- Oxygen saturation (commonly measured at the same time as traditional vital signs)
______ ______, should be looked at in total, are checked to monitor the functions of the body.
Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
_____ _________ reflects the balance between the heat produced and the heat lost from the body, and is measured in heat units called degrees.
What are the 2 kinds of body temperature?
- core temperature
- surface temperature
The temperature of the deep tissues of the body, such as the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. It remains relatively constant.
The temperature of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and fat. It, by contrast, rises and falls in response to the environment.
When the amount of heat produced by the body equals the amount of heat lost, the person is in _____ _______.
A number of factors affect the body's heat production. The most important are these five:
1. Basal matabolic rate (BMR)
2. Muscle activity
3. Thyroxine output
4. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sympathetic stimulation/stress response
The rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breating. Rates decrease with age. In general, the younger the person, the higher the rate.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
This includes shivering, which increase the metabolic rate.
Increased output increases the rate of cellular metabolism in many body tissues.
These hormones immediately increase the rate of cellular metabolism in many body tissues.
- Sympathetic stimulation/stress response
This increases the cellular metabolic rate and thus increases the body's temperature further.
Heat is lost from the body thru:
The transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another w/o contact b/t the two objects, mostly in the form of infrared rays.
The transfer of heat from one molecule to a molecule of lower temperature. Cannot take place w/o contact b/t the molecules & normally accounts for minimal heat loss except, for example, when a body is immersed in cold water.
The dispersion of heat by air currents. The body usually has a small amount of warm air adjacent to it. The warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air, so people always lose a small amount of heat this way.
Continuous vaporization of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin.
Continuous and unnoticed water loss
insensible water loss
Continuous and unnoticed heat loss; accounts for 10% of basal heat loss.
insensible heat loss
Regulation of body temp --> 3 main parts
1. sensors in the periphery & in the core
2. an integrator in the hypothalamus
3. effector system that adjusts the production & loss of heat
Most sensors or sensory receptors are in the ____.
The skin has more receptors for _____.
When the skin becomes chilled over the entire body, 3 physiological processes to increase the body temp take place.
1. Shivering increases heat production
2. Sweating is inhibited to decrease heat loss
3. Vasoconstriction decrease heat loss
The center that controls the core temp is the ______ ______.
Factors Affecting Body Temp
2. Diurnal variations (circadian rhythms)
2 primary alterations in body temp
A body temp above the usual range
pyrexia, hyperthermia, or fever
Normal body temp for adults
96.8°F - 99.5°F (36°C - 37.5°C)
A very high fever
The client who has a fever is referred to as _____; the one who does not is ______.
4 common types of fever
The body temp alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever & periods of normal or subnormal temps.
A wide range of temp fluctuations (more than 2°C [3.6°F]) occurs over a 24-hour period, all of which are above normal, such as with cold or influenza.
Short febrile periods of a few days are interspersed with periods of 1 or 2 days of normal temp.
The body temp fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal. This can occur with typhoid fever.
A temp that rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temp & then returns to normal w/in a few hours. Often caused by bacterial blood infections.
Core body temp below the lower limit of normal.
3 physiological mechanisms of hypothermia
1. excessive heat loss
2. inadequate heat production to counteract heat loss
3. impaired hypothalamic thermoregulation
Most common sites for assessing body temp:
- tympanic membrane
- skin/temporal artery
(F - 32) X 5/9
(C X 9/5) + 32
A wave of blood created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
The volume of blood pumped into the arteries by the heart & equals the result of the stroke volume (SV) times the heart rate (HR) per minute.
When an adult is resting, the heart pumps about _ liters of blood each minute.
A pulse located away from the heart, for example, in the foot or wrist.
A central pulse, that is, it is located at the apex of the heart.
Apical pulse; also referred to as the point of maximal impulse (PMI)
Factors Affecting the Pulse
List the 9 pulse sites
1. Radial (wrist)
2. Temporal (temple)
3. Carotid (side of the neck)
4. Apical (apex of the heart)
5. Brachial (inner aspect of the biceps muscle or medially in the antecubital space)
6. Femoral (leg; inguinal ligament)
7. Popliteal (behind the knee)
8. Posterior tibial (posterior surface of the ankle, behind the medial malleolus)
9. Dorsalis pedis (middle of the foot, b/t the big and 2nd toes)
An excessively fast heart rate (over 100 beats/min in an adult).
A heart rate in an adult of less than 60 beats/min.
The pattern of the beats and the intervals b/t the beats.
A pulse with an irregular rhythm is referred to as a ______ or _______.
Also called the pulse strength or amplitude, refers to the force of blood with each beat.