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Symptomatic relief or prevention of broncial asthma and reversible bronchospasm. Directly relaxes bronchial smooth muscle. Narrow range for good effect. The parental drug should be switched to oral ASAP-oral med systemic effects are less acute.
- Powerful! Tiny dose for asthma & allergy-increases rate and depth of respiration. Acute asthma attack, bronchospasm in acute/chroni asthma. Systemic effects-increased BP, increased HR, Vasoconstriction, decreased renal & GI blood flow (all SNS system). Airway open or heart attack??
- BETA2 (r/t lungs) selective Adrenergic Agonist
- Maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD. Not a strong as sympathomimetics but work like them. Relaxes broncial smooth muscle. Can be used with older pts.
- Blocks vagally mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine.Spiriva is similar-rapid onset-1/2 life 5-6 days.
- Effective within minutes and lasts about 4 hours. Caution with anticholinergic effects (glaucoma, bladder neck obstruction, BPH, SLUD.)
- Decreases inflammatory response in airway. Smooth muscle relaxation.
- Not for emergency use/not during an acute asthma attack.
- They may take between 2-3 weeks to reach effective levels.
- Rick of rebound congestion, irritability, Headache, epistaxis, local infection.
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists
Singulair more common
- For Inflammation. Completely block or antagonize receptors for the production of leukotriene.
- Everyday treatment of asthma.
- Caution with cardiac meds.
- Prevents inflammatory response because you take it all the time. Once daily med.
- To produce surfactant you have to expand your lungs. (sign/deep breathe).
- Rescue treatment of infants lungs who have developed RDS-Ususally premies.
- Replaces the surfactant that is missing in infants with RDS-Surfactant can be administered via trachea-risks-Patent ducttus arteriousus (PDA), intraventricular hemmorrhage (IVH), hypotension, bradycardia, pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, apnea, sepsis, infection.
- They do not put surfactant in adults!
Mast Cell Stabilizers
- Mast cells are part of inflammatory response.
- Treatment of chronic bronchial asthma, exercise induced asthma, allergic rhinites.
- Works on a cellular level to inhibit the release of histamine and SRSA.
- Take prior to exposure that triggers allergy and asthma. Take 30 minutes prior.
- Headache, dizziness, nausea, sore throat, dysuria, cough, nasal congestion.