Test 1 review CH1

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Test 1 review CH1
2011-08-26 05:31:00
anatomy stuff

anatomy and stuff
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  1. what is the ball-catcher's position designed for?
    evaluating early evidence of rheumatoid arthritis at the second through fifth proximal phalanges and MCP joints. It also may demonstrate fractures of the base of the fifth metacrpal
  2. the ball catcher's position is also the...
    Norgaard method
  3. How many carpal bones are in the wrist?
  4. What happens if a person pronated their hands
    the radius crosses over the ulna
  5. which of the carpal bones is considere to be the largest
  6. which of the carpal bones is considered to be the smallest?
  7. Why is it important to keep to keep the phalanges parallel to CR on a PA oblique
    Prevents foreshortening of bones and closing of IP joints
  8. From a pronated position PA oblique 45 degrees lateral, which 2 structures form the distal radioulnar joint?
    the ulnar notch and the head of the ulna
  9. When do you use a grid?
    if part measures more than 10 cm
  10. on a transthoracic lateral projection the CR is perpendifular to what?
    the surgical neck of the humerus
  11. How many bones make up the hand?
  12. What is the proper name for a fracture of the 5th metacarpal?
    Boxer's fracture
  13. What is a fracture to the distal radius and ulna called?
    • Colles' (posterior)
    • Smith's (anterior)
  14. Which carpal bone is fracture most often?
  15. Which special method is performed for "carpal tunnel" syndrome?
    Gaynor-Hart method
  16. Which carpal bone has a process?
    the hamate, it is anterior and its called the hamulus
  17. What does the head of the radius articulate with?
  18. What alternate view can be performed to demonstrate the olecranon?
    PA axial
  19. What does the ulna articulate with on the humerus
  20. What alternate views can be taken if the patient cannot fully extend their arm for a PA
    partial flexion
  21. What is the primary center of ossification?
  22. What procedure is followed when radiographing a hand for a foreign object?
    true lateral, with a BB marker at the point of entry
  23. how many phalanges make up the digits
  24. what movement does the thumb have that other digits do not?
    saddle joint
  25. what must be included in a radiograph of the digits
    tuft to articulating carpal and associated joints
  26. what is the CR location for an AP forearm?
    mid forearm region
  27. how many bones are in the body?
  28. what are the functions of the skeletal system
    • to support ant protect many soft tissues of teh body
    • to allow movement through interaction with the muscles to form system levers
    • to produce blood cells
    • to store calcium
  29. what are the functions of the circulatory system
    • to distribute oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body
    • to carry cell waste and carbon dioxide from the cells
    • to transport water, elecrtolytes, hormones, and enzymes
    • to protect against disease
    • to prevent hemorrhage by forming blood clots
    • to help reguylate body temperature
  30. what are the functions of the digestive system
    • to prepare food for absoption by the cells through numerous physical and chemical breakdown processes
    • to eliminate solid wastes from the body
  31. what are the functions of the respiratory system
    • to supply oxygen to the blood and eventually to the cells
    • to eliminate carbon dioxide from the blood
    • to assist in regulating the acid-base balance of the blood
  32. what are the functions of the urinary system
    • to regulate the chemical composition of the blood
    • to eliminate many waste products
    • to regulate fluid and elecrtolyte balance and volume
    • to maintain the acid-base balance of the body
  33. what are the functions of the reproductive system
    to reproduce the organism
  34. what are the functions of the nervous system
    to regulate the body activities with electrical impulses that travel along various nerves
  35. what are the functions of the muscular system
    • to allow movement, such as locomotion of the body or movement of substances thorugh the alimentary canal.
    • to maintain posture
    • to produce heat
  36. what are the functions of the endocrine system
    to regulate bodily activities through the various hormones carried by the cariovascular system
  37. what are the functions of the integumentary system
    • regulate body temperature
    • protect the body, within limits, against microbial invasion and mechanical, chemical, and utlraviolet (UV) radiation damage
    • eliminate waste products through perspiration
    • receive certain stimuli such as temperature, pressure, and pain
    • syntesize certain vitamins and biochemicals such as vitamin D
  38. how many bones are in the axial skeleton
  39. how many bones are in the appendicular skeleton
  40. where are red blood cells produced?
    in certain flat and irregular bones such as the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis as well as the end of long bones
  41. what is the primary ossification center?
    the diaphysis
  42. what are the secondary ossification centers?
    the epiphyses and epiphyseal plates
  43. what is arthrology
    the study of joints or articulations
  44. what are the functional classifications of joints?
    • synarthrosis
    • amphiarthroses
    • diarthrosis
  45. synarthrosis
    immovable joint
  46. amphiarthosis
    joint with limited movement
  47. diarthorsis
    freely movable joint
  48. what are the structural calssifications of joints
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  49. what are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
    • Syndesmoses
    • sutures
    • gomphosis
  50. what are syndesmoses type joints
    fibrous aritculations that are held together by inerosseous ligaments and slender fibrous cords that allow slight movement (amphiarthrodial). the inferior or distal tibiofibular joint is considered a syndesmoses type joint
  51. what are the sutures type joints?
    Found only between the bones of the skull, movement is very limited and in adults these are considered immovable (synarthrodial)
  52. what are gomphoses type joints?
    a conical process is inserted into a socketlike portion of bone. only occurs between the roots of teeth and alveolar sockets fo the mandible and maxillae. allows very limited movement (amphiarthorodial)
  53. what are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
    • Symphisis
    • synchondrosis
  54. what are symphisis type joints?
    • the presence of a broad, glattened disk of fibrocartilage between 2 contiguous bony surfaces. These disks are capable of being compressed and displaced, allowme some movement, which makes them amphiarthrodial
    • examples are the intervertebral disks and are also found in the pubic symphysis
  55. what are synchondroses type joints?
    temporary forms of joints, the hyline cartilage or epiphyseal plate, which is converted into bone at adulthood. it is considered immovable or synarthodial
  56. what are synovial joints?
    a fibrous capsule that contains synovial fluid and they are freely movable or diarthrodial
  57. what are the movement types of synovial joints
    • plane (gliding) joints
    • ginglymus(hinge)jonts
    • trochoid (pivot) joints
    • Ellipsoid joints
    • sellar (saddle) joints
    • speroidal (ball and socket) joints
    • bicondylar joints
  58. palne (gliding) joints
    it permits the least movement, which is a sliding or gliding motion between articulating surfaces. Examples are intercarpal joints, carpometacarpa joints, intermetacarpal joints
  59. ginglymys (hinge) joints
    permit flexion and extension. examples include interphalangeal joints of both fingers and toes and the elbow joint.
  60. Ellipsoid joints
    this joint movemente occurs primarily in one plane and is combined with a slight degree of rotation at an axis at right angles of primary plane of movement. allows primarily flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction. examples include teh metacarpophalangeal joints and the wrist joint
  61. trochoid (pivot) joint
    is formed by a bony, pivotlike process that is surrounded by a ring of ligaments and/or a bony structure. it allows rotational movement around a single axis. Examples are the proxima and distal radioulnar joints and between the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae C1-C2
  62. Sellar (saddle) joints
    the ends of the bone are shaped concave-convex and are positioned opposite of eachother. Allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduduction. The best example is the first carpometacarpal joint.
  63. spheroidal (ball and socket) joints
    allows the greatest freedom of motion. the greater the depth of the socket, the more limited the movement is. movements include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and medial and lateral rotation. Esamples are the hip joint and shoulder joint.
  64. Bicondylar joints
    usually provide movement in a single direction. they can permit limited rotation. Bicondylar joints are formed by two convex condyles, which may be encased by a fibrous capsule. examples are the knee and the temporomadiular joint.
  65. what is a radiograph
    an image of a patients anatomic part(s).
  66. what is radiography
    the process and procedures of producing a radiograph
  67. what is IR
    image receptor
  68. what is CR
    central ray
  69. saggital plane
    any longitudina plane that divides the body into right and left parts
  70. coronal plane
    any longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
  71. midcoronal plane
    divides teh body into approximately equal anterior and posterionr parts
  72. horizontal plane
    any transverse plane that passes through the body at right angles to a longitudinal plane, dividing the body into superion and inferior portions.
  73. oblique plane
    a longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and is not parallel to a sagittal, coronal, or horizontal plane
  74. supine
    laying on back
  75. prone
    lying on abdomen
  76. erect
    upright position
  77. recumbent
    lyinh down in any position
  78. trandelenburg position
    recumbent position with body tilted with the head lower than the feet
  79. fowler's position
    a recumbent position with the body tilted with the head higher than the feet
  80. the sims position
    a recumbent oblique position wht the patien lying on the left anterior side, with the right knee and thigh flexed and the left arm extended down behind the back
  81. lithotomy
    a recumbent position with knees and hip flexed and thight abduccted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
  82. axial projection
    axial projection refers to the long axis of the body, structure, or part. any angle of the CR of 10 or more degrees along the long axis of the body or body part
  83. tangential
    touching a curve or surface at only one point
  84. ap axial projection- lordotic position
    specific AP chest projection. the term lordotic comes from lordosis (term that denotes curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine)
  85. Parietoacanthial projection
    The CR enters at the cranial parietal bone and exits at the acanthion (junction of nose and upper lip)
  86. acanthioparietal projection
    CR enters at the acanthion and exits at the cranial parietal bone
  87. submentovertex projection
    CR enters below the chin or mentum and exits at the vertex or top of the skull
  88. verticosubmental projection
    entering at the top of the skull and exiting below teh mandible
  89. ipsilateral
    on the same side of the body
  90. contrealateral
    on the opposite side of the body