connective tissue

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  1. What are connective tissues derived from?

    • splanchic mesoderm (walls of GI tract)
    • somatic mesoderm (body walls)
  2. What composes the ECM?
    fibers and ground substance
  3. What comprises connective tissues?
    collagen and proteoglycans
  4. What comprises proteoglycans?
    glycosaminoglycans and protein core
  5. How do GAGs make a hydrated gel?
    GAGs have lots of negative charges and are attracted to Na+ which brings water with it
  6. What is the purpose of the hydrated gel of GAGs?
    hydrated gel allows rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules through ground substance but slows the passage of lg molecules and bacteria...creates turgor of ECM to resist stress
  7. What is the pathway of making collagen?
    preprocollagen (rER)--->procollagen (rER)--->tropocollagen/collagen (outside the cell via protease)--->collagen fibrils--->collagen fibers
  8. Where are collagen fibers found?
    CT and reticular laminae of basement membranes
  9. What makes collagen?
    fibrocytes/blasts, sm muscle cells, chondrocytes/blasts, osteocytes/blasts
  10. Collagen type 1
    most common, "classic collagen"
  11. Collagen type 2
    in hyaline, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage (intervertebral disks)
  12. Collagen type 3
    assoc w/ type 1; called "reticular fibers", characteristic structural scaffolding of lymphoid tissues and bone marrow
  13. Collagen type 7
    • reticular lamina
    • anchoring fibrils
  14. Collagen type 4
    • basal lamina
    • lamin binding
  15. Where are reticular fibers synth?
    fibrocytes/blasts in LCT and by reticular cells in lymphoid tissues and in bone marrow
  16. What are some physical characteristics of reticular fibers?
    highly glycosylated; delicate silver-staining networks (vs thick bundles)
  17. What are the functions of reticular fibers?
    supportive lattices in LCTs near epithelium and adipose tissue; hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues
  18. What makes up elastic fibers?
    elastin and fibrillin (glycoprotein)
  19. What makes elastin?
    sm muscle cells come' elastic arteries...NOT fibroblasts
  20. What type of tissue has elastic fibers?
    tissues subject to stretching or expansion (elastic arteries, interalveolar septa, bronchi and bronchioles, elastic cartilage of ears)
  21. What is an example of CT damage?
    tendon rupture
  22. What makes elastic fibers?
    smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes/blasts, chondrocytes/blasts
  23. What are some physical characteristics of elastic fibers?
    not easily seen w/ reg staining techniques; highly pliable and elastic
  24. What happens if ECM damaged?
    fibrocytes--->fibroblasts--->repair---fibrocytes (same for chondrocytes/blasts, osteocytes/blasts)
  25. myofibroblast
    special variant of fibroblast
  26. What are the differences between fibrocytes and fibroblasts?
    • blasts: in LCT and CT in repair
    • cytes: DCT

    both synth and secrete ECM components but diff is activity level
  27. What is the job of a reticular cell?
    produce reticular fibers in hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues; phagocytize Ag and debris; collect Ag on cell surface
  28. What lives with reticular cells?
    lymphocytes, macrophages, FCD
  29. DCT
    fewer cells, thick matrix
  30. Dense irregular CT
    • dense matrix is nondirectional
    • very eosinophilic
    • few nuc

    i.e. deeper CT of skin; organ trabeculae
  31. Dense regular CT
    • dense matrix is directional (tendons, ligaments)
    • tensile strength

    i.e. tendons, ligaments
  32. What are some specialized CTs?
    • adipose tissue
    • cartilage and bone
    • lymphatic tissue
  33. What are the functions of adipose tissue?
    • store E in the form of stored lipids
    • cushions and insulates body
  34. White adipose
    unilocular adipose
  35. Brown adipose
    • multilocular adipose
    • lots of mit but oxidative phosphorylation step deactivated so heat is made instead of ATP in order to keep baby warm
  36. parenchymal tissue
    aka functional tissue
  37. What is subcutaneous fat?
    • beneath skin
    • makes "panniculus adiposus" (superficial fascia)
    • varies in thickness depending on adults
  38. What is intra-abdominal fat?
    • in retroperitoneal areas
    • variable amts surrounding blood/lymphatic vessels in omentum and mesenteries
  39. What does adipose tissue make?
    aromatase....makes estradiol
  40. What lives in CT?
    • mast cells
    • macrophages
    • plasma cells
    • lymphocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • * do not originate here, migrate here after mature
  41. mast cell
    • derived from bone marrow precursors
    • has abundant basophilic granules in cytoplasm- heparin and histamine
  42. macrophage
    • phagocytic
    • several can fuse to make multinuc giant cell
    • lg, irregular cell w/ lg, pale staining nuc; "junky" cytoplasm
  43. plasma cell
    • abundant in areas susceptible to bact invasion (GI tract)
    • lg, ovoid w/ eccentric nuc and lots rER
    • clock face nuc w/ lots of heterochromatin on nuc env
  44. lymphocyte
    • present in variable numbers
    • sm, round cell w/ dk, round nuc, think cytoplasm
  45. neutrophil
    • migratory, phagocytic, short-lived
    • trilobed nuc
    • abundant lysosomes
  46. eosinophils
    • bilobed nuc
    • bright-red cytoplasmic granules (lysosomes)
    • internum and externum in specific granules
  47. What makes GAGs and collagen?
  48. mucopolysaccharides
    aka GAGs
  49. hexosamine
    aka glycosamine in GAGs
  50. connective tissue diseases
    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Stickler syndrome
Card Set
connective tissue
MS1/Mod 1: histology, connective tissue
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