Transition Drug Cards

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Transition Drug Cards
2011-09-29 22:22:15
Upper Respiratory

Upper Respiratory
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  1. Antitussives
    Dextromethorphan (Benylin)
    • Control of non-productive cough.
    • Acts directly on the medullary cough center of the brain to depress cough reflex. CNS Depression. Side effects-drying effect on mucous membranes. Can increase viscosity of resp. tract secretions. Drowsiness. Do not use with MAOI r/t hypotension.
  2. Topical Nasal Decongestants
    Ephedrine (Pretz-D)
    Sympathemimetics (imitate the effects of the SNS to cause vasoconstriction). Risk of rebound. Not with glaucoma, hypertension, DM, thyroid disease, CAD, BPH).Relieve congestion, swelling, and inflammation by contricting arterioles-decreases blood flow to nasal mucosa.
  3. Oral Decongestant
    Pseudoephedrone (sudafed, Decofed)
    • Promote drainage of the sinuses and improve air flow. Risk of Rebound.
    • Shrinks the nasal mucous membrane by stimulating the Alpha-Adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucous membrane. Adverse effects r/t sympathomimetic effects (anxiety, hypertension, arrhythmias. Found in many OTC meds.
  4. Topical Nasal Steroid Decongestants
    Flunisolide (Aerobid)
    • Maintenance treatment of asthma.
    • Potent locally acting anti-inflammatory and immune modifier. For chronic not acute inflammation. Caution with active infection like TB.
  5. Antihistamines-1st gereration:
    Diphenhydramone (Benadryl), Hydroxyzone (Vistarel)
    • Relief of seasonal/perennial allerigic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, uncomplicated uritcaria and angioedema.
    • Selectively blocks the effect of histamine at the histamine receptor sites, decreases the allergic response also have anticholinergic and antipruritic effects. Side effects-drowsiness, anticholinergic-SLUD
  6. Expectorants
    Guiafenesin (Mucinex)
    • Enhances the output of respiratory tract fluid by reducing the adhesivness and surface tension of the fluid facilitating the removal of viscous mucus.
    • Do not use for more than 1 week.
    • Increase fluids.
  7. Mucolytics (Muco=mucous, lytic=breakdown)
    Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst), Dornase Alfa (Pulmozyme)
    • Pts with difficulty coughing up tenacious secretions who develop atelectasis undergoing bronchoscopy, pt with trachs, and post operative pts.
    • Works to breakdown mucus in order to aid the high-risk pt (cystic fibrosis) in coughing up thick secretions.
    • Inhaled mucomist could put pt into bronchospasm-not safest!