Development of CNS

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  1. What are the primary brain vesicles?
    • Prosencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Rhombencephalon
  2. What are the secondary brain vesicles?
    • Telencephalon
    • Diencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Metencephalon
    • Myelencephalon
  3. What is the derivative of the telencephalon?
    Cerebral hemispheres
  4. What are the derivatives of the diencephalon?
    • Thalami
    • Hypothalmus
    • Neural portion of the pituitary gland
  5. What is the derivative of the mesencephalon?
  6. What are the derivatives of the metencephalon?
    • cerebellum
    • pons
  7. What is the derivative of the myelencephalon?
    medulla oblongata
  8. What are the brain flexures during development?
    • Cervical
    • Midbrain (only one to persist)
    • Pontine
  9. Name the components of the ventricular system.
    • Fourth ventricle
    • Third ventricle
    • Lateral (1&2) ventricles
    • Cerebral acqueduct
    • Interventricular foramina
    • Lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka)
    • Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)
  10. Where is the 4th ventricle?
    surrounded by myencephalon (medulla obongata) and metencephalon (pons and cerebrum)
  11. Where is the 3rd ventricle?
    surrounded by diencephalon
  12. Where is the cerebral aqueduct?
    surrounded by mesencephalon; connects 3rd and 4th ventricles, behind pons
  13. Where are the lateral ventricles?
    surrounded by telencephaloic hemispheres; between cerebral hemispheres
  14. What do the lateral apertures and median aperture do?
    openings in the region of fourth ventricle which allows CSF to flow from ventricular system to subarachnoid space
  15. What is internal hydrocephalus?
    (noncommunicating) enlgmt of all or part of ventricular system due to obstruction of brain; most likely due to obstruction of the brain
  16. What is external hydrocephalus?
    (communicating) due to obliteration of subarachnoid cisterns or malfunction of subarachnoid granulations
  17. Pyramids of medulla
    part of medulla oblongata; arise from myelencephalon; develop in marginal zone
  18. Relationship btw mesencephalon and basal/alar plates
    • Alar: lie dorsal to basal. Most likely arrangement in spinal cord.
    • -give rise to paired superior colliculi (visual reflexes) and paired inferior colliculi (relay of auditory info)
  19. Crus cerebri and mesencephalon relationship
    crus cerebri are important tracts which form in the marginal layer
  20. Diencephalon characteristics
    hypothalamic sulcus: not actually a sulcus bc does not separate alar from basal

    forms neural portion of pituitary gland (other portion formed from Rathke's pouch-surface ectoderm of stomodeum)
  21. Telencephalon characteristics
    cerebral vesicles "overlap" diencephalon, mesencephalon, and part of rhombencephalon

    derivatives develop into a "C" shape

    cerebral cortex: consists of 3 layers of neural tube, int zone cells migrate to marginal zone cells and give rise to cortical layers so that gray matter is on outside
  22. Spina bifida occulta
    defect in vertebral arch only and assoc w/ no neurological defects; occurs in L5 or S1 in 10% population
  23. Spina bifida cystica
    • defect in vertebral arches through which protrudes meninges and/or neural tube
    • 1. SB w/ meningocele
    • 2. SB w/ meningomyelocele
    • 3. SB w/ myeloschisis
  24. Meroanencephaly (anencephaly)
    improper closure of rostral (anterior) neural pore and therefore abnormal dev of forebrain primordium; defective calvaria dev and nervous tissue undergoes degeneration

    assoc w/ excess of amniotic fluid-fetus lacks swallowing control
  25. Cranial meningocele
    defect in cranium through which protrudes meninges containing CSF
  26. Meningoencephalocele
    defect in cranium w/ herniation of meninges and part of brain
  27. Arnold-Chiari malformation
    most common; herniation of parts of medulla and cerebellum through foramen magnum into vertebral canal....communicating hydrocephalus

    sm posterior cranial fossa
  28. When does the neural plate develop? Where is it? What does it give rise to? What was it induced BY?
    Day 18

    Embryonic ectoderm anterior to primitive knot

    neural tube and neural crest

    underlying notochord (nucleous pulposa) and paraxial mesoderm (somites)
  29. When does the neural tube form? Where does it begin? What does it become?
    End of 3rd and beginning of 4th wks

    begins at cervical region of embryo and proceeds cranially AND caudally

    ultimately becomes brain and spinal cord (sets up basic structure of wall and lumen)

    *note: think "gumby" stage from lec
  30. When does the anterior neuropore close?
    25 days

    *note: persists in adult as lamina teminalis
  31. When does the posterior neuropore close?
    27 days

    *note: INITIALLY both posterior and anterior ends of tube are open...sig? amniotic cavity INITIALLY open to neural tube
  32. Neural crest derivatives
    • Dorsal root ganglia
    • Cranial sensory ganglia
    • Sympathetic chain ganglia
    • Prevertebral sympathetic ganglia
    • Parasympathetic autonomic ganglia

    • Schwann cells of PNS
    • Capsule cells on cell bodies of spinal ganglia

    • Melanocytes
    • Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla)

    • Skeletal struct from pharyngeal arches
    • Portion of teeth
    • Cells of pia and arachnoid
  33. What are the three zones of the neural tube?
    • 1. Ventricular
    • 2. Intermediate (mantle): gray
    • 3. Marginal: white (bc myelinated!!!)
  34. What can glioblasts become?
    • 1. Oligodendrocytes: myelination of axons in CNS (hence NOT from neural crest)
    • 2. Astrocytes: transport nutrients (hence long processes)
    • 3. Ependymal cells: last to dev
  35. Alar plates (about)
    assoc w/ sensory func
  36. Balar plates (about)
    assoc w/ motor func
  37. State the changes of the spinal cord vs vertebral column.
    • 6 mos fetus: S1
    • baby: L3
    • Adult: btw L1 and L2
Card Set
Development of CNS
MS1/Mod 1: gross anatomy and embryology, development of CNS 2
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