Card Set Information
Who is the discoverer/founder of chiropractic (1895)?
Nerve compresssion theory which relates the subluxation to the Chemical, mechanical, psychic and innate. Who is related to this theory?
Philosophy based upon Structure and Function is related to whom?
Who is the developer of chiropractic?
Who created the cord compression theory?
Who is responsible for the Meric Chart of nerve tracing and the HIO technique?
Neurocalometer is an instrument that detects ___?
Pelvic distortion model is who's model?
They developed a protocol for the treatment of lumbar disc protrusions, spondylos, and facet syndrome?
SOT was created by?
Fixation theory of joint hypomobility is created by:
Subluxations are all posterior with disc wedging is created by?
Upper cervical specific technique focused around the dentate ligament is developed by:
Father of Homeopathy (DILUTION)
Father of modern medicine?
First person to manipulate?
Fixation therory based on hyper mobility, also described the SI movement and pelvic dynamics?
Developed a 3 phase model of instability--> dysfunction, unstable, subluxation?
Who created the segmental facilitation theory?
Who wrote the first chiropractic textbook in 1906?
Founder of the the technique which uses the sacrum as the keystone to the spine, also the first to use heel lifts?
2 scientists in the field of biomechanics of the spine?
Panjabi and white
33 principles of chiropractic and "Saftey pin" cycle?
Founder of osteopathy?
Who named "Chiropractic"?
The 5 component model of subluxation includes what:
5 signs of inflammation are:
rubor, calor, tumor, dolor, and loss of fuction
according to the myopathology based on Hiltons Law a spasm is a _____ condition, whereas Atrophy is a _____ condition.
psychovisceral reflex is an example of what model of chirpractic theories?
Neurological reflex model
Gate control theory of pane states that within the _____ several factors can block or facilitate the transmission of pain?
Signals in the "gate" control theory travel on _____ fibers greatly depressing pain transmission.
fast, type A afferent fibers
Pain travels on what type of fibers?
slow, type c
the most common location for compression of the vertebral artery is over the ____.
posterior arch of C1
the most compression to the vertebral artery occurs at ____
Rotation and extension of C1/C2
VBAI symptoms include:
ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, diarrhea, dysphagia, falling to side, nausea, numbness, nystagmus, visual disturbances, and vomiting
Nerve roots are made of ____-neurium, which do not have the strong connective tissue sheaths.
___ flow transports the products necessary for trophic or growth functions.
Angerograde- more common and faster!
___ flow transports materials from the nerve terminals to the cell bodies.
Retrograde, slower and less common.
____ transmission of axoplasmic flow, brings products/wastes to the cell body.
____ transmission of axoplasmic flow, is focused on trophic/growth functions
what theory was used to explain the HIO technique?
Compresssive myelopathy refers to the destruction of the spinal cord caused by pressure from:
neoplasms, hematomas or other masses
Facilitation hypothosis has the following AKA's:
gamma motor gain
Constant bombardment of nocioception lowers the threshod for firing in this segment is known as ____ with the ____theory.
proprioceptive insult, fixation theory/facilitation hypothesis
_____ is stressful to the viscera and other body structures, lowered tissue resistence can modify immune responses.
neural dysfunction (neurodystrophic hypothesis/nueroimmunomodulation)
General adaption syndrome states that exposure to stress can cause "____"
"diseases of adatptation"
under optimum conditions the body can respond to ______ by adapting to them.
The 4 stages of adaption include:
the neuroendocrine mechanism is a ___.
response to stress
The ___ ligament holds the dens in fovea dentalis of atlas.
the ADI is related to which ligament?
this ligament is cross shaped, connecting C0 to the body of C2.
this ligament goes from the sides of the dens to occipital condyles
Alar ligament "check ligament"
this ligament limits rotation of C2
this ligament limits flexion and extention of C2
apical dental ligament
21 ligaments made of pia mater connecting the dura along the spinal cord.
This ligament runs in front of the vertebral bodies from the sacrum to C2.
This ligament is the continuation of the ALL from Atlas to Occiput/ which limits extension.
this ligament runs along the back of the vertebral bodies, anterior portion of the canal?
This ligament is wider in the cervicals, thinner at lumbars and thinest is L5, which limits flexion.
Continuation of the PLL from C2 to occiput which limits flexion.
this is fibrocartilage, symphysis and makes up 25% of the height of the spine.
This ligament runs lamina to lamin along the posterior portion of the canal
This ligament is responsible for canal stenosis when it is hypertrophied
this is a continuation of the ligamentum flavum from C2 to C1.
this ligament is a continuation of the ligamentum flavum at C1 to Co.
this ligament becomes the arcuate forame when calcified.
this ligament is found between the articular processes
which nerve fiber detects stretch and sensory to joint position, vibration, etc.?
which nerve fiber detechs touch/pressure, and tension (GTO).
A beta, 1 B GTO, II
which fiber is for fast pain (pressure pain)?
A Delta, III
which fiber is for slow pain, temperature?
C fiber, IV
which tract is responsible for the extensor muscles of the back and legs?
Vetibulospinal "wear your vest on your back"
which tract is responsible for rotation of the cervical spine in reaction to light or sound?
reflex to light is processed at which colliculus?
reflex to sound is processed at which colliculus?
____ spinothatlamic tract is for pain and temperature?
____ spinothalamic tract for crude tough and pressure?
the ____ is responsible for conscious proprioception, vibration, joint position sense and 2 point discrimination.
DCML: dorsal columns medial lemniscus
Muscle spindle cells, type ___ fibers, detect ___.
1 a fibers, Stretch
Golgi tendon oragns, type __, detect ___.
1 b fibers, tension
Astrocytes are responsible for:
the blood brain barrier and storing glucose
which specialized cell of the nervous system is a macrophage?
which specialized cell lines ventricles and produces CSF?
which specialized cell produces myelin in the CNS?
what is a demyelination disease of the CNS?
which specialized cell is from neural crest cells and produces myelin in the PNS?
what is a demyelination disease of the PNS?
Which plexus' are from neural crest cells that allows for peristalsis?
these specialized cells are from neural crest cells and inhibit alpha motor neurons:
Sympathetics are located at which __, and activated in ____ responses.
T1-L2, fight or flight
parasympathetics are located at which ____, and are activated in ___ responses.
Craniosacral, rest-digest/peed, feed, breed/urination, defication, eating, sexual activity
skin vasoconstriction, increased sudomotor activity and pupil dialation w/ tachycardia is which response?
increased peristalsis, depressed respiration, pupil constriction and bradycardia are related to:
the tonsils are at which meric level?
the heart and lungs are at which meric level?
the gallbladder is at which meric level?
the stomach is at which meric level?
T6-10 on the meric chart respond with which three organs?
Liver, pancreas, gallbladder
the kidney is located at which meric chart level?
the ovary and colon are sympathetically driven and located at which meric chart level?
the colon and uterus are parasympathetically drive and located at which meric chart level?
The anterior boundry of the IVF is the:
bodies: cervical/uncinates and the IVD
the superior and inferior boundries of the IVF are:
the posterior boundry of the IVF is:
Compression in the IVF is from what 4 things:
fat, veins, arteries, nerves
what is most sensitive to compression and located inside the IVF?
DRG:dorsal root ganglion
rate the pressure changes in the disc from least to most:
sitting leaning forward
compressive load to the disc causes ____
fracture of the end plate
nutrition to the disc is by way of ___
allodynia is the perception of ___ from a normally ___ stimulus.
Wallerian degeneration results in:
temporary paralysis and sensory changes.
viscoelastic material deforms with time when it is under constant applied load:
___ treats patients with heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented.
loss of energy during Cyclic loading/unloading of a viscoelastic substance is known as:
SI joint or facet pain is described as a ___ pain pattern.
the ___ nerve goes to the PLL, Ligamentum flavum, anterior dura but not to the ALL.
Sinu-vertebral nerve (aka: recurrent meningial)
the principle that maintains the laws of physics and chemistry but cannot describe the nature of life:
the bone remodeling due to stress is what law?
the trunk of a nerve branches to a muscle, the joint moved by the muscle and the skin overlying the muscle is the __ law.
increased epiphyseal pressure leads to decreased growth and vice/versa is which law?
the anterior horn of the cord is motor while the posterior horn is sensory is described by which law:
the sensation perceived by the examiner during PASSIVE ROM:
the normal resistence felt when joint motion is restricted by soft tissue: elbow flexion is an example of:
soft tissue approximation
an abrupt halt a two hard surfaces meet when full ROM is achieved (elbow extension)
guarded resisted muscular contration, which is a possible contraindication for adjusting:
a hard arrest with a slight give which may indicate a subacute to chronic arthritis is:
the slight rebound at the end of ROM may suggest an internal derangement is described by:
pain is felt by the paitent before Full ROM is achieved which suggest possible pathology describes:
which fixation is secondary to chronic hypertonicity of muscles, exhibiting a restricted mobility w a rubbery end block?
muscular fixation according to gillet
a chronically fixated segment which palpates as a hard block with no end play with normal ROM is described by gillet as which fixation?
a major fixation due to intra-articular adhesions is described by gillet by:
fixation due to exostosis, displaying free ROM with an abrupt, complete, hard arrest (advanced djd) can be described by gillet's fixation:
a written report on the details of a series of cases is:
a study that reviews events that have already occured describes __ study.
when the patients are divided into two or more groups on a randomized basis describes a ___ study.
the proportion of times a procedure is correct in a patient describes:
the consistency of a measurement is described by:
the degree to which an observation is an indication of the true statement describes:
the nerve compression theory was developed by ____
the HIO technique is what theory
Cord Compression/ bj palmer
the antegrade and retrograde transmission is described by ___ theory
the ___ theory was developed by Irwin Korr
Immunity and neuroendocrine fuction as it relates to the general adaptive syndrome is described by __ theory.
neurodystrophic/neuroimmunomodulation theory, Selye's work
the SNS/PNS balance and modulation is described by the SAR reflex and the ___ theory.
mechanoreceptor funck, biochemical aberration is used to describe __ theory.
the dentate ligament, meningeal torsion is used to describe ___ theory.
VBAI is a compromise of the cerebral blood flow with the symptoms apparent after which ROMs?
rotation and extention
the X axis is responsible for ___ motion, around the ___ plane.
the y axis is responsible for ___ motion, around the __ plane.
the z axis is responsible for __ motion, around the __ plane
LF, coronal plane
Loose packed position:
Lig. Flavum hypertrophy=
spinal stenosis (Cord myelopathy= bj palmer)
Stress modulators increase the ___
LBP down the posterior thigh
shoulder impingement limits
Efferent pathway is ___ to ___.
Brain to tissues
increased mechanoreceptor stimulation inhibits
VBAI, most complications occur at the level of:
What ligament decreases extension of the c-spine?
The primary motion of C1/C2 is:
Lateral flexion in the spine is correlated to what structure?
what ligament is weakest at L5?
What nerve innervates the posterior aspect of the disc?
ipsilateral weakness with decreased extension is ____-pathy.
lateral spinothalamic tract is responsible for:
pain and temperature
afferent for proprioception ends at the __ part of the brain.
anterograde axoplasmic flow is responsible for ___ function
Restricted CSF flow in the body decreases:
ability to duplicate a research study is:
patient presents with dizziness, nausea and tinnitis they probably are having:
lateral meduallary syndrome, PICA, Wallenburg syndrome
segmental fization leads to:
Repetition of loading/unloading results in:
Constant load results in:
What organ is related on the meric chart to a problem at T4?
Scleratogenous pain can be described as:
dull achy pain
a change in the bone due to stress and strain is ___ law.
the gravity line on lateral xray falls:
posterior to patella
lumbar bodies hold more weight than cspine because:
they have increased surface area
intra-articular folds in the zjoints are called
groove at the posterior aspect of the body is for what:
What predisposes a patient for VBAI
father of homeopathy?
meniscoid entrapment would do what to ROM?
sinu-vertebral nerve doesnt innervate what ligament?
Ant. long. lig
what part of the cervical spine is the most unstable upper 1/3, middle 1/3 or lower 1/3?
what technique uses thermography for their analysis?
what is the tract for vibration?
MC place for Nerve root compression?
weakest part of the disc?
nutrition to a disc is called___
what responds to TENSION and causes relaxation?`
what is an intra articular tab?
steady deformation causes ___
correct order of GAS:
Alarm, resist, adapt, exhaust
what ligament limits rotation of the cervicals?
last stage of the inflammatory response is:
who developed his medicine around circulation?
Still : osteopathy
Segmental dysfunction was developed by:
what is the most sensative to compression in the ivf?
Dorsal Root Ganglion
what is the first structure to be compressed in the IVF
However, if Fat is listed as a choice- pick that. Fat-Adipose/ V.A.N