Micro Study Guide 1

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Author:
sMiLiNaLLdAy
ID:
98239
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Micro Study Guide 1
Updated:
2011-08-24 15:37:46
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microbiology
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Study guide for microbiology test #1
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  1. Name the six kingdoms of life. Tell
    whether they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
    • Bacteria (prokaryotic)
    • Archaea (prokaryotic)
    • Protista (eukaryotic)
    • Fungi (eukaryotic)
    • Plantae (eukaryotic)
    • Animalia(eukaryotic)
  2. How does one distinguish whether an organism is prokaryotic or
    eukaryotic?
    Eukaryotic cells have organelles. Prokaryotic cells do not.
  3. Where does the energy to fuel most organisms come from originally?
    The sun; photosynthesis
  4. How do nutrients make their way back into the soil?
    Decomposition
  5. Define ubiquitous
    "everywhere"
  6. What is thought to cause gastric ulcers in humans?
    Helicobacter, drugs
  7. Parasite-
    an organism that feeds on another living organism
  8. Host -
    an organism that has a parasite.
  9. Who invented the microscope?
    Leeuwenhoek
  10. Who introduced the germ theory of disease?
    Pasteur
  11. Who developed a plan to determine whether a particular “germ” caused a specific disease?
    Koch
  12. What type of organism are you? Be
    sure to use standard binomial nomenclature.
    Homo sapiens
  13. In a cell culture, a mound of bacteria is called a...
    colony
  14. In lab, we grow bacterial cultures in...
    agar
  15. If you culture something, and get several types of colonies, how can you get pure cultures for identification?
    (isolate and reculture)
  16. What is the difference in magnification and resolution?
    Magnification – how big it is

    Resolution – how clear the picture is
  17. What kingdoms of life are made up of
    bacteria?
    Archae, Bacteria
  18. Archae that live in swamps and produce
    methane are called
    methanogens
  19. Archae that live in extremely salty places
    are called
    halophile
  20. Archae that live in very hot places are
    called
    thermophile
  21. Rod shaped bacteria are called
    bacilli
  22. Sphere shaped bacteria are called
    cocci
  23. Spiral shaped bacteria are called
    spirilla
  24. Chains of cocci are called
    Streptococci
  25. Clusters of cocci are called
    Staphylococci
  26. Gram-positive bacteria stain
    Purple
  27. Gram-negative bacteria stain
    pink
  28. Bacteria that normally live in the
    intestinal tract of animals including humans are called
    methanogens
  29. Bacteria that extract energy from minerals
    (no sun needed) are called
    Chemoautotroph
  30. Bacteria that live on the roots of plants
    (legumes) and change nitrogen into a usable form are called
    nitrogen fixing bacteria
  31. Bacteria typically reproduce by
    binary fission
  32. When two bacteria bind together and
    exchange transfer genetic material, it is called
    conjugation
  33. A long structure that moves bacteria along
    is called a
    flagella
  34. Bacteria that feed on dead things are
    called
    decomposers, detritivores
  35. Bacteria that use the sunlight as an energy
    source are called
    Photoautotroph
  36. Bacteria that cannot survive in the
    presence of oxygen are called
    Obligate Anaerobes
  37. Bacteria that can live without oxygen or
    with oxygen are called
    Facultative Anaerobes
  38. Bacteria that cannot survive without oxygen
    are called
    Obligate Aerobes
  39. Bacteria that grow in hot environments are
    called
    thermophile
  40. Drugs that are produced in a laboratory to
    fight bacterial infections are called
    antibiotics
  41. How do bacteria develop antibiotic
    resistance?
    The population evolves into a resistant strain because the bacteria that are not resistant die.
  42. List 5 things that are useful about
    bacteria.
    • make antibiotics
    • make vitamins
    • make insulin
    • make cheese, yogurt
    • decomposers/recycling
  43. Why is a virus not considered to be alive?
    • It is not cellular.
    • It cannot grow, reproduce, etc. without invading a host cell.

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