Micro test 3

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Micro test 3
2011-08-21 21:12:16
UWS micro

micro test 3 part 2
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  1. glycolysis
    • in presence or absence of o2
    • net gain 2 ATP, 2 NADH
  2. TCA cycle
    • net gain:
    • 2atp
    • 6 nadh
    • 2 fadh2
  3. aerobic respiration
    transfering electrons from nadh and fadh2 to oxygen
  4. fermentation
    • in absence of o2
    • electrons transfered to an organic terminal electron acceptor
  5. aerobic respiration
    38 atp
  6. anaerobic respiration
    30 or less atp
  7. fermentation
    2-4 atp
  8. psychrophiles
    grow b/t -5c and 15c
  9. mesophiles
    between 25 - 45c
  10. human body growth
    • optimum b/t 35-40
    • aka mesophiles
  11. thermophiles
    b/t 45-70c
  12. aerotolerant anaerobes
    indifferent to o2, can but dont need
  13. oxidizing agents
    • bad for the cell
    • oh- is bad but transient in cells
    • cells have enzymes to degrade toxins
  14. neutrophiles
    live from ph 5-8
  15. acidophiles
    live ph below 5.5
  16. alkalophile
    live at or above ph 8.5
  17. halophiles
    require high salt levels
  18. pure culture
    population of organisms descended from a single cell
  19. koch
    agar plates - from seaweed

    his assistant = petri plates
  20. binary fission
    after a bacterial cell has increased in size and doubled all of its parts it divides
  21. generation time
    the time it takes for a population to double in #
  22. growth curve steps
    • lag
    • exponential
    • stationary
    • death
  23. lag phase
    cells synthesize macromolecules required for division
  24. exponential phase
    cells divide at constant rate
  25. stationary phase
    exhaust energy/nutrients # remains constant
  26. death phase
    cells die off at constant rate
  27. measure growth
    • direct - hemacytometer
    • indirect 0 serial dilution
  28. DNA
    • a-t
    • g-c
  29. gene expression
    dna- transcription - rna - translation- protein
  30. x-ray
    causes breaks in dna
  31. bacterial repair of mutation
    • mismatch repair
    • SOS repair
  32. prototroph
    can grow with out added growth factors
  33. auxotroph
    can grow only w/ added growth factors
  34. transformation?
    DNA is not contained so- cell dies it is released

    recipient cells must be competent - able to take up dna

    competence is induced by treatment with CaCl2 or an electrical current
  35. conjugation
    • after contact with another cell
    • dna is transfered by plasmid or chromosomal dna
  36. plasmid dna transfer
    plasmid transfered is F (fertility)

    • donor cell is the F+ or male
    • recipient cell is F- or female
  37. operon
    a set of adjacent genes coordinately controlled by a regulatory protein. a single rna message
  38. Point mutation
    only 1 base is changed
  39. missense mutation
    if a base sub. leads to sub. of a different amino acid
  40. nonsense mutation
    if a base sub. creates a stop codon instead
  41. frameshift mutation
    removal or addition of nucleotides
  42. transposons
    segments of dna that move spontatneously from one site to another in the same or different DNA molecule
  43. Iatrogenic infection
    illness caused by/resulting from medical treatment
  44. terms - sterilization etc
  45. HFR cell
    a cell with a F plasmid integrated into the chromosome

    if it excises the plasmid you would call it f' - f prime
  46. transduction
    transfer of dna from cell to cell via bacteriophage

    • can be lytic or lysogenic
    • can be generalized or specialized
  47. bacteriophages interact with cells in two ways
    lytic and lysogenic
  48. lytic transduction
    • virus overtakes cell
    • dna is incorporated
    • makes new virus cells to be displaced
  49. lysogenic transduction
    virus dna integrates into host dna and remains dormant then becomes lytic
  50. generalized transduction
    accidentally package only bacterial chrom DNA not viral DNA in capsid
  51. specialized transduction
    packages both viral dna and bacterial DNA
  52. recombinant dna
    based on restriction endonucleases in bacteria
  53. inihibitors of cell wall synthesis
    prevent cross linking

    • penicillin
    • cephalosporins
    • bacitracin
    • vancomycin
    • isoniazid
  54. inhibitors of cell membrane
    polymyxin B and E
  55. inhibitors of protein synthesis
    • streptomycin
    • tetracycline
    • chloramphenicol
    • erythromycin
  56. inhibitors of nucleic acid syn
    • rifampin - treat TB
    • quinolones - cipro
  57. antimetabolites
    • sulfa drugs
    • inhibit folic acid synthesis