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State the purpose of the Navy Training System.
A systematic approach to determine what to train and how best to accomplish that training.
What is the most essential, single link in the training chain? Why?
The instructor must simplify the learing process for students of varied backgrounds and experiences. The instructor is the one who must present the knowledge and skills required to transform students proficient and productive members of the operating forces.
Explain the difference between an efficient and effective instructor.
EFFICIENT: know and follow all the rules and techniques of teaching.
EFFECTIVE: those who seize every oportunity to enhance the learning experience by being for creative in their use of the rules and techniques.
State and discuss the three qualities of an efficient and effective instructor.
Knowledge: must be thourghly familiar w/ the subject taught. You will need to know far more about the topic than you actually teach and basic instrutional startegies/tecniques.
Ability: leadership skills such as planning and organizing, optimizing the use of resources, delegating authority, monitoring progress and results, disciplining and rewarding.
Personality: the pattern of collective character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental traits of an individual.
Responsibility to students:
to teach effectively, set a good example and help resolve conflicts that hinder their training.
Responsibility to training safety:
Demonstrate proper safety procedures in addition to teaching them. No greater responsibility as an instructor than that related to the safety of the personnel you train.
Responsibility for security:
Never discuss any classified materials not in the approved currriculum. Make sure you can account for classified training materials or references used in the training environment at all times. Immediately report any situation you suspect.
Responsibility for curriculum:
Curriculum maintenance is an ongoing effort to ensure the course is both current and accurate.
all training conducted within a school, outlined into specific topics, along with detailed training objectives.
a modification to training materials that DOES NOT affect course objectives, increase course length, or require additional resources.
a change to any course learning/terminal objective, an increase in course length, or any changes that requires additional resources.
MASLOW's theory of motivation
Individuals will seek to gratify higher order (growth) needs only when all lower order (deficiency) needs have been relatively well satisfied.
List the key priciples of applying Maslow's motivation theory.
discuss the key principle of NEEDS/DRIVES as they apply to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
a deficit or lack that causes a desire for satisfaction.
discuss the key principle of INTEREST as it applys to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
refers to a person's view of an activity as worthwhile or enjoyable for its own sake.
discuss the key principle of VALUE as it applys to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
students have more interest in a subject that deals with goals they see as important in their lives.
discuss the key principle of ATTITUDE as it applys to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
feelings for or against people, objects or ideas.
Showing a positive attitude about the subject you present can cause the student to want to learn.
discuss the key principle of INCENTIVE as it applys to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
such as good grades, awards or selection as a distinguished graduate motivate students who want to achieve.
discuss the key principle of ACHIEVEMENT as it applys to Maslow's motivation theory in a training situation.
is a strong desire, a longing, an aim, a goal or a desired objective. To make an effort to succeed, students must have a need to achieve at a certain level.
List the four principles of John Keller's ARCS model.
Discuss ATTENTION as it affects a student's motivation (John Keller's ARCS model)
Grab and RETAIN attention through a solid introduction followed by well developed, intriguing and level appropriate curriculum.
Discuss RELEVANCE as it affects a student's motivation (John Keller's ARCS model)
relating what they are learning to what they will be expected to do motivates the learner as to WHY they need to pay attention.
Discuss CONFIDENCE as it affects a student's motivation (John Keller's ARCS model)
ensure challenging yet achievable goals are implemented and guiding students towards a positive outcome provides an empowering atmosphere.
Discuss SATISFACTION as it affects a student's motivation (John Keller's ARCS model)
feeling good about an experience often serves as its own motivator.
LIST five techniques which can assist in developing motivational stratefies for instruction.
- Make the subject matter interesting, establish goals, provide feedback, show interest and encourage participation.
- Plan motivational strategies to keep the lesson interesting.
- Ensure students understand exactly what they are expected to do as a result of training.
- Use appropriate questioning techniques to determine students comprehension.
- Be sure to give recognition for proper behavior/achievements. Also point out errors and how to correct them.
- Be open to student contributions and points of view.
State the goals that must be accomplished in the introduction of a lesson.
- Develop student interest.
- State the lesson's objectives/significance.
- Direct thinking along desired lines.
- Outline scope of the lesson.
- Show the value of the subject matter.
- Explain the method/methods you will use.
- What is expected of the students.
- How many periods the lesson is scheduled for and when you expect to finish.
State the ulitmate goal of instruction.
to cause students to remain motivated beyond the instructors influence and apply what they have learned.
5 different ways of learning:
- Trial & Error
Discuss IMITATION as it applies to a way of learning.
to observe others and to imitate their behavior.
Discuss TRIAL/ERROR as it applies to a way of learning.
learning by doing.
Discuss ASSOCIATION as it applies to a way of learning.
Comparison of past learning to a new learning situation.
Discuss INSIGHT as it applies to a way of learning.
Understanding that the whole is more than the sum of the parts (AH-HA!).
Discuss TRANSFER as it applies to a way of learning.
the process of applying past leaning to a new but somewhat similar situation.
State the 5 laws of leaning.
- Law of Readiness
- Law of Effect
- Law of Primacy
- Law of Exercise
- Law of Intensity
Discuss the Law of Readiness.
students learn best when they are physically, mentally and emotionally ready to learn.
Discuss the Law of Effect.
students learn best those things that result in satisfying consequences.
Discuss the Law of Primacy.
students retain information they lean for the first time longer than they retain imformation they must relearn.
Discuss the Law of Exercise.
students learn best and retain information longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition.
Discuss the Law of Intensity.
vivid experiences are leaned better and retained longer.
Discuss how motivation affects students leaning.
Perhaps the single most important factor in a student's educational advancement is motivation. Motivation often has as much or more impact than scholastic ability.
Discuss VISION as a leaning sense.
as much as 75% of our basic learning.
Discuss AUDITORY as a leaning sense.
speech patterns and volume are critical class room leaning factors. (stories, jokes, verbal cues, pneumonic devices).
Discuss KINESTHETIC as a leaning sense.
a blend of all the senses with psychomotor & perceptual skills. They would rather just do it rather than talk about it.
Discuss the senses as percentages as how they pertain to sensory learning.
- As to retention is has been said that people retain only 10% what they read, 20% what they hear, & 30% of what they see.
- By asking questions to augment sight and sound to stimulate thinking, you can push retention close to 70%. When using all senses in skill training along with procedural steps and prinsicples you can increase retention to 90%.
List 6 common characteristics all students possess.
- Fair Play
State the 4 basic learning styles.
Discuss the CONCRETE learning style.
- Prefer experience based approach to learning.
- Learn best by imitation after watching others.
Discuss the ACTIVE learning style.
- Learn by becoming involved with the subject and taking an active step-by-step approach.
- Learn best from small group discussions, structured exercises and problem solving approaches.
Discuss the REFLECTIVE learning style.
- Like to ovserve and relfect (make comparisons and contrasts) before drawing conclusions.
- Learn best from lectures, films, reading.
Discuss the ABSTRACT learning style.
- Prefer a theory based analytical approach to learning.
- Learn best by lectures from experts, theoretical reading, case studies, and activities that require solitary thinking.
List common reasons students forget.
- Barriers to attention: distractions, failure to grab attention.
- Barriers during perception: perceived irrelevance, repeated or contradictory info, physical discomfort, emotional reaction.
- Barriers in short term memory: interruptions / contradictory prior knowledge.
- Barriers in long term memory: disuse and improperly stored information.
List the barriers to effective communication.
- Lack of common core experience
- Overuse of abstractions
- Fear - may be one of the greatest barriers to effective communication.
State and discuss the 3-step communication process.
- Sending the message
- - formulate the message
- - consider the barriers
- - encode the message
- - send the message
- Receiving the message
- - hear/see the message
- - overcome barriers
- - decode message
- - interpret message
- - use oral questions
- - identify non-verbal behavior
- - facial expressions/body movements
Describe five factors that must be considered in planning instructional delivery.
- Articulation - enunciate(speak clearly)/Pronunciate(accent syllables)
- Rate of speech
State and discuss the characteristics of a good oral question.
- Level of instruction - use simple words, correct grammer, complete sentences. Use words students know and understand. Don't use questions that give away the answer or can be answered with a simple yes/no.
- Use of interrogative - use at beginning of question so students know you are asking a question.
- Clarity of meaning - Make sure the wording of the question conveys to the students the true or intended meaning.
What are the types of oral questions and their purpose? (7)
- Factual - specific information
- Thought provoking - stimulate students to think.
- Interest arousing - focus attention and get students to think about the subject you are about to present.
- Multiple answer - more than one correct answer.
- Yes/No - encourage participation, lead in to other questions.
- Leading - suggests their own answer. Confidence builder.
- Canvassing - used to determine who is familiar with a specific area or class level.
State the 5 steps of the five step questioning technique.
- State the question
- Call on a student
- Emphasize or Repeat the Answer
to enable a better answer following a weak or incorrect reply by asking a follow on question with embedded hints or clues. You may also identify correct portions of an answer and gear them towards a better version of the incorrect portion (dragging the answer out of them)
have the student who has answered correctly correlate that answer to another topic (Where else do we utilize that technique?).
increases class involvement & provides recognition for students who are answering questions correctly. When a student asks a question, redirect another student to answer. *ONLY use if you know the answer and are fairly certain the 2nd student does as well.
State the 3 parts of a learning objective.
- Behavior - what the learning should be able to do after receiving training.
- Condition - aiding and limiting factors imposed upon the student.
- Standard - specifies the criteria the students performance must meet. (time/accuracy/quantity/speed/etc)
List two methods of testing and their importance.
Knowledge tests - measure achievment of objectives through the use of test items.
Performance tests - measure skill acquisition by having the student demonstrate specific behaviors defined by the Learning Objective.
List the 5 learning levels
Discuss RECOGNITION as it applies to testing.
ex. Identifying a piece of equipment from a diagram and matching a name to it.
Discuss RECALL as it applies to testing.
ex. Listing the steps to a procedure
Discuss COMPREHENSION as it applies to testing.
ex. Asking a student to explain or summarize a procedure or theory.
Discuss APPLICATION as it applies to testing.
ex. Solving a computational problem or diagnosing a hypothetical patient.
Discuss ANALYSIS/EVALUATION as it applies to testing.
ex. A question that requires the student to know or determine the best approach to meet a stated objective.
List two types of performance tests
Development of both types is essentially the same and a performance test may require a combination of both types. The difference is in the final evaluation device, with a product method being far less subjective than the evaluation of a process.
Primary materials used in presenting instruction:
Describe Lesson Plan
is the most important document available to you as an instructor. Provides sequence and depth of instruction required.
Primary materials used in presenting instruction:
Describe Instruction Sheets
provides students with information or directions they need to complete a particular course of study.
Primary materials used in presenting instruction:
Describe Instructional Media
any device or piece of equipment that is used to help the student understand and learn.
Waht is IMM?
Instructional Media Materials
What is VI?
Contrast level 1 and 2 JTA (job task analysis) data.
JTA is divided into LEVEL 1 and LEVEL 2. Level 1 data describes what work is being performed, while level 2 data describes how the work is being performed.
State the 6 phases of the instructional design process
State and discuss the element of the Lesson Plan:
- Cover Page
- Title Page
- Change Record
- Table of Contents
- Security Awareness
- Safety/Hazard Awareness
- Terminal Objectives
State and discuss the element of the Lesson Plan:
- Topic Pages List
- classroom/lab time
- trainee prep materials
- instructor prep materials
- training materials
- Discussion/Demostration Acivitiy Pages
- discussion point
- related instructor activity
State the purpose of testing.
Tests are the primary tool for determining trainee attainment of TO's/EO's.
List the justifiable reasons for developing, revising or cancelling a course. (6)
- Navy Training Plans (NTP's)
- Tasking by higher authority
- Internal course review and local command initiatives
- External course review
- Surveillance and external feedback
- Training appraisal
State the difference between Course Mission Statement and a Terminal Objective.
The Course Mission Statement might be confused with a TO. The primary difference is that a TO relates to trainee behavior, while the Course Mission Statement is descriptive of the course - not the trainee.
List the VOLs of NAVEDTRA 130 and their purpose.
- Vol 1 - Developers Guide: standards and conventions for the development of training programs.
- Vol 2 - Sample Products: provides sample documents for management and curriculum in a format that is consistent with the standards and conventions discussed in Vol 1.
- Vol 3 - Managers Guide: for the individual charged with the management of a course revision or development.
Discuss criticality as it applies to test design.
Refers to how important an LO is in relation to actual application on the job:
- HIGH: knowledge is USED during job performance
- MODERATE: knowlege INFLUENCES job performance
- LOW: knowledge has little influence on performance.