Test 1 review CH1
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what is the ball-catcher's position designed for?
evaluating early evidence of rheumatoid arthritis at the second through fifth proximal phalanges and MCP joints. It also may demonstrate fractures of the base of the fifth metacrpal
the ball catcher's position is also the...
How many carpal bones are in the wrist?
What happens if a person pronated their hands
the radius crosses over the ulna
which of the carpal bones is considere to be the largest
which of the carpal bones is considered to be the smallest?
Why is it important to keep to keep the phalanges parallel to CR on a PA oblique
Prevents foreshortening of bones and closing of IP joints
From a pronated position PA oblique 45 degrees lateral, which 2 structures form the distal radioulnar joint?
the ulnar notch and the head of the ulna
When do you use a grid?
if part measures more than 10 cm
on a transthoracic lateral projection the CR is perpendifular to what?
the surgical neck of the humerus
How many bones make up the hand?
What is the proper name for a fracture of the 5th metacarpal?
What is a fracture to the distal radius and ulna called?
- Colles' (posterior)
- Smith's (anterior)
Which carpal bone is fracture most often?
Which special method is performed for "carpal tunnel" syndrome?
Which carpal bone has a process?
the hamate, it is anterior and its called the hamulus
What does the head of the radius articulate with?
What alternate view can be performed to demonstrate the olecranon?
What does the ulna articulate with on the humerus
What alternate views can be taken if the patient cannot fully extend their arm for a PA
What is the primary center of ossification?
What procedure is followed when radiographing a hand for a foreign object?
true lateral, with a BB marker at the point of entry
how many phalanges make up the digits
what movement does the thumb have that other digits do not?
what must be included in a radiograph of the digits
tuft to articulating carpal and associated joints
what is the CR location for an AP forearm?
mid forearm region
how many bones are in the body?
what are the functions of the skeletal system
- to support ant protect many soft tissues of teh body
- to allow movement through interaction with the muscles to form system levers
- to produce blood cells
- to store calcium
what are the functions of the circulatory system
- to distribute oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body
- to carry cell waste and carbon dioxide from the cells
- to transport water, elecrtolytes, hormones, and enzymes
- to protect against disease
- to prevent hemorrhage by forming blood clots
- to help reguylate body temperature
what are the functions of the digestive system
- to prepare food for absoption by the cells through numerous physical and chemical breakdown processes
- to eliminate solid wastes from the body
what are the functions of the respiratory system
- to supply oxygen to the blood and eventually to the cells
- to eliminate carbon dioxide from the blood
- to assist in regulating the acid-base balance of the blood
what are the functions of the urinary system
- to regulate the chemical composition of the blood
- to eliminate many waste products
- to regulate fluid and elecrtolyte balance and volume
- to maintain the acid-base balance of the body
what are the functions of the reproductive system
to reproduce the organism
what are the functions of the nervous system
to regulate the body activities with electrical impulses that travel along various nerves
what are the functions of the muscular system
- to allow movement, such as locomotion of the body or movement of substances thorugh the alimentary canal.
- to maintain posture
- to produce heat
what are the functions of the endocrine system
to regulate bodily activities through the various hormones carried by the cariovascular system
what are the functions of the integumentary system
- regulate body temperature
- protect the body, within limits, against microbial invasion and mechanical, chemical, and utlraviolet (UV) radiation damage
- eliminate waste products through perspiration
- receive certain stimuli such as temperature, pressure, and pain
- syntesize certain vitamins and biochemicals such as vitamin D
how many bones are in the axial skeleton
how many bones are in the appendicular skeleton
where are red blood cells produced?
in certain flat and irregular bones such as the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis as well as the end of long bones
what is the primary ossification center?
what are the secondary ossification centers?
the epiphyses and epiphyseal plates
what is arthrology
the study of joints or articulations
what are the functional classifications of joints?
joint with limited movement
freely movable joint
what are the structural calssifications of joints
what are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
what are syndesmoses type joints
fibrous aritculations that are held together by inerosseous ligaments and slender fibrous cords that allow slight movement (amphiarthrodial). the inferior or distal tibiofibular joint is considered a syndesmoses type joint
what are the sutures type joints?
Found only between the bones of the skull, movement is very limited and in adults these are considered immovable (synarthrodial)
what are gomphoses type joints?
a conical process is inserted into a socketlike portion of bone. only occurs between the roots of teeth and alveolar sockets fo the mandible and maxillae. allows very limited movement (amphiarthorodial)
what are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
what are symphisis type joints?
- the presence of a broad, glattened disk of fibrocartilage between 2 contiguous bony surfaces. These disks are capable of being compressed and displaced, allowme some movement, which makes them amphiarthrodialexamples are the intervertebral disks and are also found in the pubic symphysis
what are synchondroses type joints?
temporary forms of joints, the hyline cartilage or epiphyseal plate, which is converted into bone at adulthood. it is considered immovable or synarthodial
what are synovial joints?
a fibrous capsule that contains synovial fluid and they are freely movable or diarthrodial
what are the movement types of synovial joints
- plane (gliding) joints
- trochoid (pivot) joints
- Ellipsoid joints
- sellar (saddle) joints
- speroidal (ball and socket) joints
- bicondylar joints
palne (gliding) joints
it permits the least movement, which is a sliding or gliding motion between articulating surfaces. Examples are intercarpal joints, carpometacarpa joints, intermetacarpal joints
ginglymys (hinge) joints
permit flexion and extension. examples include interphalangeal joints of both fingers and toes and the elbow joint.
this joint movemente occurs primarily in one plane and is combined with a slight degree of rotation at an axis at right angles of primary plane of movement. allows primarily flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction. examples include teh metacarpophalangeal joints and the wrist joint
trochoid (pivot) joint
is formed by a bony, pivotlike process that is surrounded by a ring of ligaments and/or a bony structure. it allows rotational movement around a single axis. Examples are the proxima and distal radioulnar joints and between the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae C1-C2
Sellar (saddle) joints
the ends of the bone are shaped concave-convex and are positioned opposite of eachother. Allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduduction. The best example is the first carpometacarpal joint.
spheroidal (ball and socket) joints
allows the greatest freedom of motion. the greater the depth of the socket, the more limited the movement is. movements include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and medial and lateral rotation. Esamples are the hip joint and shoulder joint.
usually provide movement in a single direction. they can permit limited rotation. Bicondylar joints are formed by two convex condyles, which may be encased by a fibrous capsule. examples are the knee and the temporomadiular joint.
what is a radiograph
an image of a patients anatomic part(s).
what is radiography
the process and procedures of producing a radiograph
what is IR
any longitudina plane that divides the body into right and left parts
any longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
divides teh body into approximately equal anterior and posterionr parts
any transverse plane that passes through the body at right angles to a longitudinal plane, dividing the body into superion and inferior portions.
a longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and is not parallel to a sagittal, coronal, or horizontal plane
lyinh down in any position
recumbent position with body tilted with the head lower than the feet
a recumbent position with the body tilted with the head higher than the feet
the sims position
a recumbent oblique position wht the patien lying on the left anterior side, with the right knee and thigh flexed and the left arm extended down behind the back
a recumbent position with knees and hip flexed and thight abduccted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
axial projection refers to the long axis of the body, structure, or part. any angle of the CR of 10 or more degrees along the long axis of the body or body part
touching a curve or surface at only one point
ap axial projection- lordotic position
specific AP chest projection. the term lordotic comes from lordosis (term that denotes curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine)
The CR enters at the cranial parietal bone and exits at the acanthion (junction of nose and upper lip)
CR enters at the acanthion and exits at the cranial parietal bone
CR enters below the chin or mentum and exits at the vertex or top of the skull
entering at the top of the skull and exiting below teh mandible
on the same side of the body
on the opposite side of the body
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