Physiology

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Author:
rmgears
ID:
9812
Filename:
Physiology
Updated:
2010-03-09 21:49:37
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learning objective 5
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  1. Metabolism
    Is the acquisition, transformation, and utilization of energy and the sum of all reactions in the body
  2. Anabolism
    Building of things - requires energy
  3. Catabolism
    Breaking down - releasing energy
  4. Entrophy
    Disorder in a system
  5. Metabolic pathway
    sequence of enzyme catalyzed reactions
  6. reactants
    molecules converted to a product
  7. exergonic
    energy released from a reaction
  8. endergonic
    energy put in a reaction
  9. catalyst
    material that speeds up the rate of reaction
  10. Enzyme
    biological catalyst
  11. 1st law of thermodynamics
    energy cant be created or destroyed but it can be converted from one form to another
  12. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    Entrophy of the universe is constantly increasing. amount of energy that is available to do work is decreases. Need to supply energy to remain organized
  13. Endergonic reactions
    require energy to initiate the reaction
  14. Exergonic reactions
    release / generate energy
  15. reversibility of a chemical reaction
    A reaction can form products and products can form reactants
  16. Chemical equilibrium
    When there is no net reaction direction, when the reactant is convered to product at the same rate product is converted to reactant. Reactant and products have the same energy
  17. Rate
    Measure of time it takes for a chemical reaction to occur
  18. affect the rate of a reaction
    Reactant and product concentrations

    Temperature

    Height of the reactions activation energy barrier
  19. characteristics of enzymes
    • Most proteins - shape accounts for the enzyme
    • Specificity
    • can be used repeatedly
    • end in 'ase'
    • energy of activation
  20. enzyme structure vs shape
    enzyme structure determines enzyme function - base on shape

    Shape is determined from the amino acid sequence
  21. Oxidation
    reaction in which electrons are released
  22. Reduction
    reaction in which electrons are gained
  23. Anaerobic
    Does not require oxygen to occur
  24. Aerobic
    Requires oxygen to occur
  25. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
    a mechanism of ATP synthesis in which an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP. occurs in steps 7 and 10 of glycolysis and step 5 of the krebs cycle
  26. ATP as the "energy currency"
    • Because it is the primary direct energy source for cell activity
    • ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate
  27. Glycolysis
    • Oxygen - None
    • Occurs - cytoplasm
    • How atp is made - substrate level phosphorylation
    • products - pyruvate
    • atp yield - 2
  28. pyruvate under anaerobic conditions
    lactic acid
  29. Krebs/ Citric acid cycle
    • oxygen - yes
    • occurs - mitochondrial matrix
    • how atp is made - Substrate level phosporylation and also linked to electron transport
    • atp yield - 2
    • products - carbon dioxide and electrons
  30. Electron transport
    • oxygen - yes
    • occurs - mitochondria cristae
    • how atp is made - oxidative phosphorylation
    • atp yield - 34
    • products - carbon dioxide and water

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