Human Adjustments Module 2

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kiita
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98055
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Human Adjustments Module 2
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2011-08-23 07:52:11
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human adjustments
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Module 2
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  1. Adjustment
    The psychological process of adapting to, coping with, and managing the problems, challenges, and demands of everyday life.
  2. Growth
    Growth involves learning, expanding your awareness, accepting new challenges, and coping effectively.
  3. Contexts
    Refers to the historical, economic, social, and cultural factors and settings that influence us.
  4. Culture
    Behavior patterns, beliefs, and other products of a group of people, that are passed on from generation to generation.
  5. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
    Holds that people's lives are influenced by five environmental systems:

    • >microsystem - immediate setting in which you live and the people with whom you directly interact (family, romantic partner, friends, college, and neighborhood)
    • >mesosystem - connections between microsystems
    • >exosystem - the influence that a social setting in which you do not have an active role exerts on your experiences in an immediate context. Ex, Friend moody from workplace.
    • >macrosystem - culture in which individuals live
    • >chronosystem - patterning of events and transitions over lifetime
  6. Cross-Cultural Studies
    Compare a culture with one or more other cultures.
  7. Ethnicity
    Rooted in:

    • - Cultural heritage
    • - Nationality characteristics
    • - Race
    • - Religion
    • - Language
  8. Race
    Classification of people according to biological characteristics (such as color)
  9. Gender
    Psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being male or female.
  10. Critical Thinking
    • Involves thinking reflectively, productively, and evaluating the evidence.
    • Means asking yourself how you know something.
  11. Being a critical thinker requires being:
    • open-minded and curious - explore options and avoid narrow thinking. Wonder, probe question and inquire.
    • intellectually careful - check for inaccuracies and errors, be precise, and be organized.
    • skeptical - examine the evidence and be alert for problems and inconsistencies.
  12. Adjustment Strategies Involving Critical Thinking
    • Describe and interpret behavior
    • Identify values and challenge assumptions about behavior
    • Examine influence of context and culture on behavior
    • Seek multiple points of view
    • Appreciate individual and group differences
    • Engage in self-reflection to improve self-knowledge
  13. Subjective Well-Being
    The scientific term for how people evaluate their lives in terms of their happiness and life satisfaction.
  14. Characteristics of happy people:
    • having good social relationships
    • mentally healthy and cope effectively with stressful situations
    • have high levels of creativety, self-esteem, optimism, extraversion, and self-control
    • are good citizens at work; help others more, skip work less, etc.
    • have a spirituality and faith that embodies purpose, social support, and in some, religious attendance
    • like other people, and others like them
    • tend to be altruistic
  15. Adjustment Strategies for Happiness and Life Satisfaction
    • Recognice that no single factor produces happiness
    • Develop good social relationships
    • Learn how to cope effectively with stress
    • Involve yourself in activities you enjoy and value
    • Develop purposefulness in your life
  16. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  17. Behavior
    Everything people do that can be directly observed.
  18. Mental Processes
    Consist of thoughts, feelings, and motives that each person experiences privately, but cannot be observed directly.
  19. Adopting a scientific attitude means:
    • thinking critically
    • being curious
    • being skeptical
    • being objective
  20. Inferences
    Conclusions people draw from behavior.
  21. Theory
    Broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempt to explain certain observations.
  22. Hypothesis
    A prediction that can be tested.
  23. Scientific Method Process
    • 1. Conceptualize the problem
    • 2. Collect research information (data)
    • 3. Analyze data
    • 4. Draw conclusions
  24. Adjustment Strategies for Writing to Imporve Your Health
    • Write on issues and concerns; reveal your emotions
    • Just start writing without worrying about formalities
    • Write whenever and wherever you feel like writing
    • Keep your writing to yourself
    • Writing will help you see things in perspective
  25. Experiment
    Procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factos are held constant.
  26. Independent Variable
    Manipulated, influential experimental factor
  27. Dependent Variable
    Factor that is measured to determine change in response to changes in independent variable.
  28. Experimental Group
    Group whose experience is manipulated.
  29. Control Group
    Group treated like experimental group except does not recieve manipulated factor.
  30. Random Assignment
    When researchers assign participants to experimental and control groups by chance.
  31. Correlational Research
    Research in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationships between two or more events or characteristics.
  32. Adjustment Strategies for Understanding Adjustment Research
    • Distinguish between group results and individual needs
    • Don't overgeneralize from a small sample
    • Look for answers beyond a single study
    • Don't attribute causes where none have been found
    • Evaluate the source of the information
  33. Clinical and counseling psychologists
    Evaluate and treat people with pyschological problems
  34. Psychiatrists
    Medical physicians specializing in treating abnormal behavior.
  35. National Support Groups
    • Supportive, educational groups that address a single life problem or condition shared by their members.
    • - participation is voluntary
    • - members typically serve as leaders
    • - professionals rarely have an active role in the groups' activites
  36. Self-Help Books
    • Have become an important source of psychological advice for millions of Americans
    • High quality self-help books can benefit individuals with problems
  37. Adjustment Strategies For Selecting a Self-Help Book
    • 1. Select a book that makes realistic recommendations
    • 2. Examine evidence reported in the book
    • 3. Select a book that recognizes that a problem is caused by a number of factors and has alternative solutions
    • 4. Select a book that focuses on one problem
    • 5. Don’t be conned by slick writing
    • 6. Check out author’s educational credentials
    • 7. Be wary of authors who complain about the conventional knowledge of mental health experts
  38. Adjustment Strategies for Finding the Best Information on the Internet Involving Human Adjustment
    • 1. Adjustment strategies for evaluating self-help books often apply to websites
    • 2. Evaluate credibility of the website
    • 3. Avoid websites that are purely commercial
    • 4. Be wary about information from websites
    • 5. Protect your privacy
    • 6. The Internet is not a substitute for professional help

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