Physiology Ch. 1

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Physiology Ch. 1
2011-08-31 22:04:06

Chapter 1
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  1. Human Physiology
    • Study of how the human body functions
    • How organisms accomplish tasks essential for life
  2. Pathophysiology
    how physiological processes are altered in disease or injury
  3. Homeostasis
    • Maintaining constancy of the internal environment within a certain normal range
    • A dynamic process, always occuring throughout the human body
    • Maintained by negative feedback loops
  4. Intrinsic (Negative feedback)
    Within organ being regulated (each organ in the body)
  5. Extrinsic (Negative feedback)
    Outside of organ, such as nervous or hormonal systems
  6. Sensor (feedback loops)
    Detects deviation from set point (ex. pH level, body temperature)
  7. Integrating center (feedback loops)
    Determines the response
  8. Effector (feedback loops)
    Produces the response
  9. Negative feedback loop
    • Defends the set point
    • Reverses the deviation
    • Produces change in opposite direction
    • -Ex: Thermostat, body temperature
  10. Positive Feedback loops
    • Action of effectors amplifies the changes
    • Produces change in same direction
    • -Ex: Oxytocin (which is produced in body during childbirth), voltage gated Na+ channels (depolarization) cell/muscle
  11. Neural and Endocrine regulation
    • The nervous system and endocrine system work together to maintain homeostasis
    • Nervous system acts via electrochemical nerve impluses and is fast acting but short term effects
    • Endocrine system acts via hormones that are secreted into the blood and is slow acting but with long term effects
  12. 1The body is composed of 4 different primary tissues:
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
    • Epithelial
    • Connective