Kazen Master Grammar 3.2

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jasmace
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97485
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Kazen Master Grammar 3.2
Updated:
2011-08-22 12:14:14
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Kazen Master Grammar
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Kazen Master Grammar
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  1. Passive Form
    かれる, 食べられる, される, こられる

    Be ~ed

    1. when an action is directed at another person

    • 田中さんしゃちょうよばれました
    • Tanaka was called by the manager.

    2. something is done to an object belonging to someone else and they feel annoyed by it

    • 田中さんどろぼう財布をとられました
    • Tanaka's wallet was stolen by a theif.

    3. when it is not necessary to mention the person who did the action

    • このホテル60年前たてられました
    • This hotel was built over 60 years ago.

    4. used to express an undesirable feeling caused by some event or action

    • 昨日雨降られました
    • Yesterday it rained (and I was annoyed by it).
  2. Causitive form
    ませる, 食べさせる, させ, こさせる

    • intransitive verb = AB
    • transitive verb = AB_

    1. make ~ to ~ (coercion)

    • 先生が学生に宿題をたくさんさせた
    • The teacher made the students do lots of homework.

    2. allow ~ to ~ (permission)

    • 今日は仕事を休ませてください
    • Please let me take the day off today.

    3. make ~ to ~ (causation)

    • 病気になって, りょうしんを心配させてしまいました。
    • Since I got sick, I made my parents worry.
  3. Causitive-passive form
    たせられる, 食べさせられる, させられる, こさせられる

    sometimes うverbs are just ~される, except for すverbs.

    • intransitive verb = BA
    • transitive verb = BA_

    • 1. made/forced to do (something)
    • 朝ご飯は食べたくなかったのに、食べさせられた
    • Despite not wanting to eat breakfast, I was made to eat it.
  4. Potential form
    • ける, 食べられる, できる, こられる
    • (見える, 聞こえる)

    1. can / be able to

    • 漢字は書けますか?
    • Can you write kanji?

    2. be possible to

    • その映画館で日本の古い映画が見られます
    • You can see old japanese movies at that movie theater.
  5. Can / be able to / possibility to (do something)
    Dictionary form + ことができる

    • 漢字を読むことができません
    • I cannot read kanji.

    • その映画館で日本の古い映画が見ることができます
    • You can see old japanese movies at that movie theater.
  6. Can be seen / is visable

    Can be heard / is audible
    1. 見える

    • よるにはほしが見える
    • Stars can be seen at night.

    2. 聞こえる

    • 変な音が聞こえる
    • I hear a strange sound.
  7. Give (something to me, my side, my friends, or someone else)

    giver's social status is equal or lower
    くれる

    • トムさんが私にペンをくれました
    • Tom gave me a pen.
  8. Give (something to someone else, i give to someone, etc.)

    recipient's social status is equal or lower
    あげる

    • 私はトムに本をあげました
    • I gave Tom the book.
  9. Respectfully give (something to me, my side, my friends, or someone else)

    giver's social status is higher
    くださる

    • 先生が私に本をくださいました
    • My teacher gave me a book.
  10. Humbly give (someone gives something to someone, I give to someone, etc.)

    receipent's status is higher
    さしあげる

    • 私は先生に本をさしあげました
    • I gave a book to my teacher.
  11. Give (to junior, animals, planets, etc.)

    receipent's status is lower or non-human
    やる

    • さっき,猫に魚をやりました
    • I gave the cat fish a little while ago.
  12. Humbly receive from someone of a higher status
    いただく

    • 私は先生に本をいただきました
    • I received a book from the teacher.
  13. Receive from someone of lower or equal status
    もらう

    • トムさんがメリーに本をもらいました
    • Tom received a book from Mary.
  14. Something is done for me, my side, my friend, others

    giver's social status is higher
    て-form + くださる

    • 先生は私達をクーキを作ってくださいました
    • Our teacher made cookies for us.
  15. Something is done for me, my side, my friend, others

    giver's social status is equal or lower
    て-form + くれる

    • やった!弟は新しい服を買ってくれた
    • Alright! My younger brother bought me some new clothes.
  16. Humbly receive a favor from someone of a higher status
    て-form + いただく

    • 山上さんに仕事をできていただきました
    • Mr. Sawada did the work for me.
  17. Receive a favor from someone of lower or equal status
    て-form + もらう

    • 私は友達に日本語を教えてもらっている
    • I am having a friend teach me japanese.
  18. To do soemthing for someone of a higher status
    て-form + さしあげる

    • にもつを持ってさしあげましょう
    • Let me hold the luggage for you.
  19. To do something for somone of an equal status
    て-form + あげる

    • 宿題が終わったら、終わらないせいとをてつだってあげなさい
    • If you finish your homework, please help the students who haven't finished.
  20. To do something for someone of a lower status or non-human
    て-form + やる

    • 犬にさんぽしてやりました
    • I took my dog for a walk.

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