Weather and Climate Ch8

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Weather and Climate Ch8
2011-08-21 15:30:40
Weather Climate

Weather and Climate Ch8
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  1. general circulation
    the largest-scale patterns, the background against what unusual events occur
  2. single-cell model
    a simple circulation pattern, describes th egeneral movement of the atmosphere
  3. zonal winds
    winds blowing east to west or west to east
  4. meridional winds
    winds moving north to south or south to north
  5. three-cell model
    a more elaborate model used to describe the general atmosphere that divides the circulation of each hemisphere into three distinct cells (Hadley cell, Ferrel cel, and polar cell)
  6. Hadley cell
    circulates air between the tropics and subtropics
  7. Ferrel cell
    circulates air in the middle lattitudes
  8. Polar cell
    circulates air around the poles
  9. equatorial low (Intertropical Convergence Zone[ITCZ])
    A zone of low pressure around the equater created by strong solar heating, wich causes air to expand upward and diverge toward the poles.
  10. subtropical highs
    When air in the Hadley cell sinks toward the surface it forms subtropical highs, which are large bands of high surface pressure.
  11. horse latitudes
    the point at which horses were thrown overboard from ships crossing from Europe to the New World in order to not get stranded.
  12. northeast trade winds
    winds deflected slightly to the right by a weak coriolis from the subtropical highs
  13. southeast trade winds
    In the southern hemisphere, the northward-moving air from the subtropical high is deflected to the left to create the southeast trade winds
  14. subpolar lows
    areas of low pressure
  15. westerlies
    a wind belt created by air going poleward undergoing a substantial deflection to the right
  16. polar highs
    low-level anticyclones of the arctic and antarctic
  17. polar easterlies
    low-level winds originating in the polar highs
  18. semi-permanent cell
    high and low-pressure cells that undergo seasonal changes in position and intensity throughout the year
  19. Aleutian and Icelandic lows
    cells over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean
  20. Siberian high
    cell over central Asia
  21. Hawaiian and Bermuda-Azores high
    cells over Pacific and Atlantic oceans
  22. Tibetan low
    cell over southern Asia
  23. polar front
    a boundary between warm and cold air
  24. polar jet stream
    maintains the temperature contrast across a front, a consequence of a polar front, like a river of air
  25. subtropical jet stream
    jet stream near the equator, associated with the Hadle cell
  26. Rossby waves
    waves are wavelike flows of air caused by ridges and troughs... Rossby waves are long waves
  27. ocean currents
    horizontal movements of surface water often found around the rims of major basins
  28. Ekman spiral
    An ocean current pattern in which 100m below the surface the direction of the current approaches 180 degrees to the directionof the wind, and thus dies out.
  29. North Equatorial Current
    Just north of the equator, the easterly trade winds drag the surface water westward to form the North Equatorial Current
  30. South Equatorial Current
    Just south of the equator, easterly trade winds drag the surface water westward
  31. Equatorial countercurrent
    the water from the north and south equatorial currents converges and piles up in the western equatorial Atlantic and forms the eastward-moving Equatorial countercurrent
  32. Gulf Stream
    In the Northern Hemisphere, most of the North Equatorial Current reaching the South American coast turns northward to form the Gulf stream
  33. North Atlantic Drift
    Near 40 degrees N., the westerlies force the current to the east, forming the North Atlantic Drift (as opposed to the Gulf Stream)
  34. Canary Current
    The North Atlantic Drift eventually cools to become the cold Canary Current as it turns southward
  35. Labrador current
    the cold current that flows southward along the Maritime Provinces of Canada
  36. East and West Greenland Drift
    feeds the Labrador Current along the Maritime Provinces of Canada
  37. upwelling
    strong offshore winds (from land to ocean) drag warmer surface waters seaward, which draws up cooler waters from below to take their place
  38. global scale
    large-scale features of the atmosphere
  39. synoptic scale
    features that cover hundreds or thousands of square kilometers (smaller than global scale features) operate from days to a couple weeks
  40. mesoscale
    smaller features than both global scale and synoptic scales, consists of elements covering tens of square kilometers and last as breif as half an hour
  41. microscale
    the smallest exchanges of mass and energy scale
  42. monsoon
    the climatic pattern in which heavy precipitation alternates with hot, dry conditions on an annual basis
  43. monsoon depressions
    areas of low pressure superimposed in the southeasterly air flow out of Bay of Bengal.
  44. Foehn (pronounced "fern")
    generic name for synoptic scale winds that flow down mountain slopes, warm by compression, and introduce hot, dry and clear conditions to the adjacent lowlands
  45. chinooks
    winds warmed by compression that descend the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
  46. Santa Anna winds
    develop (in California) when high pressure develops over the Rocky Mountains, the descends the western slopes and are warmed by compression.
  47. katabatic winds
    originate when air is locally chilled then flows down slopes and is warmed (unlike foehns and chinooks, which are cooled by migration of weather systems)
  48. sea breeze
    the air from water moves toward low-pressure area over land (remember, winds are always named after the direction from which they blow)
  49. sea breeze front
    a distinct boundary between the cooler maritime air and the continental air it displaces
  50. land breeze
    when the land surface cools more rapidly than the water at night, the air over the land becomes dense and creates a land breeze.
  51. lake breezes
    much like sea and land breeze circulations, but with lakes
  52. valley breeze
    air flows up from valleys to replace the warm air on top of slopes that expand outward
  53. mountain breeze
    at night, mountains cool more rapidly than low-lying areas, so the air becomes denser and sinks into the valleys to produce mountain breeze
  54. El Nino
    recurrent event in the tropical Eastern Pacific in which sea surface temperatures are significantly above normal
  55. Walker Circulation
    east-west circulation pattern of the tropics
  56. southern Oscillation
    the change in sea surface conditions linked with the change in the atmospheric pressure distribution
  57. ENSO events
    the combined occurrence of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (because they are closely intertwined)
  58. La Nina
    (opposite of El Nino) below normal sea surface temperatures exist in the tropical eastern Pacific
  59. Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)
    the monthly sea-level departure from normal at Tahiti minus the departure from normalk at Darwin, Australia.
  60. teleconnections
    the relationship between weather or climate patterns at two widely separted locations
  61. Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    a pattern in which two nodes of sea surface temperature exist (a large on in the norther and western part of the basin and a smaller one in the eastern tripical Pacific)
  62. Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation
    The multiyear oscillations of the Atlantic