important vocabulary ch 5 and 6

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important vocabulary ch 5 and 6
2011-08-22 12:17:49

ch 6 and some of ch 5
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  1. anterior
    to the front of the body (ventral)
  2. superficial
    external or near the surface of the body/external
  3. external
    on or near the surface of the body/superficial
  4. ventral
    to the front of the body (anterior)
  5. medial
    toward the midline or middle of the body
  6. palmar
    concerning the palm of the hand (opposite term is dorsal)
  7. proximal
    nearest the center of the body, origin, point of attachment
  8. cranial
    higher or toward the head of the body/superior
  9. superior
    higher, or above or toward the head/ (cranial)
  10. posterior
    to the back of the body (dorsal)
  11. internal
    within or near the center of the body
  12. dorsal
    to the back of the body/ posterior
  13. lateral
    toward the side of the body
  14. plantar
    concerning the sole of the foot (opposite term is dorsal)
  15. distal
    farthest from the center of the body, origin, or point of attachment
  16. inferior
    beneath, or lower or away from the head (caudal)
  17. frontal plane
    (coronal plane) divides the body vertically into front and back portions
  18. caudal
    beneath, or lower or away from the head (inferior)
  19. coronal plane
    divides the body vertically into front and back portions (frontal plane)
  20. midsagittal plane
    (medial plane) divides the body vertically into equal right and left portions
  21. metabolism
    the sum of all physical and chemical reactions necessary to sustain life
  22. supine
    position where the patient is laying horizontal on the back with face up
  23. prone
    position where the body is opposite of supine, so they are laying face down. Hands are palm down
  24. anatomy
    structural composition
  25. physiology
  26. transverse plane
    divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions
  27. homeostasis
    maintain body's internal environment in a state of equilibrium or balance (standing the same).
  28. Skeletal system functions
    hemopoiesis (calcium storage) and hematopoiesis (production of blood cells).
  29. Heart circulation in order
    • vena cava
    • right atrium (oxygen poor blood)
    • tricuspid valve
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary valve
    • lungs (for gas exchange)
    • pulmonary veins (only time veins are oxygen rich)
    • left atrium
    • mitral valve (bicuspid)
    • left ventricle
    • aorta valve
    • aorta
    • body systems
  30. whole blood is
    blood in circulation
  31. in vivo
    living within the body
  32. in vitro
    living in a tube
  33. pericardium
    surrounds the heart by a thin layer of fluid-filled sac
  34. layers of the heart
    • endocardium (most internal)
    • myocardium
    • epicardium (most external layer of the heart)
  35. atrioventricular means
    entrane to the ventricles
  36. a cardiac cycle is
    one complete contraction and subsequent relaxation of the heart lasts about 0.8 seconds
  37. systole means
    contracting phase of the cardiac cycle
  38. diastole means
    relaxing phase of the cardiac cycle (heart beat)
  39. the sinoatrial node
    where is the cardiac contraction initiated from
  40. ECG means
    an Electrocardiogram is a graphic record of the heart's electrical activity during the cardiac cycle.
  41. where does the sound of the heart beat originate
    • the atrioventricular valve closes because of a systole (ventricular contraction), causing the long, low pitched sound called a lubb.
    • the second sound "dupp" comes from the diastole (beginning of the ventricular relaxation) due to the closing of the semilunar valves.
  42. heart rate is
    number of heart beats per minute avg adult= 72.
  43. avg cardiac output in average adult or average amount of blood in an adult is
    5 liters per minute
  44. arrhythmia
    irregularity in heart's rate
  45. murmur
    abnormal sound in heart beat
  46. bradycardia
    heart rate less than 60 beats per minute
  47. tachycardia
    heart beats over 100 beats per minute
  48. extrasystoles
    etra heart beats before the normal beat
  49. fibrillations
    rapid, uncoordinated contractions of the heart
  50. pulse
    palpable rhythmic throbbing caused by the alternating expansions and contractions of an artery as a wave of blood passes through the arteries.
  51. blood pressure
    force/ pressure or tension exerted by the blood on the walls of blood vessels.
  52. sphygmomanometer
    blood pressure cuff measures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury and are read from a manometer that is either a gauge of mercury column
  53. structures of the vascular system
    • arteries,
    • veines,
    • capillaries
  54. pulmonary circulation
    carries blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) and picks up oxygen to take back to the heart.
  55. systemic circulation
    carries blood to the rest of the body, carrying oxygenated blood and nutrients from the left ventricle to the heart to the body cells then returning to the right atrium carrying dioxide and waste
  56. characteristics of arteries
    thick walls because the blood that moves through them is under pressure from the contraction of ventricles creating a pulse that can be felt
  57. which artery is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood?
    pulmonary artery
  58. arterioles are
    smallest branches of arteries that join with capillaries
  59. largest artery in the body
  60. characteristics of veins
    • low in oxygen (except pulmonary artery). Vein walls are thinner than artery walls because there is less pressure. Thin walls collapse more easily.
    • blood moves through veins because of skeletal muscle movement, valves prevent the backflow of blood
  61. largest vein is
    vena cava
  62. the longest veins in the body
    great saphenous veins in the leg
  63. microscopic one cell thick vessels that connect arterioles and venules. -lack of muscular tissue = easier material exchange-Allow oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
  64. from arteriole to metarteriole to capillary to venule reentering the vein
    normal sequence of blood flow through capillaries
  65. blood vessel layers
    • tunica adventitia (outer layer)
    • Tunica media (middle layer of the blood vessel)
    • Tunica intima (inner layer)
  66. _____ allows blood to be shunted from an arteriole to a venule without passing through a capillary
    arteriovenous anastomosis
  67. _________ occurs between two capillary beds, the first being arteriole to capillary to arteriole and the second being arteriole to capillary to venule.
    arterial-portal capillary system
  68. ______ can be found in the liver. It transports blood from the portal system through capillaries to the venous system.
    venous-portal capillary system
  69. lumen
    internal space of a blood vessel through which the blood flows
  70. valve
    venous valves are thin membranous leaflets composed to epithelium which is also in the heart
  71. phlebotomy-related vascular anatomy
    • -antecubital fossa: shallow depression in front of the elbow
    • 1) median cubital vein: H-shaped pattern, closer to the surface, typically larger, better anchored, and more stationary

    2) Cephalic vein: lateral (toward the outer side of the body). H-shaped pattern. Harder to palpate, fairly well anchored, often the only vein that can be felt in obese patients.

    3) Basilic: medial (toward the center of the body in supine position). venous distribution pattern. easy to palpate but not as well anchored and rolls more easily (increasing possible puncture to medial cutaneous nerve or branchial artery which underly this area).
  72. plasma
    fluid portion of the blood (55% of blood content)
  73. formed elements
    cellular portion of plasma 45%
  74. erythrocytes
    red blood cells are intravascular (do their job in the blood stream)
  75. hemoglobin
    iron containing pigment that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide giving it a red color.
  76. reticulocytes
    immature RBCs that contain remnants of material from nuclear stage. produced in bone marrow and loose nucleus as they mature and enter the blood stream.
  77. leukocytes
    WBC's contain their nuclei. do their job extravascular (outside the blood stream)
  78. granulocytes
    easily visible granules in white blood cells, and WBC's that lack granules or hard to see granules are called agranulocytes.
  79. agranulocytes
    WBC's with hard to see or lacking in granules
  80. smallest formed elements are called
    thrombocytes or platelets essential to coagulation (first on the scene in an injury). 10 day lifespan
  81. agglunate
    when a person receives a blood transfusion of the wrong type antibodies may react with the donor RBC's causing them to clump together.
  82. lyse
    to homolize or disintegrate
  83. transfusion reaction
    adverse reaction between donor cells and recipient due to incompatible blood type.
  84. ABO
    • -blood group system (A, B, AB, O)
    • -Each accept their own not the other (even O: use to be considered universal donor)
    • -AB type accepts both
  85. Serum
    remaining fluid after fibrin network is formed (clot). Same composition of plasma without the fibrinogens forming the clot.
  86. Buffy coat
    WBC's and platelets
  87. Whole blood centrifuged composition
    Plasma, buffy coat, RBC's
  88. Hemostasis
    arrest or stoppage of bleeding. Body's response to stop blood loss (opposite is hemorrhage).

    requires coagulation factors (series of proteins)
  89. active hemostatic process
    • vasoconstriction: reduced vessel diameter
    • Amplification: formation of primary platelet plug
    • -hemostatic plug is the secondary progression
    • fibrinolysis dissolving the clot after healing
  90. Thrombin's role in coagulation
    converts fibrinogen to soluble fibrin
  91. Livers role in hemostasis
    plays a role in the synthesis or manufacture of many coagulation factors, produces bile salts, and heparin.
  92. hemostatic disorders