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United States Pharmacopeia- the country's official source for drug information.
The test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the lab.
What is the Controlled Substances Act?
Repealed the Harrison Narcotic Act and is the most recent act regulating controlled substances. It established a five schedule classification system, each schedule having its own level of control and record keeping requirements.
What did the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act do?
Empowered the FDA to set premarket safety standards for drugs.
What are the components of a drug profile?
- Mechanism of Action
- Side Effects/Adverse Reactions
- Routes of Administration
- How Supplied
- Special Considerations
What is the first-pass effect?
The liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
What does the "lock & key" analogy refer to?
The lock is the receptor and the key is the agonist in receptor mediated drug actions. The agonist can open many locks. An agonist-antagonist only opens one lock and gets stuck (competitive antagonism). If the lock is blocked off, no key will work, this is noncompetitive antagonism.
What is affinity?
The force of attraction between a drug and a receptor.
What are some of the affects of age on the drug response relationship?
The elderly and infants are more susceptible to having altered drug responses because the liver and kidneys in an infant are not fully developed and in the elderly the organ function is diminished.
What is an antagonist?
A drug that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expected response.
What is bioassay?
A test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
What is bioequivalence?
The relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
What is the biological half life?
The time it takes the body to clear one half of a drug.
What is the blood-brain barrier?
Tight junctions of the capilary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass.
The study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
What is the difference between the brand name and the generic name?
A brand name is a proper name and should be capitalized, most are also trademarked. The generic name is usually suggested by the manufacturer and confirmed by the US Adopted Name Council and then becomes the offical name once listed in the USP.
What is a drugs offical name?
the FDA's name for a drug and is listed in the USP. This typically originates from the generic name.
What is diffusion?
The movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is pharmacokinetics?
How a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted. How drugs are transported in and out of the body.
Movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
What is facilitated diffusion?
The process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
What is the duration of action?
The length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
The drug's ability to cause the expected response.
What is the enteral route of administration/
Delivery of a medication through the GI tract.
What is the parenteral route of administration?
The delivery of a medication outside of the GI tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues.
What is the drug form "solution"?
The most common liquid preparation, generally water based, sometimes oil based.
What is the drug form "tincture"?
Prepared using an alcohol extraction process and some alcohol usually remains in the final product.
What is an emulsion?
A drug form that is a suspension with an oily substance in the solvent. Even when mixed globules of oil still separate out of the solution.
What is the drug form "spirit"?
A solution of a volitile drug in alcohol.
What is buccal administration?
One form of enteral adminsitration through the cheek and gums.
What is dose packaging?
Medication packages that contain a single dose for a single patient.
What are the six rights of drug administration?
- Right Medication
- Right Dose
- Right Time
- Right Route
- Right Patient
- Right Documentation
What is the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
It was enacted to improve the quality and labeling of drugs and named the USP as the country's offical source of drug information.
What was the Harrison Narcotic Act?
Limited the indiscriminate use of addicting drugs by regulating their importation, manufacture, sale and use of opium, cocaine and their compounds or derivatives. Repealed in 1970 by the Controlled Substances Act.
What is a schedule III drug?
Has less abuse potential than schedule I or II. May lead to moderate or low physical dependance or high psychological dependance and has accepted medical indications. Examples are Vicodin and Tylenol with Codeine.
What is a schedule IV drug?
Low abuse potential compared to schedule III. Limited psychological and/or physical dependance and is accepted in medical indications. Examples are diazepam, lorazepam, phenobarbital.
What is a schedule II drug?
High abuse potential. May lead to severe dependance, but has accepted medical indication. Examples are opium, cocaine, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone, secobarbital.
What are the factors affecting the drug-response relationship?
- Body mass
- Time of administration
What is a teratogenic drug?
A medication that may deform or kill a fetus.
What provides therapeutic effects of a drug?
The therapeutic effects of a drug are primarily due to the unbound portion of the drug in the bloodstream.
What are the four main sources of drugs?
What is an enteric coating?
A coating on a drug that controls the release of the medication.
What is the Durham-Humphrey Ammendment?
Ammended the 1938 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to require pharmacists to have either a written or verbal prescription from a physician to dispense certain drugs.
What is an agonist?
A drug that binds toa receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
What is a partial agonist?
Agonist-antagonist. A drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
How a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects.
What is passive transport?
The movement of a substance without the use of energy.
What is a drugs therapeutic index?
The ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population to its effective dose for 50% of the population. This represents the drugs margin of safety.
What is biotransformation?
A special name give to the metabolism of drugs.