US
    • - People who develop diabetes before the age of 30 are 20 times more likely to die by 40
    • 2 forms of Diabetes
    • - Type 1 (insulin dependent)
    • - Type 2 (adult onset); non insulin dependent; can�t manage their blood glucose levels and require insulin
    • - Obesity risk increase with Type 2 diabetes
    • . Type 1
    • - found in normal younger people,
    • - impairs normal glucose management
    • - hyperglycemia (high levels of blood sugar)
    • - to control, must inject insulin to compensate for what pancreas can not produce
    • - hypoglycemia (low blood sugar); can drop during and after exercise
    • . Type 2
    • - produce adequate amounts of insulin, however their cells are resistant to insulin
    • - chronic hyperglycemia associated with damage to kidneys, heart, nerves, eyes and circulatory system
  12. Hypertension
    blood pressure with systloic reading greater than or equal to 140 and diastolic reading greater or equal to 90
  13. If individuals take medications to control blood pressure they are considered, what regardless of normal pressure readings at rest:
    hypertensive

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