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Who was Gilgamesh?
- a king of the city-state of Uruk
- a hero in a popular Mesopotamian epic
- a warrior in conflict with the city of Kish
- a legendary loyal friend of Enkidu
- It lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
- It is located in modern-day Iraq
- It was the home of the Sumerians
- It attracted many Semitic-speaking migrants.
What did Sumerian cities and their governments do?
- organize work on building projects
- rule over the area surrounding the city
- oversee the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems
- organize the defense of the city against attacks.
Sargon of Akkad
was a gifted administrator and warrior.
- punishments that differ according to social class
- prescribe the death penalty
- regulate commercial transactions, wages, and prices
- rely the on the principle of retaliation
Peoples who ruled a mesopotamian empire
Social classes of ancient mesopotamia
priests and priestesses were powerful rulers over temple communities
involved wedge-shaped symbols pressed onto clay with a reed
- commercial and taxation documents
- documents on astronomy and mathematics
- epic literature.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
- recounts the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend
- describes the hero's efforts to attain immortality
- explored relations between humans and the gods
- contemplates the meaning of life and death.
The religious beliefs of the Israelites after Moses included
After the tenth century B.C.E., the Israelites experienced
- the division of the kingdom of Israel
- conquest by the Assyrians
- the destruction of Jerusalem by the New Babylonian empire
- the return of deportees to Judea where they became known as Jews
- were prosperous based on their sea trade and commercial networks.
- alphabetic script
According to the excerpt "Israelites" Relations with Neighboring Peoples,"
Solomon sent laborers to Hiram.
Who first deduced the existence of an Indo-European culture?
The key element in the expansion of the Indo-Europeans from their homeland was
Which of the following was not an area to which the Indo-Europeans migrated?
east and southeast Asia.
The Greek historian Herodotus proclaimed Egypt "the gift of the Nile" because, in his account,
the reliable rhythm of the Nile created fertile land, which supported a remarkably productive agricultural economy.
Around 5000 B.C.E. the climate in northern Africa began to change by
getting hotter and drier
used to flood very predictably.
In contrast to Egypt, Nubian agriculture
required extensive preparation of the soil
Unification of Egyptian rule came about through the conqueror
The Egyptian pyramids
- were built during the Old Kingdom.
- served as royal tombs.
- are testimony to the power of the pharaoh.
- stand at Giza.
Mummification, pyramids, and funerary rituals in ancient Egypt were extremely costly and troublesome. The customs prevailed for several thousand years because
Egyptians believed in an afterlife
In ancient Egypt, the largest pyramid was that of
After the Hyksos invasion
the Egyptians adopted horses and chariots in their military.
After the tenth century, the Kingdom of Kush
- conquered Egypt
- established a capital at Napata
- claimed the title of pharaoh.
- warred with the Assyrians.
Important cities in ancient Egypt
Unlike Egypt, Nubian society
saw many more women rulers.
It included hieroglyphic, hieratic, demotic, and Coptic scripts.
A significant difference between Nubian and Egyptian religion was that
Nubians did not mummify their dead.
The original Bantu people
- spoke a language in the Niger-Congo family
- settled mostly on the banks of rivers
- came from what is now Nigeria
- cultivated yams and palm oils.
With regard to the Bantu migrations,
they placed pressure on the forest dwellers by moving inland.
helped the Bantu expand their agricultural land.
associated with agricultural societies south of the Sahara
- cultivation of yams, oil palms, and sorghum
- herding sheep, cattle, pigs
- age sets and initiation rites
- monotheistic religions.