Cell Science Part 2

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Author:
rebekahsessoms
ID:
97742
Filename:
Cell Science Part 2
Updated:
2011-08-21 03:53:05
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Carbohydrates
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Description:
Cycles
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  1. What two "parts" does the Cori cycle consist of?
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
  2. Where does the Cori cycle take place?
    Glycolysis - the conversion of glucose --> pyruvate --> lactate is in the muscle.

    Gluconeogenesis - Lactate is transported back to the liver where it is converted back into glucose.
  3. What substrates are generated in the Cori cycle?
    NAD+ is resyntheisized from NADH in the muscle, with the conversio of pyruvate to lactate.

    NAD+ is converted to NADH in the liver, with the conversion of lactate to pyruvate.
  4. When does the Cori cycle require NTP?
    It requires 2 NTP with the conversion of glucose to pyruvate in the muscle, and 6 NTP with the conversion of pyruvate to glucose in the liver.
  5. Where is the main place where gluconeogenesis takes place?
    Liver
  6. Where does glycolysis occur?
    Everywhere. Oxygen-independent.
  7. Where does the TCA cycle occur?
    In the matrix of the Mitochondria.
  8. Does phosphorylation occur in the fed or fasted state?
    Fasted
  9. Does de-phosphorylation occur in the fed or fasted state?
    Fed
  10. What source(s) does glycogenolysis use to produce glucose?
    Stored glycogen (glucose carbohydrate reserve)
  11. What source(s) does gluconeogesis use to make glucose?
    Non-carbohydrate sources such as lactate (converted to pyruvate then to glucose)
  12. What are the essential aa?
    • Met
    • Thr
    • Val
    • Ile
    • Phe
    • Trp
    • Leu
    • Lys
  13. What are the non-essential aa?
    • Ala
    • Arg
    • Asp
    • Asn
    • Cys
    • Glu
    • Gln
    • GLy
    • His
    • Pro
    • Ser
  14. What are the ketogenic amino acids?
    • leucine
    • lysine
    • Both are essential aa
  15. What are the glucogenic and ketogenic aa?
    • non-essential: tyrosine
    • Essential: ile, phe, trp
  16. What are the glucogenic aa?
    non-essential: ala, arg, asp, asn, cys, glu, gly, gln, his, pro, ser

    Essential: met, thr, val
  17. What is the order of secretion of digestive enzymes in the small intestine?
    • Secretin (pancreas) stimulates secretion of:
    • Trypsinogen
    • Chymotrypsinogen
    • Proelastase
    • Procarboxypeptidase
  18. Which enzyme does enteropeptidase convert to its active form?
    Trypsin from trypsinogen
  19. What enzymes does trypsin activate?
    • Chymotrypsinogen
    • proelastase
    • procarboxypeptidase
  20. What is the function of pepsin?
    Enteropepdiase in the stomach. Cleaves proteins into peptones.
  21. What are the enteropeptidases supplied by the pancreas? What is their function?
    • Trypsin
    • Chymotrypsin
    • Elastase

    All are serine proteases, with different specificities and they hydrolyze peptide bonds within chains.
  22. What are the exopeptidases in the small intestine?
    aminopeptidases - remove the amino acid at the N-terminus

    Carboxypeptidases - remove the amino acid at the C-terminus.
  23. Do serine proteases cleave serine residues?
    NO!!! They merely have a serine residue in their active site.

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