Biology 1610

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Biology 1610
2011-08-26 13:02:06
campbell biology

Chapter 1
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  1. Evolution-
    The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today.
  2. Biology-
    The scientific study of life.
  3. Emergent Properties-
    Are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. Ex- although photosynthesis occurs in an intact chloroplast, it will not take place in a disorganized test-tube mixture of chlorophyll and other chloroplast molecules.
  4. Systems Biology-
    Is an approach that attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts.
  5. Global climate change-
    Has already had dire effects on life-forms and their habitats all over planet Earth. Ex- Polar bears, Ice.
  6. Eukaryotic Cell-
    Is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles.
  7. Prokaryotic Cell-
    The DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by eclosure in a membrance-bounded nucleus.
  8. DNA-
    Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the substance of genes.
  9. Genes-
    The units of inheritance that transmit information form parents to offspring.
  10. Gene Expression-
    Information in a gene directs the production of a cellular product.
  11. Genome-
    Entire "Library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits.
  12. Genomics-
    Researchers who study whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genomes between species.
  13. Bioinformatics-
    Use of computational tools to store, organanize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods.
  14. Negative Feedback-
    In which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process.
  15. Positive Feedback-
    In which an end product speeds up its own production.
  16. Bacteria-
    Are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now classified into multiple kingdoms.
  17. Arhaea-
    Live in extreme enviroments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs.
  18. Eukarya-
    All of the Eukaryotes, like Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
  19. Natural Selection-
    Because the natural environment "selects" for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population.
  20. Science-
    Meaning "to know", is a way of knowing an approach to understanding the natural world.
  21. Inquiry-
    A search for information and explananation, often focusing on specific questions.
  22. Data-
    Recorded Observations.
  23. Inductive Reasoning-
    Collecting and analyzing observatins can lead to importand conclusions based on a type of logic.
  24. Hypothesis-
    Is a tentative answer to a wellfframed question-and explanation on trail.
  25. Deductive Reasoning-
    Is generally used after the hypothesis has been develped and involves logic that flows in the opposite direction, from the general to the specific.
  26. Controlled Experiment-
    One that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group.
  27. Theory-
    Much broader in scope than a hypothesis. They are usually supported by great deal of evidence.
  28. Model Organism-
    A species that is easy to grow in the lab and lends itself particularly well to the questions being investigated.
  29. Technology-
    Generally applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.