Anatomy and Physiology chapter 1

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Anatomy and Physiology chapter 1
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2011-08-22 01:48:35
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anatomy physiology
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Chapter 1 of The Human Body in Health and Disease
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  1. It is only from imderstanding the normal that one can analyze what is going wrong in cases of disease.
  2. Anatomy
    the study of body structure
  3. Physiology
    the study of how the body functions
  4. Pathology
    the study of disease
  5. Disease
    anything that upsets the normal structure or working of the body
  6. What are the levels of organization?
    • 1. chemicals
    • 2. cell
    • 3. tissue
    • 4. organ
    • 5. organ system
    • 6. whole organism
  7. What is a cell?
    the basic units of all life
  8. What is tissue?
    a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function.
  9. What is an organ?
    body part containing 2 or more tissues functiong together for specific purposes
  10. What is a system (or bosy system)?
    group of organs functioning together for the same general purposes
  11. All of the systems work together to maintain the bosy as a whole organism
  12. There are 11 body systems:
    • for protection, support and movement:
    • integumentary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • for coordination and control:
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • for circulation:
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
    • for nutrition and fluid balance:
    • respiratory
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • for production of offspring:
    • reproductive
  13. Integumentary System
    • provides protection.
    • skin, hair, nails and sweat and oil glands.
  14. Skeletal System
    • The basic framework of the body.
    • 206 bones and the joints between them.
  15. Muscular System
    • Skeletal muscle attatches to bones and produces movement. Also gives the body structure, protects organs, and maintains posture.
    • the 2 other types of muscles are smooth muscle, present in the walls of body organs, and the cardiac muscle.
  16. Nervous System
    • Transports information in the body by means of electrical impulses. Also controls and coordinates the body. Such higher functions as memory and reasoning also occur in the brain.
    • made up by the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
  17. Endocrine System
    A system of scattered organs that secrete hormones, which regulate body activities.
  18. Cardiovascular System
    • Pumps blood through out the body tissues, bringing with it nutrients, oxygen, and other needed substances.
    • Consists of the heart and blood vessels.
  19. Lymphatic System
    • Assists circulation my bringing fluids from the tissues back to the blood. Also plays a role in immunity, protecting from disease, aids in the absorption of digested fats.
    • the fluid in the lymphatic system is called lymph.
  20. Respiratory System
    • System consisting of the lungs and breathing passages involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the outside air and the blood.
    • Takes in air and conducts it to the areas designed for gas exchange. Oxygen passes from the air into the blood and is carried to all tissues by the cardiovascular system. In the like manner, carbon dioxide, a gasseous waste product, is taken by the circulation from tissues back to the lungs to be expelled.
  21. Digestive System
    • Takes in nutrients, converts them into a form that body cells can use, and absorbs them into circulation,
    • Organs of the digestive system include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, and pancreas.
  22. Urinary System
    • Rids the body of waste products and excess water.
    • Main components are the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.
  23. Reproductive System
    Includes all the external sex organs and all related internal structures that are concerned with the production of offspring.
  24. Metabolism
    All physical and chemical processes by which an organism is maintained.
  25. Catabolism
    • the breaking down phase of metabolism
    • complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds. The break down of food yield simple chemical building blocks and energy (ATP) to power cellular activities.
  26. Anabolism
    • the building up phase of metabolism
    • simple compounds are used (built back up) to manufacture materials needed for growth, function, and repair of tissues.
  27. ATP
    adenosine triphosphate. the energy (or "energy currency") obtained from the breakdown of nutrients (catabolism).
  28. Homeostasis
    The state of balance with in the body.
  29. Extracellular Fluid
    • All bidy fluids outside the cells. Bathes the cells, carries nutrient substances to and from the cells, and transports the nutrients into and out of the cells.
    • examples include blood, lymph, and the fluid between the cells and tissues.
  30. Intracellular Fluid
    Fluid contained with in the cells.
  31. Extracellular and intracellular fluid account for 60% of an adult's weight.
  32. Feedback
    The main method for maintaining homeostasis; a control system based on information returning to a source.
  33. Negative Feedback
    Keeps body systems with in a set normal range by reversing any upward or downward shifts.
  34. Positive Feedback
    A substance or condition works within a system to promote more of the same activity.
  35. Anatomic Postition
    Subject is standing upright, with face front, arms at the sides with palms forward, and feet parallel.
  36. Superior
    above or in a higher position
  37. Inferior
    Below or in a lower position
  38. Ventral
    • also anterior,
    • located toward the belly or front of the body
  39. Anterior
    • also ventral,
    • located toward the belly or front of the body.
  40. Dorsal
    • Also posterior,
    • refers to locations nearer to the back
  41. Posterior
    • also dorsal,
    • refers to locations nearer to the back
  42. Cranial
    nearer to the head
  43. Caudal
    nearer to the sacral region of the spinal column, or in an inferior direction
  44. Medial
    nearer to an imaginary plane that passes through the midline of the body, dividing it into left and right portions
  45. Lateral
    farther away from the midline, toward the side
  46. Proximal
    nearer to the origin of a structure
  47. Distal
    farther from the origin of a structure
  48. Frontal Plane
    • also Coronal Plane
    • an imaginary plane dividing the body into front and back sections
  49. Cronal Plane
    • Also Frontal Plane
    • an imaginary plane dividing the body into front and back sections
  50. Sagittal Plane
    An imaginary plane dividing the body into left and right sections
  51. Transverse Plane
    • also called Horizontal Plane
    • An inaginary plane dividing the body into upper and lower sections
  52. Horizontal Plane
    • also called Transverse Plane
    • an imaginary plane dividing the body into superior and inferior sections
  53. Dorsal Cavity
    contains the cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)
  54. Ventral Cavity
    contains the thoracic cavity (heart and lungs), and abdominopelvic cavity -containing the abdominal cavity (stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, spleen, and others) and the palvic cavity (reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and rectum.
  55. 3 Central Abdominal Regions
    • epigastric
    • umbilical
    • hypogastric
  56. 3 Lateral Abdominal Regions
    • hypochondriac
    • lumbar
    • illiac, or inguinal
  57. Meter
    the basic unit of length in the metric system
  58. Gram
    the basic unit of weight in the metric system
  59. Liter
    the basic unit of volume (liquid) in the metric system
  60. 1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs

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