important vocabulary ch 5 and 6
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to the front of the body (ventral)
external or near the surface of the body/external
on or near the surface of the body/superficial
to the front of the body (anterior)
toward the midline or middle of the body
concerning the palm of the hand (opposite term is dorsal)
nearest the center of the body, origin, point of attachment
higher or toward the head of the body/superior
higher, or above or toward the head/ (cranial)
to the back of the body (dorsal)
within or near the center of the body
to the back of the body/ posterior
toward the side of the body
concerning the sole of the foot (opposite term is dorsal)
farthest from the center of the body, origin, or point of attachment
beneath, or lower or away from the head (caudal)
(coronal plane) divides the body vertically into front and back portions
beneath, or lower or away from the head (inferior)
divides the body vertically into front and back portions (frontal plane)
(medial plane) divides the body vertically into equal right and left portions
the sum of all physical and chemical reactions necessary to sustain life
position where the patient is laying horizontal on the back with face up
position where the body is opposite of supine, so they are laying face down. Hands are palm down
divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions
maintain body's internal environment in a state of equilibrium or balance (standing the same).
Skeletal system functions
hemopoiesis (calcium storage) and hematopoiesis (production of blood cells).
Heart circulation in order
- vena cava
- right atrium (oxygen poor blood)
- tricuspid valve
- right ventricle
- pulmonary valve
- lungs (for gas exchange)
- pulmonary veins (only time veins are oxygen rich)
- left atrium
- mitral valve (bicuspid)
- left ventricle
- aorta valve
- body systems
whole blood is
blood in circulation
living within the body
living in a tube
surrounds the heart by a thin layer of fluid-filled sac
layers of the heart
- endocardium (most internal)
- epicardium (most external layer of the heart)
entrane to the ventricles
a cardiac cycle is
one complete contraction and subsequent relaxation of the heart lasts about 0.8 seconds
contracting phase of the cardiac cycle
relaxing phase of the cardiac cycle (heart beat)
the sinoatrial node
where is the cardiac contraction initiated from
an Electrocardiogram is a graphic record of the heart's electrical activity during the cardiac cycle.
where does the sound of the heart beat originate
- the atrioventricular valve closes because of a systole (ventricular contraction), causing the long, low pitched sound called a lubb.
- the second sound "dupp" comes from the diastole (beginning of the ventricular relaxation) due to the closing of the semilunar valves.
heart rate is
number of heart beats per minute avg adult= 72.
avg cardiac output in average adult or average amount of blood in an adult is
5 liters per minute
irregularity in heart's rate
abnormal sound in heart beat
heart rate less than 60 beats per minute
heart beats over 100 beats per minute
etra heart beats before the normal beat
rapid, uncoordinated contractions of the heart
palpable rhythmic throbbing caused by the alternating expansions and contractions of an artery as a wave of blood passes through the arteries.
force/ pressure or tension exerted by the blood on the walls of blood vessels.
blood pressure cuff measures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury and are read from a manometer that is either a gauge of mercury column
structures of the vascular system
carries blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) and picks up oxygen to take back to the heart.
carries blood to the rest of the body, carrying oxygenated blood and nutrients from the left ventricle to the heart to the body cells then returning to the right atrium carrying dioxide and waste
characteristics of arteries
thick walls because the blood that moves through them is under pressure from the contraction of ventricles creating a pulse that can be felt
which artery is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood?
smallest branches of arteries that join with capillaries
largest artery in the body
characteristics of veins
- low in oxygen (except pulmonary artery). Vein walls are thinner than artery walls because there is less pressure. Thin walls collapse more easily.
- blood moves through veins because of skeletal muscle movement, valves prevent the backflow of blood
largest vein is
the longest veins in the body
great saphenous veins in the leg
microscopic one cell thick vessels that connect arterioles and venules. -lack of muscular tissue = easier material exchange-Allow oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
from arteriole to metarteriole to capillary to venule reentering the vein
normal sequence of blood flow through capillaries
blood vessel layers
- tunica adventitia (outer layer)
- Tunica media (middle layer of the blood vessel)
- Tunica intima (inner layer)
_____ allows blood to be shunted from an arteriole to a venule without passing through a capillary
_________ occurs between two capillary beds, the first being arteriole to capillary to arteriole and the second being arteriole to capillary to venule.
arterial-portal capillary system
______ can be found in the liver. It transports blood from the portal system through capillaries to the venous system.
venous-portal capillary system
internal space of a blood vessel through which the blood flows
venous valves are thin membranous leaflets composed to epithelium which is also in the heart
phlebotomy-related vascular anatomy
- -antecubital fossa: shallow depression in front of the elbow
- 1) median cubital vein: H-shaped pattern, closer to the surface, typically larger, better anchored, and more stationary
2) Cephalic vein: lateral (toward the outer side of the body). H-shaped pattern. Harder to palpate, fairly well anchored, often the only vein that can be felt in obese patients.
3) Basilic: medial (toward the center of the body in supine position). venous distribution pattern. easy to palpate but not as well anchored and rolls more easily (increasing possible puncture to medial cutaneous nerve
or branchial artery
which underly this area).
fluid portion of the blood (55% of blood content)
cellular portion of plasma 45%
red blood cells are intravascular (do their job in the blood stream)
iron containing pigment that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide giving it a red color.
immature RBCs that contain remnants of material from nuclear stage. produced in bone marrow and loose nucleus as they mature and enter the blood stream.
WBC's contain their nuclei. do their job extravascular (outside the blood stream)
easily visible granules in white blood cells, and WBC's that lack granules or hard to see granules are called agranulocytes.
WBC's with hard to see or lacking in granules
smallest formed elements are called
thrombocytes or platelets essential to coagulation (first on the scene in an injury). 10 day lifespan
when a person receives a blood transfusion of the wrong type antibodies may react with the donor RBC's causing them to clump together.
to homolize or disintegrate
adverse reaction between donor cells and recipient due to incompatible blood type.
- -blood group system (A, B, AB, O)
- -Each accept their own not the other (even O: use to be considered universal donor)
- -AB type accepts both
remaining fluid after fibrin network is formed (clot). Same composition of plasma without the fibrinogens forming the clot.
WBC's and platelets
Whole blood centrifuged composition
Plasma, buffy coat, RBC's
arrest or stoppage of bleeding. Body's response to stop blood loss (opposite is hemorrhage).
requires coagulation factors (series of proteins)
active hemostatic process
- vasoconstriction: reduced vessel diameter
- Amplification: formation of primary platelet plug
- -hemostatic plug is the secondary progression
- fibrinolysis dissolving the clot after healing
Thrombin's role in coagulation
converts fibrinogen to soluble fibrin
Livers role in hemostasis
plays a role in the synthesis or manufacture of many coagulation factors, produces bile salts, and heparin.
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