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  1. stages of the helping process
    • 1: relationship building, exploration, engagement, assessment, and planning
    • 2: implementation and goal attainment
    • 3:termination, planning matienence strategies, and evaluation
  2. Crisis intervention theory
    3 types of crises
    • situational (a stressful event)
    • maturnational (developmentally based)
    • due to cultural values/norms (homosexuality)
    • a crisis is not pathology, but it may cause unresolved conflict from the past to stir up and results in inappropriate over or under reaction
  3. goals of crisis intervention
    • reduce impact in the immediate moment
    • mobilize internal/external resources of the person to more effectively deal with the impact of the event
    • restore to at least pre-crisis functioning
  4. stages typically experienced by people in crisis
    • 1-crisis/precipitating event
    • 2-increased tension and shock, possible denial, failure of customary coping skills
    • 3-sharply escalating tension, varying levels of depression, feelings of being overwhelmed, hopeless, confused, or hopeless
    • 4-attempts at coping, either adaptive or maladaptive with the appropriate consequences
  5. phases of crisis intervention
    • 1-formulation of problem/crisis identification (first interveiw)
    • 2-Implementation (first to fourth interview)
    • 3-treatment/termination (last inerview or two)
  6. seven stage crisis intervention model by roberts (1991)
    • 1-conduct a biopsychosocil and imminent danger assessment
    • 2-rapidly est rapport
    • 3-ID major problems/crisis precipitants
    • 4-deals with clients feelings/emotions
    • 5-generate and explore alternatives and new coping skills
    • 6-restore functioning through implementation of an action plan
    • 7-follow-up
  7. Critial Incident Stress Management (CISM)
    • Jeffery Mitchell
    • developed for use with first responders
    • on scene management (debriefing)
    • a specific 7phase small group process that is conducted 24-72 hours after the incident
    • normalizes and teaches new stress response strategies
    • further research is needed on efficacy (some studies say it makes people worse)
  8. Behavioral Therapy
    Classical conditioning model
    • used to unlearn maladaptive responses to environmental stimuli
    • conditioning an individul to associate pleasant feelings with a stimulus that has been anxiety producing
    • based on counterconditioning by Wolpe focuses on the technique of reciprocal inhibition
  9. Behavioral Therapy
    Systematic Densitization
    • a counter-conditioning interventions typically used to treat phobias
    • uses relaxation training, consturction of an anxiety heirarchy, and desnsitization in imagination
  10. BT
    in vivo densitization
    the pairing of relaxation and real life experience with an anxiey producing stimulus until the person no longer responds to the experience with anxiety
  11. BT
    assertiveness training
    • communicating directly and honestly
    • behavorial rehearsal is important
  12. BT
    sensate focused and nondemand pleasuring
    having couples focus on pleasuing each other without using breasts/genitals at all, the focus is on pleasure not orgasm; used to build the sexual repitiore
  13. BT
    operant conditioning
    focuses on behaviors that operate or act on the envionment with the goal of botaining some response (ex reinforcing behavior so that it will be repreated)
  14. positive reinforcer
    the repetition of a behavior because the behavior is followed by a pleasant stimuli
  15. negative reinforcer
    the repetition of a behavior because of the behavior's power to run off negative stimuli
  16. premack principle
    using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior in order to increase the frequency of the low probability behavior (allowing a child to watch tv for 30 mins if they do their homework)
  17. shaping
    reinforcing successive approximations toward a desired behavior
  18. continuous reinforcement
    reinforcing every occurrence of the target behavior (useful early in the learning process)
  19. intermittent reinforcement
    reinforcement of only some occurrences of the target bevhavior (useful in maintaining behavior)
  20. fixed interval reinforcement
    providing reinforcement after a specific time period has elapsed followeing the occurrence of the desired behavior
  21. variable interval reinforcement
    reinforcement occuring at varying times after occurrences of the desired behavior
  22. fixed ratio reinforcement
    reinforcement that is give on a non-varying basis
  23. variable ratio reinfocement
    reinforcement that is given on a varying basis (after 5 occurences)
  24. punishment
    • following a behavior with an aversive stimuli
    • often does not teach appropriate behavior, causes the person to hate the punisher
  25. extinction
    failing to reinforce a behavior which results in disappearance of the behavior
  26. response cost
    withdrawing a specific positive reinforcer each time and undesirable behavior is performed
  27. contingency contract
    • Behavior modificaiton technique
    • a treatment contact that makes a specified consequence, pleasant or unpleasant, contingent on a specific behavior
  28. token economy
    • behavior modification technique
    • used to reinforce desireable behaviors that involves rewarding those behaviors with tokens that can be redeemed for reinforcers
  29. reality therapy
    • william glasser
    • individuals have a number of innate needs (including 4 psychological needs: belonging, power, freedom, fun)
    • psychological disorders represent failure to act upon the world in a manner that brings about the responsible (moral) satisfaction of needs
    • focuses on current behavior
    • stresses conscious rather than unconscious processes
    • seeks to teach clients to evaluate their behavior in terms of whater the behavior is enabling them to satisfy their needs without interfering with the satisfaction of the needs of others
  30. Aaron Beck's Cogntitive therapy
    • focus is primarily on the present and has a large educational component
    • pt is taught how to identify, evaluate, and change dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs
  31. CT
    all or nothing thinking
    Black and white thinking
    • also dichotomous thinking
    • all things are one way or another, no grey area
  32. CT common thinking errors
    emotional reasoning
    refers to an individual believing that something is true because the individual feels strongly about it and ignores evidence to the contrary
  33. CT common thinking errors
    individual arrives at broad principles derived from minimal information
  34. CT common thinking errors
    magnifying the negative and minimizing the positive
  35. CT common thinking errors
    when person A erroneously believes that the negative behaviors of person B is the result of something person A has done
  36. CT common thinking errors
    mind reading
    when an individual assumes that he or she knows another person's thoughts on an issue
  37. cognitive methods
    collaborative empiricism
    the client and social worker work in tandem to test the validiy of the clients beliefs
  38. cognitive methods
    socratic dialogue
    the use of questions to lead the individual to discover a reality
  39. cognitive methods
    guided discovery
    interventions are structured, including the use of a progression of questions, to enable clients to discover inaccuracies in their thinking
  40. cognitive methods
    used to help clients see that the vents are really not the end of the world, even if they are very difficult
  41. cognitive methods
    reattribution training
    the identification of cognitive errors and distortions in thining followed by the consideration of alternative beliefs
  42. cognitive methods
    helping the client break their pattern of seeing self as the reference for all life events
  43. Albert Ellis
    Rational Emotive Therapy
    • explanation of personality
    • A-activitating events
    • B-Belief system of Individual
    • C-consequent emotion of A and B
    • D-disputing irrational thought and beliefs
    • E-Emotional and cognitive effecs of revised beliefs
    • the activitating event doesnt make a person feel anything, their belief about the event does
  44. Rational Emotive Therapy
    • therapist educates the client about the principles of EBT
    • therapist challenges the rationality of the client's beliefs and assists the client in learning how to challenge their own beliefs
    • client and therapist work together to dispute the irrational beliefs that results in negative consequences
  45. Donald Meichenbaum's Self-Instruction training
    • focus is on the client's self-statements
    • training, modeling, practicing in therapy
    • 1-social worker and client make an assessment of the client's self-statements and a conceptualization of the problem
    • 2-client practices using self-statements in imaginary situations
    • 3- client and social worker work togethe to develop self-statements that result in greater enjoyment in life
  46. DBT
    • individual and group components
    • mindfullness:observing, describing, participating
    • interpersonal effectiveness: assertiveness and problem solving training to help the person maintain relationships
    • distress tolerance:accpeting reality that cannot be changed, finding meaning, and tolerating distress; distraction coping skills
    • emotion regulation:identifying and labeling emotions, increasing experience of positive emotions, becoming mindfull of current emotions, untilizing coping skills
  47. three models of group work
    • 1-social goals model: raising consciousness, social responsibility, informed citizenry, and to encourge political and social action (group leader is model and enabler)
    • 2-remedial model: clinical and oupt settings: restore or rehabilitate individuals exhibiting dysfunctional behavior.
    • 3- reciprocal model: clinical, outpt, community settings: provide mutual aid to group members in achieving optimum adaptation and socialization
  48. task groups vs treatment groups
    • task groups involve agendas and rules; the goal is to accomplish a specific task; the roles are assigned; standard for success is achievement of goal; must have specific knowledge to be in the group
    • treatment groups are formal or informal; goal is to help members meet their needs;role develop naturally over time; standard for success is individual achievement of goals
  49. types of treatment groups:
    • support groups: member have a common problem or set of circumstances who support each other
    • educational groups:help members learn info and skills that will benefit each individually
    • growth groups:provide members with growth opportunities as opposed to remediation
    • therapy groups: provide remedial and or rehabilitation
    • socialization groups: assist members in negotiating developmental stages and adapting to changes in roles or environment
  50. group composition
    rudolf dreikurs
    members should be matched by age, chronological as well as developmental, single gender reccomended for children, co-ed okay for adolscents, mixed is best for adults
  51. group composition
    • best to have heterogeneity for conflict areas and homogeneity for ego strength
    • believes that concurrent group and individual therapy is NOT necessary or beneficial
  52. group composition
    glaver and gavin
    a group that is too homogeneous in terms of undesirable characteristics will lead to reinforcement of these characteristics
  53. closed vs open group
    • closed more effective for short term, task oriented therapy
    • open offers fresh imput, but impedes development of trust, acceptance, and cohesiveness
    • assimlation of new members has a lot to do with size/age of the group
    • 7-10 members is ideal (though 3-6 can work if the number remains mostly consistant)
  54. stages of group development
    Tuckman, Garland, and Wheelan
    • forming (anxiety, tentative sharing, look for leadership from facilitator)
    • storming (competition and conflict, anxiety about safety, confrontations of the leader can be essential for cohesiveness)
    • norming (a consensus on the group tasks and a working process emerge)
    • performing (mature and productive group process)
    • adjourning (termination, talk about experience with members and group, discuss maintenence)
  55. altrusim
    can result when group members help each other, the experience of being able to give something to another person can lift a member's self esteem
  56. catharsis
    the experience of relief from emotional distress through the free and uninhibited expression of emotion
  57. existential factors
    the process of learning that one has to take responsibility for one's own life and the consequences of one's decisions
  58. imitative behavior
    refers to group member developming social skills through the modeling process, observation, and imitating the therapist and other group members
  59. instillation of hope
    when group members are inspired and encouraged by another member who has overcome the problems with which they are still stuggling
  60. interpersonal learning
    group members achieving a greater level of self-awareness through interaction and receiving feedback from others (insight, self-understanding)
  61. corrective recapitulation of the primary family experience
    the situation of members unconsiously identifying the group therapist and other group members with their own parents and siblings, a form of transferrence; the therapist points this out when it happens to make the client conscious of their self doing it in other people
  62. universality
    recognizing of shared experiences and feelings among group members and the acknowledgin that the "problems" may be widespread or be universal human concerns; reduces feelings of isolation, a validation of experiences, and increased self-esteem
  63. johari window
    a graphic model of interperonsal behavior that can be applied to many different theories of group interaction and is useful in evaluating interpersonal interaction and group effectiveness; better used with groups with high cohesiveness
  64. Family systems theory
    • Bowen
    • goal is to achieve higher level of differentiation of self on the part of each family member.
    • often involves working with one family member to change the rest of the family, each member is assisted in taking responsibility for their own role in their problems
  65. Family systems theory concepts
    differentiation of self
    family members' ability to discriminate between their identities and experiences and that of other family members (rather than having fused identities)
  66. family systems theory concepts
    nuclear family emotional system
    • formerly called undifferentiated family ego mass
    • a family in which members' identifies are fused
  67. family sytems theory concepts
    • denotes that relationships have periods of closeness and periods of distance.
    • occurs during periods of distance-an "outsider" of the relationshiptakes sides with one person in the relationship
  68. family systems theory concepts
    societal emotional process
    the emotional system governs behavior on a societal level, promoting both progressive and regressive periods in society
  69. family systems theory concepts
    emotional cutoff
    an unhealthy way of dealing with intergeneration undifferentiation (if a teen severs ties with parents)
  70. family systems theory concepts
    sibling position
    the development of specific personality characteristics
  71. family systems theory concepts
    family projection process
    the process through which parents transmit their lack of differentiation onto the offspring
  72. family systems theory concepts
    multigeneration transmission process
    the transmission, through the generations, of the family's emotional process
  73. family systems theory therapeutic technique
    therapeutic triangle
    refers to therapist "joining" or engageing in work with couple, avoiding triangulation, and helping the couple address their problems
  74. family systems theory therapeutic technique
    a process in which the therapist avoids taking sides with partners and encourages each of them to take responsibility for their part in family problems.
  75. family systems theory therapeautic technique
    a graphic representation of family relationships that includes a minimum of three generations
  76. communications/experiential family therapy
    the primary goal is to alter the interactional patterns that maintain the dysfunctional communication patterns which function to maintain homeostasis in the family
  77. report level vs command level
    • communications/experiential family therapy
    • all communcation takes place on a report level (what is actually said) and a command level (the covert message relative to how the communication is to be taken)
  78. symmetrical relationships vs completmentary relationships
    • communications/experiential familly therapy
    • symm:egalitarian relationships in which rules are mirror images
    • complementary: a fit between different roles
  79. prinicple of equifinality
    the same results can be obtained via different means
  80. circular model of causality
    behaviors of different subsystems that reciprocally impact each other
  81. forms of dysfuntional communication
    communications/experiential family therapy
    • blaming/criticizing
    • mind reading
    • making incomplete statements
    • making statements that imply that events are unalterable when they are not
    • over generalizing
    • double bind communication/contradictory demands
    • disqualification of the communication of another member of the family
  82. virginia satir
    • 5 styles of communcation:
    • the placator (agreement, apologizing, pleasing)
    • the blamer (accuses, criticizes, dominates)
    • the super reasonable (outward appearance of calm but is emotionally detached)
    • the irrelevant (seeks to distract others and seemingly has difficulty relating to what is going on in the moment)
    • the congruent communicator (send clear, straight forward messages an is genuine)
  83. structural family theory
    • salvador minuchin
    • identifies the maladaptive structural elements that underlie maladaptive family interactions, as well as relationships between the family and nonfamily entities, and then makes changes in these structural elements
  84. techniques in structural family therapy
    the therapists entrance into the family's interactional system. It inclues forming a strong bond with family members, acknowledging the various perspectives of members, and accomodating the family's organization and patterns
  85. tech in structrual family therapy
    evaluating family structure and restructuring the family
    • the maping of underlying structures of the family
    • restructuring involved changing the family sructure via enactment, spontaneous behavior sequences and reframing
  86. tech in structural family therapy
    the therapist has the family act out, in session, how they typically deal with a specific problem, the therapist either pushes family to contiue their strategy or comment on the problem and provide new skills
  87. tech in stuctural family therapy
    spontaneous behavior sequences
    occur when the therapist highlights an interaction that is naturally occurring in the moment and assists the family in modifying problem sequences
  88. tech in structural family thearpy
    redefining the family's perspective on problems as problems with the sturcture of the family
  89. strategic family therapy
    • Jay Haley
    • emphasizes change technqiues over theory
    • the therapist is very directive and relieves symptoms by helping patients find alternative ways of defining relationships
    • especially useful with change-resistant families
  90. basic tech of strategic family therapy
    take charge role
    the therapist takes a very direct, active role, therapist is responsible for changing maladaptive family organization and for solving the problems, therapist must maintain control
  91. basic tech of strategic family therapy
    paradoxical directives
    • d: tasks given by the therapist
    • pd: "prescribing the symptom", tasks assigned by the thearpist that he wants the family members to resist
  92. basic tech of strategic family therapy
    making the clien's symptoms too much trouble for the client to continue to have
  93. basic tech of strategic family therapy
    meeting the family's resistance to change with warnings of the dangers implicit in change and the need to change slowly
  94. basic tech of strategic family therapy
    a form of paradox that involves having a family member act in an exaggerated way, consistent with another person's apparent perception of them
  95. Milan Systemic Therapy
    • Mara Selvini Palazzoli
    • focuses on two aspects of family interaction: the struggle for powerand the protective role of symptoms
    • each session consists of a
    • presession (intial hypothesis formulation)
    • session (info gathering)
    • intersession (ID intervention to be used)
    • intervention (treatment team provides agreed upon strategy)
    • post-session (team members discuss the family's response and plan the next session)
  96. milan systemic therapy tech
    treatment team formulates a hypothesis before the session begins which is modified based on data obtained in session
  97. milan systemic therapy tech
    equal acceptance of all family members by the therapist, therapist avoids allying with any family member
  98. milan systemic therapy tech
    engaging family members in repetitious behavior designed to counter dysfunctional family rules and to reinforce the postive connotation of behaviors
  99. milan systemic therapy tech
    interrupting destructive paradoxes in disturbed family that involves prescribing the problem behavior and all of the interactions that surround it
  100. milan systemic therapy tech
    positive connotation
    a technique tha involves promoting family solidarity and decreasing resistance to therapy via interpreting symptoms as family preserving efforts
  101. milan systemic therapy tech
    circular questions
    an interviewing technique whereby family members are asked questions that help them to think in relational terms, the client is asked to think what another person thinks, increases awareness of the other person and empathy
  102. multifinality vs equfinality
    • M:the same beginning point may lead to different results
    • E: different beginning points may lead to the same result
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2011-08-25 01:38:12

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