AGRI 101 lecture note 1

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Anonymous
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98162
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AGRI 101 lecture note 1
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2011-08-23 22:26:28
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keg plants
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plant history and orgin; Gree Revolution
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  1. Worl Population
    • 6.68 billion in 2006
    • increases by NOLA population everyday (211,000 people)
  2. Theory of Malthus (1800)
    • population controlled by food production
    • population increases geometrically (exponetialy) while food production increases arithmetically (linearly)
  3. Why hasnt the Malthus theory came true
    popultion growth rates stablized in mor developed nations and food production had increased faster than predicted
  4. Green Revolution
    • developing nation total food production has increases relative amount in developing than developed nation since 1960
    • Dr. Norman Borlag is the father of green revolution
  5. Primary reasons for the Green Revolution
    Plant Improvement, Breeding of higer yeilding, disease resistant, enviromentally responisve varieties
  6. Agronomic package:
    tillage ferillzation, irrigation, pest controll
  7. CIMMYT-
    IRRI-
    USAID-
    • International Maize (corn) and Wheat Improvemnet Center Mexico
    • International Rice Research Instiute ( Philippines
    • Land grant colleges through international ag programs
  8. Criticisms of Green Revolution
    • Encourges input-intensice ag
    • ingores local import crops ( less work on sorghum and millet)
    • Some World regions been ingnored ( AFRICA)
    • not accessivle to small farmers
    • genetic vulnerbility (IRRI rice varieties)
  9. Remaing problesm of revolution
    • high population groth rates in developing natiions
    • food production had increaded very little since 1960 in many developing nations
    • Distibution of food- 70% of people live where only 25% of world grain is produced
  10. Ag Revolution
    tranistion of human society from hunter-gather to settler
  11. Techniques first introduced by early civilizations
    Plant selection- ID plants that suppied food or fiber
  12. Cereals were first crops domesticated WHY
    • easy to store (dry storage of grain)
    • large seed easy to harvest and make food with
  13. Improved cultivation
    first hand tools the latter animal powered tood for week control
  14. Orgin of Crops
    • most presentd day crops have been developed by two process of
    • domestications ( bringing some wild specied in cultivation) 7,000-10,000 years ago for most
    • Selection(differential reproductio of those species)
  15. natural Selection
    • Based on Survival of fittest
    • Has directed applicatipon in some agro ecosystems ie. native range ( Darwin 1859)
  16. How has man modified with natural selectipon an succession in native pasture and range?
    • fences ( often resulted in overgrazing)
    • Removel of fire ( incasion of species such as read seder
    • one specied of domesticated animal; more selective grazing vs wildlife
  17. Slection in crop breeding
    • many crops so high selcted they only known under clultivation and raley seen wild
    • aka CORN
  18. Orging of CROPS
    CORN
    WHEAT
    POTATO
    SOYBEAN
    • Central America ----- U.S. Corn Belt
    • Asic ------ US Central Plains
    • S. America -------Western Europe
    • Central China ------ America
  19. Why Know ceter of orgin
    • source of greats biological diversity
    • variation in forms an types of the plant
    • wild relatives can be used as sourse of germplasmfor morder crop breeding
    • germplasm
  20. GERMPLASM
    • gentic material preserved as seed or living plants
    • DNA for the species or variety
  21. Plant breeding
    • hybrid vigor
    • varity improvment
    • pest resistance
    • stress tolerance
    • adaptation to harvest
  22. Exampla on imported uses of germplasm in crop improvement
    • Semi dwarf wheat- NORIN 10 wheat form jampan WWII better adapation ot both and hand an machine harvest
    • Russian What Aphid- new pest arriced in 1986 USDA in stillwater leads resistance working diverse germplasm
  23. Concerns fo rhte future
    • preserving bbiological diversity in the face of destuction of natural ecosystems(tropical, rain forest, wetlands)
    • agencies involved with germplasm preservations: USDA national seed storage laboratory (NSSL) Fort Collins, Co and INternational board of plant gentetic resources IBPGR in Rome
  24. Concerns for the future
    • political limitation to free access of germplasm
    • gentic engineering an patent right for newly devolped germplasm
  25. Tillage and managemt practice
    many crops are compltly dependednt on man's intensice mangement and imputs into the soil for thier successful production
  26. Fertilization
    manures and other organic matter were ussed as ferilizers by early civilization ( Romans and American Indians)
  27. Mechanization
    1700's-1800's -- Tractor, steel plow, cotton gein reaper, thresher
  28. Fallow
    • leave land idle ofr a growing season
    • soil store moistrue in soil and releases nutriends from organic matter
  29. Crop rotation with legumes
    • Cereal--> legume --> Cereal
    • nitogen fixation by legume
    • N2 gas from the air converted to protein in the plant by rhizobium bacteria living in root nodules
    • some itrogen is left in soil for next crop
  30. Historical developements
    • 1843= 1st ag research station - Rothamsterd
    • 1862= Morrill Act - Land Grant Colleges
    • 1888=HATCH Act - Experiment Stations
    • 1914= Smith-lever Act- extension
  31. Major Contribustions of research
    • plant breeding
    • imporved crop and soil mangment practices
    • development of ag chemicals and modern agricultural equipment
    • understanding plant physiology
    • use of remote sensing
    • new thechniques to imporve efficiency of input use
    • new developments in biotchnology and genetic engineering

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