Immunology Overview

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embryo
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97345
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Immunology Overview
Updated:
2011-08-17 16:39:27
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immunology
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Description:
MS1/Mod 1: Immunology, overview of innate and adaptive immunity
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  1. Hematopoeisis
    differentiation of stem cells into all other blood cell types
  2. Inflammatory response
    Innate

    Basic: mvmt of WBC (leukocytes) to site of infection (recruitment).

    Reflect intensity of CURRENT infection

    Includes: increased vascular permeability, erythema, heat, edema, pain
  3. Myeloid lineage
    lineage taken by stem cells destined to be leukocytes that participate in innate immunity

    gives rise to myeloid cells (leukocytes)
  4. Myeloid cells
    1. Monocyte (immature)/Macrophage (mature)

    2. Neutrophil (PMN)
  5. Monocytes/Macrophages
    • mononuclear
    • make up 5% of leukocytes
  6. Neutrophil
    • most prominent in WBC
    • part of granulocyte family (others are eosinophils and basophils)
    • multiple nuclei
  7. Chemokines
    serve as chemoattractants and activators in innate and adaptive immunity

    produced by phagocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells of blood vessels
  8. Adhesion molecules
    surface mem structures that promote binding btw cells as they collaborate during particular function

    • 1. selectins (initial)
    • 2. integrins (secondary)
  9. Leukocyte Extravasation (transmigration)
    leukocytes in bloodstream can be diverted to site of infection outside blood stream; dep on gradients of chemoattractants

    • 1. primary adhesion (selectins)
    • 2. secondary adhesion (integrins)
    • 3. diapedesis
  10. PAMPs
    Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns: molecular groupings or patterns found on the surface of the pathogen that allow binding during phagocytosis
  11. PRR
    Pattern Recognition Receptors: on surface of phagocyte; for PAMP recognition/binding
  12. TLRs
    Toll-Like Receptors: lg family of PRRs involved in recognizing molecular patterns expressed by bacterial and fungal polysaccharides
  13. Oxidative destruction
    • (respiratory burst)
    • O2---->Superoxide---->hydrogen peroxide---->hypochlorite ions
  14. Non-oxidative destruction
    • acidified env
    • antimicrobial peptides (defensins)
    • enzymes (lysozymes)
    • competitors (lactoferrin)
  15. Opsonization
    particles coated with particular substances that increase efficiency of phagocytosis (overcomes capsules)
  16. Antigen
    substance capable of being specifically recognized by receptors on B and T lymphocytes
  17. Lymphoid lineage
    lineage that gives rise to leukocytes involved in adaptive immunity
  18. Epitope
    specific region of antigen that is unique; 2 categories:

    • 1. linear: one cont string of molecular constituents
    • 2. conformational: discont regions brought together by 3D folding of antigen
  19. Hapten
    low molec wt substances that can be recognized by antibodies of appropriate specificity but cannot induce antibody response unless coupled to an immunogenic carrier
  20. Which biochem molecules can influence immunogenicity?
    • Most: proteins
    • second: polysaccharides
    • least: lipids/NA
  21. Which intrinsic factors lead to increased immunogenicity?
    • 1. mult diff to self
    • 2. large size
    • 3. complex composition
    • 4. particulate and denatured form
  22. Which intrinsic factors lead to decreased immunogenicity?
    • 1. few diff to self
    • 2. small size
    • 3. simple composition
    • 4. soluble and native form
  23. Which extrinsic factors lead to increased immunogenicity?
    • 1. int dose
    • 2. route: subcutaneous>intramuscular>intraperitoneal>intravenous
    • 3. adjuvant: substances that mix with antigen and promote slow release and non-specific inflammation, i.e. mineral oil and alum precipitates
  24. Which extrinsic factors lead to decreased immunogenicity?
    • 1. v high or v low dose
    • 2. intravenous route (see extrinsic increased)
    • 3. adjuvants that do NOT promote slow release and non specific inflammation
  25. B Cells
    key lymphocytes in humoral immunity; make specific, antigen-reactive glycoproteins called antibodies; progenitors of plasma cells; can act as accessory cells
  26. T cells
    key lymphocytes in cell-mediated immunity
  27. Accessory cells
    req for processing and presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes; includes macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells
  28. Primary lymphoid tissues
    where lymphocytes are born and matured;

    bone marrow, thymus
  29. Secondary lymphoid tissues
    where lymphocytes eventually live

    spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, blood
  30. Clonal selection
    each lymphocyte produces on its surface mem one set of receptor molecules w/ identical specificity for a particular antigenic determ (epitope)
  31. Monoclonal
    activation of a single lymphocyte that produces a clone of lymphocytes w/ specificity for single epitope
  32. Polyclonal
    immune response against complex antigens w/ mult epitopes that activate numerous clones of lymphocytes (each w/ specificity for ind epitope)
  33. cross reactivity
    when an antibody recog two antigens that are not identical but share one or more closely related or identical epitopes

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