Principles

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Principles
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2011-08-25 18:23:32
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Principles
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  1. Who is the discoverer/founder of chiropractic (1895)?
    DD Palmer
  2. Nerve compresssion theory which relates the subluxation to the Chemical, mechanical, psychic and innate. Who is related to this theory?
    DD palmer
  3. Philosophy based upon Structure and Function is related to whom?
    DD palmer
  4. Who is the developer of chiropractic?
    BJ palmer
  5. Who created the cord compression theory?
    BJ palmer
  6. Who is responsible for the Meric Chart of nerve tracing and the HIO technique?
    BJ Palmer
  7. Neurocalometer is an instrument that detects ___?
    heat imbalances
  8. Pelvic distortion model is who's model?
    Carver
  9. They developed a protocol for the treatment of lumbar disc protrusions, spondylos, and facet syndrome?
    Flexion/Distraction= Cox/McManus
  10. SOT was created by?
    DeJarnette
  11. Fixation theory of joint hypomobility is created by:
    Gillet/Faye
  12. Subluxations are all posterior with disc wedging is created by?
    Gonstead
  13. Upper cervical specific technique focused around the dentate ligament is developed by:
    Grostic
  14. Father of Homeopathy (DILUTION)
    Hahnemann
  15. Father of modern medicine?
    Hippocrates
  16. First person to manipulate?
    Hippocrates
  17. Fixation therory based on hyper mobility, also described the SI movement and pelvic dynamics?
    Illi
  18. Developed a 3 phase model of instability--> dysfunction, unstable, subluxation?
    Kirkaldy/Willis
  19. Who created the segmental facilitation theory?
    Korr
  20. Who wrote the first chiropractic textbook in 1906?
    Langworthy
  21. Founder of the the technique which uses the sacrum as the keystone to the spine, also the first to use heel lifts?
    Logan
  22. 2 scientists in the field of biomechanics of the spine?
    Panjabi and white
  23. 33 principles of chiropractic and "Saftey pin" cycle?
    Stephenson
  24. Founder of osteopathy?
    Sill
  25. Who named "Chiropractic"?
    Samuel Weed
  26. The 5 component model of subluxation includes what:
    • Neuropathophysiology-
    • Kinesiopathophysiology-
    • Myopathology-
    • Histopathology-
    • Pathophysiology
  27. 5 signs of inflammation are:
    rubor, calor, tumor, dolor, and loss of fuction
  28. according to the myopathology based on Hiltons Law a spasm is a _____ condition, whereas Atrophy is a _____ condition.
    acute, chronic
  29. psychovisceral reflex is an example of what model of chirpractic theories?
    Neurological reflex model
  30. Gate control theory of pane states that within the _____ several factors can block or facilitate the transmission of pain?
    substatian gelatinosa
  31. Signals in the "gate" control theory travel on _____ fibers greatly depressing pain transmission.
    fast, type A afferent fibers
  32. Pain travels on what type of fibers?
    slow, type c
  33. the most common location for compression of the vertebral artery is over the ____.
    posterior arch of C1
  34. the most compression to the vertebral artery occurs at ____
    Rotation and extension of C1/C2
  35. VBAI symptoms include:
    ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, diarrhea, dysphagia, falling to side, nausea, numbness, nystagmus, visual disturbances, and vomiting
  36. Nerve roots are made of ____-neurium, which do not have the strong connective tissue sheaths.
    endo
  37. ___ flow transports the products necessary for trophic or growth functions.
    Angerograde- more common and faster!
  38. ___ flow transports materials from the nerve terminals to the cell bodies.
    Retrograde, slower and less common.
  39. ____ transmission of axoplasmic flow, brings products/wastes to the cell body.
    Retrograde
  40. ____ transmission of axoplasmic flow, is focused on trophic/growth functions
    anterograde
  41. what theory was used to explain the HIO technique?
    Cord Compression
  42. Compresssive myelopathy refers to the destruction of the spinal cord caused by pressure from:
    neoplasms, hematomas or other masses
  43. Facilitation hypothosis has the following AKA's:
    • fixation theory
    • segmental facilitation
    • segmental hypothesis
    • gamma motor gain
    • proprioceptive insult
    • sympatheticotonia
  44. Constant bombardment of nocioception lowers the threshod for firing in this segment is known as ____ with the ____theory.
    proprioceptive insult, fixation theory/facilitation hypothesis
  45. _____ is stressful to the viscera and other body structures, lowered tissue resistence can modify immune responses.
    neural dysfunction (neurodystrophic hypothesis/nueroimmunomodulation)
  46. General adaption syndrome states that exposure to stress can cause "____"
    "diseases of adatptation"
  47. under optimum conditions the body can respond to ______ by adapting to them.
    various stressors
  48. The 4 stages of adaption include:
    • Alarm
    • Resist
    • Adapt
    • Exhaust
  49. the neuroendocrine mechanism is a ___.
    response to stress
  50. The ___ ligament holds the dens in fovea dentalis of atlas.
    Transverse
  51. the ADI is related to which ligament?
    transverse
  52. this ligament is cross shaped, connecting C0 to the body of C2.
    cruciate
  53. this ligament goes from the sides of the dens to occipital condyles
    Alar ligament "check ligament"
  54. this ligament limits rotation of C2
    alar ligament
  55. this ligament limits flexion and extention of C2
    apical dental ligament
  56. 21 ligaments made of pia mater connecting the dura along the spinal cord.
    dentate ligament.
  57. This ligament runs in front of the vertebral bodies from the sacrum to C2.
    ALL
  58. This ligament is the continuation of the ALL from Atlas to Occiput/ which limits extension.
    Ant. Atlanto-occipital
  59. this ligament runs along the back of the vertebral bodies, anterior portion of the canal?
    PLL
  60. This ligament is wider in the cervicals, thinner at lumbars and thinest is L5, which limits flexion.
    PLL
  61. Continuation of the PLL from C2 to occiput which limits flexion.
    Tectorial membrane
  62. this is fibrocartilage, symphysis and makes up 25% of the height of the spine.
    IVD
  63. This ligament runs lamina to lamin along the posterior portion of the canal
    Ligamentum flavum
  64. This ligament is responsible for canal stenosis when it is hypertrophied
    ligamentum flavum
  65. this is a continuation of the ligamentum flavum from C2 to C1.
    posterior atlantoaxial
  66. this ligament is a continuation of the ligamentum flavum at C1 to Co.
    posterior atlantooccipital
  67. this ligament becomes the arcuate forame when calcified.
    posterior atlantooccipital
  68. this ligament is found between the articular processes
    capsular ligament
  69. which nerve fiber detects stretch and sensory to joint position, vibration, etc.?
    Alpha, 1A
  70. which nerve fiber detechs touch/pressure, and tension (GTO).
    A beta, 1 B GTO, II
  71. which fiber is for fast pain (pressure pain)?
    A Delta, III
  72. which fiber is for slow pain, temperature?
    C fiber, IV
  73. which tract is responsible for the extensor muscles of the back and legs?
    Vetibulospinal "wear your vest on your back"
  74. which tract is responsible for rotation of the cervical spine in reaction to light or sound?
    Tectospinal
  75. reflex to light is processed at which colliculus?
    superior
  76. reflex to sound is processed at which colliculus?
    inferior
  77. ____ spinothatlamic tract is for pain and temperature?
    lateral
  78. ____ spinothalamic tract for crude tough and pressure?
    ventral
  79. the ____ is responsible for conscious proprioception, vibration, joint position sense and 2 point discrimination.
    DCML: dorsal columns medial lemniscus
  80. Muscle spindle cells, type ___ fibers, detect ___.
    1 a fibers, Stretch
  81. Golgi tendon oragns, type __, detect ___.
    1 b fibers, tension
  82. Astrocytes are responsible for:
    the blood brain barrier and storing glucose
  83. which specialized cell of the nervous system is a macrophage?
    microglia
  84. which specialized cell lines ventricles and produces CSF?
    ependymal cells
  85. which specialized cell produces myelin in the CNS?
    oligodendrocytes
  86. what is a demyelination disease of the CNS?
    MS
  87. which specialized cell is from neural crest cells and produces myelin in the PNS?
    Schwann cells
  88. what is a demyelination disease of the PNS?
    Guillain- Barre
  89. Which plexus' are from neural crest cells that allows for peristalsis?
    • Meissners- submucosal
    • Auerbachs- muscular/meinteric
  90. these specialized cells are from neural crest cells and inhibit alpha motor neurons:
    renshaw cells
  91. Sympathetics are located at which __, and activated in ____ responses.
    T1-L2, fight or flight
  92. parasympathetics are located at which ____, and are activated in ___ responses.
    Craniosacral, rest-digest/peed, feed, breed/urination, defication, eating, sexual activity
  93. skin vasoconstriction, increased sudomotor activity and pupil dialation w/ tachycardia is which response?
    Sympathetics
  94. increased peristalsis, depressed respiration, pupil constriction and bradycardia are related to:
    parasympathetics
  95. the tonsils are at which meric level?
    C2/3
  96. the heart and lungs are at which meric level?
    T1-T4
  97. the gallbladder is at which meric level?
    T4
  98. the stomach is at which meric level?
    t5-9
  99. T6-10 on the meric chart respond with which three organs?
    Liver, pancreas, gallbladder
  100. the kidney is located at which meric chart level?
    T10-12
  101. the ovary and colon are sympathetically driven and located at which meric chart level?
    L1-L2
  102. the colon and uterus are parasympathetically drive and located at which meric chart level?
    Sacrum
  103. The anterior boundry of the IVF is the:
    bodies: cervical/uncinates and the IVD
  104. the superior and inferior boundries of the IVF are:
    pedicles
  105. the posterior boundry of the IVF is:
    z-joints, facets
  106. Compression in the IVF is from what 4 things:
    fat, veins, arteries, nerves
  107. what is most sensitive to compression and located inside the IVF?
    DRG:dorsal root ganglion
  108. rate the pressure changes in the disc from least to most:
    • least: recumbent
    • standing
    • sitting
    • sitting leaning forward
    • jumping: most!
  109. compressive load to the disc causes ____
    fracture of the end plate
  110. nutrition to the disc is by way of ___
    imbibition (motion)
  111. allodynia is the perception of ___ from a normally ___ stimulus.
    pain, non-painful
  112. Wallerian degeneration results in:
    temporary paralysis and sensory changes.
  113. viscoelastic material deforms with time when it is under constant applied load:
    creep
  114. ___ treats patients with heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented.
    homeopathy
  115. loss of energy during Cyclic loading/unloading of a viscoelastic substance is known as:
    hysteresis
  116. SI joint or facet pain is described as a ___ pain pattern.
    sclerotogenous
  117. the ___ nerve goes to the PLL, Ligamentum flavum, anterior dura but not to the ALL.
    Sinu-vertebral nerve (aka: recurrent meningial)
  118. the principle that maintains the laws of physics and chemistry but cannot describe the nature of life:
    vitalism
  119. the bone remodeling due to stress is what law?
    wolffs
  120. the trunk of a nerve branches to a muscle, the joint moved by the muscle and the skin overlying the muscle is the __ law.
    Hiltons
  121. increased epiphyseal pressure leads to decreased growth and vice/versa is which law?
    heuter-volkman
  122. the anterior horn of the cord is motor while the posterior horn is sensory is described by which law:
    Bell-Magendie
  123. the sensation perceived by the examiner during PASSIVE ROM:
    end feel
  124. the normal resistence felt when joint motion is restricted by soft tissue: elbow flexion is an example of:
    soft tissue approximation
  125. an abrupt halt a two hard surfaces meet when full ROM is achieved (elbow extension)
    bony
  126. guarded resisted muscular contration, which is a possible contraindication for adjusting:
    spasm
  127. a hard arrest with a slight give which may indicate a subacute to chronic arthritis is:
    capsular feel
  128. the slight rebound at the end of ROM may suggest an internal derangement is described by:
    springy block
  129. pain is felt by the paitent before Full ROM is achieved which suggest possible pathology describes:
    empty feel
  130. which fixation is secondary to chronic hypertonicity of muscles, exhibiting a restricted mobility w a rubbery end block?
    muscular fixation according to gillet
  131. a chronically fixated segment which palpates as a hard block with no end play with normal ROM is described by gillet as which fixation?
    ligamentous
  132. a major fixation due to intra-articular adhesions is described by gillet by:
    articular/capsular fixation
  133. fixation due to exostosis, displaying free ROM with an abrupt, complete, hard arrest (advanced djd) can be described by gillet's fixation:
    bony
  134. a written report on the details of a series of cases is:
    case series
  135. a study that reviews events that have already occured describes __ study.
    prospective
  136. when the patients are divided into two or more groups on a randomized basis describes a ___ study.
    randomized control
  137. the proportion of times a procedure is correct in a patient describes:
    specificity
  138. the consistency of a measurement is described by:
    reliability
  139. the degree to which an observation is an indication of the true statement describes:
    validity
  140. the nerve compression theory was developed by ____
    DD palmer
  141. the HIO technique is what theory
    Cord Compression/ bj palmer
  142. the antegrade and retrograde transmission is described by ___ theory
    axoplasmic aberration
  143. the ___ theory was developed by Irwin Korr
    fixation theory
  144. Immunity and neuroendocrine fuction as it relates to the general adaptive syndrome is described by __ theory.
    neurodystrophic/neuroimmunomodulation theory, Selye's work
  145. the SNS/PNS balance and modulation is described by the SAR reflex and the ___ theory.
    somatoautonomic.
  146. mechanoreceptor funck, biochemical aberration is used to describe __ theory.
    proprioceptive insult
  147. the dentate ligament, meningeal torsion is used to describe ___ theory.
    dural torque
  148. VBAI is a compromise of the cerebral blood flow with the symptoms apparent after which ROMs?
    rotation and extention
  149. the X axis is responsible for ___ motion, around the ___ plane.
    Flex/Ext, sagital
  150. the y axis is responsible for ___ motion, around the __ plane.
    rotation/supination/pronation, transverse
  151. the z axis is responsible for __ motion, around the __ plane
    LF, coronal plane
  152. Loose packed position:
    flexion
  153. Lig. Flavum hypertrophy=
    spinal stenosis (Cord myelopathy= bj palmer)
  154. Stress modulators increase the ___
    stress threshold
  155. LBP down the posterior thigh
    scleratogenous pain
  156. shoulder impingement limits
    ab/adduction
  157. Efferent pathway is ___ to ___.
    Brain to tissues
  158. increased mechanoreceptor stimulation inhibits
    Pain
  159. VBAI, most complications occur at the level of:
    C1/C2
  160. What ligament decreases extension of the c-spine?
    ALL
  161. The primary motion of C1/C2 is:
    rotation
  162. Lateral flexion in the spine is correlated to what structure?
    uncinate
  163. what ligament is weakest at L5?
    PLL
  164. What nerve innervates the posterior aspect of the disc?
    Recurrent meningeal
  165. ipsilateral weakness with decreased extension is ____-pathy.
    Myelopathy
  166. lateral spinothalamic tract is responsible for:
    pain and temperature
  167. afferent for proprioception ends at the __ part of the brain.
    cortex
  168. anterograde axoplasmic flow is responsible for ___ function
    trophic
  169. Restricted CSF flow in the body decreases:
    nutrition
  170. ability to duplicate a research study is:
    reliability
  171. patient presents with dizziness, nausea and tinnitis they probably are having:
    lateral meduallary syndrome, PICA, Wallenburg syndrome
  172. segmental fization leads to:
    proprioceptive insult
  173. Repetition of loading/unloading results in:
    hysteresis
  174. Constant load results in:
    creep
  175. What organ is related on the meric chart to a problem at T4?
    gallbladder
  176. Scleratogenous pain can be described as:
    dull achy pain
  177. a change in the bone due to stress and strain is ___ law.
    wolf's
  178. the gravity line on lateral xray falls:
    posterior to patella
  179. lumbar bodies hold more weight than cspine because:
    they have increased surface area
  180. intra-articular folds in the zjoints are called
    meniscoids
  181. groove at the posterior aspect of the body is for what:
    transverse ligament
  182. What predisposes a patient for VBAI
    atherosclerosis
  183. father of homeopathy?
    hahnemann
  184. meniscoid entrapment would do what to ROM?
    decrease
  185. sinu-vertebral nerve doesnt innervate what ligament?
    Ant. long. lig
  186. what part of the cervical spine is the most unstable upper 1/3, middle 1/3 or lower 1/3?
    Upper 1/3
  187. what technique uses thermography for their analysis?
    upper cervical
  188. what is the tract for vibration?
    dorsal columns
  189. MC place for Nerve root compression?
    Lateral canal
  190. weakest part of the disc?
    post-lateral
  191. nutrition to a disc is called___
    imbibition
  192. what responds to TENSION and causes relaxation?`
    GTO
  193. what is an intra articular tab?
    meniscoid
  194. steady deformation causes ___
    creep
  195. correct order of GAS:
    Alarm, resist, adapt, exhaust
  196. what ligament limits rotation of the cervicals?
    alar
  197. last stage of the inflammatory response is:
    ankylosis
  198. who developed his medicine around circulation?
    Still : osteopathy
  199. Segmental dysfunction was developed by:
    korr
  200. what is the most sensative to compression in the ivf?
    Dorsal Root Ganglion
  201. what is the first structure to be compressed in the IVF
    • Veins
    • However, if Fat is listed as a choice- pick that. Fat-Adipose/ V.A.N

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