Kazen Master Grammar 3.3

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Author:
jasmace
ID:
97942
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Kazen Master Grammar 3.3
Updated:
2011-08-24 14:51:20
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Kazen Master Grammar
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Kazen Master Grammar
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  1. Imperitive from
    , 食べろ, しろ, こい

    • Do (imperitive)
    • rude and direct

    • さっさと部屋をかたづけろ
    • Clean up this room right now!
  2. Do (instruction & talking down)
    Stem form + なさい

    • 起きなさい
    • Wake up!
  3. Prohibitive form
    Dictionary form + な

    Do not (do something)

    • ここでは走るな
    • Don't run here.
  4. Must not / may not (do something)
    て-form + はいけません

    • 知らない人を話してはいけない
    • Don't talk to strangers.
  5. A is ~er than B
    A B より

    • ロシアアメリカより大きい。
    • Russia is bigger than the US.
  6. B is ~er than A
    A より B のほうが

    • この自転車よりそのバイクのほうが格好いい!
    • That motorbike is cooler than this bicycle.
  7. A is not as ~ as B
    AB ほど ~ ない

    • ノルウェーの夏日本の夏ほど温かくないです。
    • The summer in Norway is not as warm as the summer in Japan.
  8. Which is ~er, A or B?
    AB と, どちらが ~

    • あなたと,どちらが背が高いですか。
    • Who is taller, you or Ken?
  9. To become ~adjective or noun
    • い-adjective = () くなる
    • な-adjective = () になる
    • Noun = になる

    • みらいには先生になりたいです。
    • In the future, I want to become a teacher.

    • このばらの花はもっとうつくしくなりました
    • This rose has become more beautiful.
  10. To reach the point that / to come to be that / new ability / new habit
    • Dictionary form + ようになる
    • (negative = なくなる)

    • 日本に来たから、豆腐を食べるようになりました
    • Since I came to Japan, I've gotten used to eating tofu.

    • 高いビルがたったので, 窓から山が見えなくなりました
    • Since they erected a tall building, it's come to be that we cannot see the mountain from our window.
  11. It will be / has been decided that / it has come about / it has been arranged
    • Dictionary form + ことになる
    • (negative = ないことになる)

    • 私は来年大阪へてんきんすることになった
    • It has been decided that I will transfer to Osaka next year.

    • 来週のパーティーにしゅっせきしないことになった
    • I have decided that I won't be attending the party next week.
  12. Change into~ adjective / make~ adjective / display changing of the state of something
    • い-adjective = () くする
    • な-adjective = () にする
    • Noun = にする

    • すいえいは足をつよくする
    • Swimming makes your legs strong.

    • 君は僕を幸せにする
    • You make me happy.
  13. Action moves towards speaker or up to a current point / come to ~ / continue / shows a change over time
    て-form + くる

    • わたし、さいきんふとってきたのよね。
    • I've gotten fat lately.
  14. Action moves away from the speaker or into the future / get to ~ / go on ~ing / shows a change over time / something "will" be the case
    て-form + いく

    • なっとを食べたら、日本人になっていく
    • If you eat natto, you will become Japanese.
  15. Volitional form
    こう, 食べよう, しよう, こよう

    Let's (do something)

    • ね、仕事が終わってから何かを食べよう
    • Hey, let's eat something after work is finished!
  16. I think I will (do something)
    Volitional form + と思う

    • 来年また日本語を勉強しようと思う
    • I think I'm going to study Japanese again next year.
  17. Be about to (do something) / about to try to (do something)
    Volitional form + とする

    • お風呂に入ろうとしたけど、きゅうに友達が来たので入れなかった。
    • I was about to take a bath, but my friends suddenly came over so I couldn't.

    • その小さな犬はにげようとしました
    • The small dog tried to get away.
  18. Try to / make sure to
    • Dictionary form + ようにする
    • (negative = ないようにする)

    • いい大学を入るために、毎日6時間勉強するようにします
    • In order to get into a good university I try to study for 6 hours everyday.

    • あまり食べ過ぎないようにしなさいよ。
    • Be sure not to eat too much.
  19. Intend to / plan to (do something)
    • Dictionary form + つもり
    • (negative = ないつもり)

    • 明日はお父さんの誕生日だからレストランに行くつもりです
    • My dad's brithday is tomorrow, so we plan on going to a restaurant.

    • 明日彼女は東京に行かないつもりだそうです。
    • I heard that she does not plan on going to Tokyo tomorrow.
  20. Decide to (do something)
    • Dictionary form + ことにする
    • (negative = ないことにする)

    • お母さんは亦大学へ勉強しに行くことにした
    • My mother decided to go back to college to study.

    • あの人は余り好きじゃないので, 話さないことにする
    • I've decided I'm not going to talk to that person because I don't like him.
  21. Decided on
    Noun + にする

    • あの、私は焼き鳥にします
    • Um, I'll have the yakitori.
  22. Probably / I wonder (interrogative)
    Plain form + だろう

    • 彼女はいつか結婚するだろう
    • She will probably marry one day.

    • 1時間もぐるぐる運転しているけど、ここはどこだろう
    • I wonder where we are though we've been driving in circles for an hour.
  23. I think probably
    Plain form + だろうと思う

    • 今日はだめだけど、今週末は桜がまんかいだろうと思うよ
    • Today's not good, but I think the cherry blossoms will probably be in full bloom this weekend.
  24. Might / perhaps / maybe
    Plain form + かも知れない

    • パーティーに行くかもしれない
    • I might go to the party.
  25. It seems / appears / I heard
    Plain form + らしい

    • あれらはけんかをしたらしい
    • It seems that they had a fight.
  26. It's as if / it seems / it looks like
    • Plain form + ようだ
    • Noun + のようだ

    • この店はとてもせいきょうのようだね。
    • This shop looks like it is doing well.

    • 空を見ると雨が降るようだ
    • (From the look of the sky and based on my judgement) it seems like it will rain.
  27. be supposed or expected to / be sure to / ought to (do something) / it should or ought to be
    • Plain form + はずだ
    • Noun + のはずだ

    • 彼は今日の午後、電話をかけるはずだ
    • He is supposed to call me this afternoon.
  28. Have no expectation that / it is impossible that
    • Plain form + はずがない
    • Noun + のはずがない

    • 彼がこの本を読んだはずがない
    • He can't have read this book.

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