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Fallacies of presumption
- premises presume some crucial piece of information
- a presumption exists-- embedded in the premises-- that the conclusion is true or
- the conclusion is not assumed true, but another piece of information is presumed true
Begging the Question
- most traditional of the fallacies of presumption
- an arguer uses some type of linguistic trick to conceal the questionable nature of a premise
- first version is when a premise restates the conclusion -circular reasoning
- -restating the information in a different form -attempt to conceal
- second form uses a hidden premise that is problematic in nature
- not explicitly an argument. However, an implied argument is being made
- generally designed to trap the person the question is directed at into
- admitting something he might not otherwise admit to
- falsely limits the listener to two choices
- failing to account for a legitimate alternative
- False dichotomy = false disjunction
- deliberately ignores evidence that undermines the conclusion of his argument
- presuming an argument true despite evidence to the contrary
- must determine if all relevant evidence is presented
Fallacies of Ambiguity
- premise, conclusion or both are ambiguous in some fashion
- word, a phrase, or a sentence is subject to different interpretations
Fallacies of Ambiguity -Equivocation
- definition of an ambiguous word or phrase is changed during the course of an argument
- : Hitler's talk of a master race was harmless. He was just referring to a sporting event!
- -term race is being used in two ways, to refer to ethnicity and to refer to a sporting event
Fallacies of Ambiguity -Amphiboly
- occurs when a statement that has a structural defect is misinterpreted by someone
- an entire statement being ambiguous
- Molly told Peggy that she is 9 months pregnant. Peggy must be due any day now.
- Molly told Peggy that Molly is 9 months pregnant
Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy
- rguments which are grammatically analogous to-- have a linguistic structure similar to-- legitimate arguments
- - composition and division
Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy -Composition
- reasoning that since the parts of an object possess certain characteristics, the object itself will, too.
- - Every part of this refrigerator weighs less than 10 pounds. Therefore, this refrigerator weighs less than 10 pounds.
Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy - Collective distribution
Terms can be used either collectively or distributively. When a term is used collectively, it refers to a group as a whole. When a term is used distributively, it refers to the individual members of the group