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Describe the rodels of the CDC and OSHA in infection control.
- CDC is not a regulatory agency and it issues specific recommendations based on sound scientific evidence.
- OSHA is a regulatory agency and issues specific standards to protect employees.
What is the difference between Universal Precautions and Standard Precautions?
- Universal is based on the concept that all human blood &body fluids are to be treated as known to be infected.
- Standard integrate to expand the elements of universal to Standard of care to protect healthcare providers. "no difference in clinical dental practices"
What are the differences between chronic infection and an acute infection?
- Chronic- Long duration and asymptomatic.
- Acute- Short duration and symptoms are sever and appear after initial infection.
Immunity that at present at birth?
Immunity that is developed during a persons lifetime?
Immunity that occurs when a person has contracted and is recovering from a disease?
naturally acquired immunity
Immunity that results from a vaccination?
artificially acquired immunity
What is and example of a latent infection?
Cold sores and genital herpes
What are the links in the chain of infection?
- 1. virulance
- 2. number of microorganisms
- 3. susceptible host
- 4. portal of entry
Methods of disease transmission in a dental office?
- -Patient to dental team: Direct contact, droplet infection, inderect contact
- -Dental team to patient: droplet infection
- -Patient to patient: contaminated instruments
- -Dental office to community: Contaminated impressions or equipment.
- -Community to Dental office to Patient: Municipal water
Whta are the infection control considerations for use of high-tech equipment?
- - Can it be protected with a barrier during use?
- - Will barrier covers interfere w/ operation or function of equipment?
- - Are detailed instructions for cleaning and sterilization provided?
- - Can it withstand ultrasonic cleaning sterilization? Immersion with liquid chemical sterilants? type of sterilant?
What are the components of an OSHA Exposure control plan?
- - Use of Universal Precautions
- - Required use of PPE
- - Standararized housekeeping
- -Laundering of contaminated clothing
- -Standarized policy
- -policy on general waste disposal
- - Labeling procedure
- -Policy of sterilization
- -Use of sharp containers
- -HBV vaccine
- -Postexposure evacuation
What is the rationale for Standard Precautions?
- -Wash hands before & afetr every patient
- -Wear gloves
- -Use care when handling sharps
- -Wear mask & eye protection
What are the OSHA categories of risk for occupational exposure?
- I Routinely exposed to blood, saliva or both.
- II May on occasion be exposed to blood, saliva or both.
- III Never exposed to blood or saliva.
What is the first aid necessary after and exposure incident?
- 1. Stop operations immediately
- 2. Remove gloves
- 3. If broken skin- squeeze
- 4. Wash hands
- 5. Dry hands
- 6. Antiseptic to affected area
- 7. bandage
- 8. Postexposure steps
What is the rationale for hepatitis B vaccination for dental assistants?
BBP Standards require the dentist/employer to offer HBV series to all emplyees whose jobs categories are I & II.
What is the importance of hand care for dantal assistants?
- -Its important to dry hands before donning gloves.
- -Skin cream helps relieve dry
- -Water-based hand care products
What is the proper hand hygiene for dental assistants?
- -Must wash hands before & after gloves
- -Dry hands after gloves & dry
- -Use liquid soap
- -"Hands Free" faucet
What are advantages of alcohol-based hand rubs?
Reduces the resident microbial count on hads to a minimum. 60-95%
What are types of Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) needed for dental assistants?
- -surgical mask
- -treatment gloves
- -face shield
- -heavy utility gloves
What is the proper sequence for donning & removal of PPE?
- 1.Use gloved hand to grasp the other glove
- 2.use fingers & grab inside of glove
- 3.wash & dry hands
- 4.remove eyewear by touching ear rest
- 5.place eyewear on disposable towel
- 6.slide fingers of each hand under elastic strap in front of ears & remove mask.
- 7.pull gown off- turn inside out
What are various types of gloves used in a dental office?
- -examination gloves
- -utility gloves
- -non-latex gloves
- -sterile surgical gloves
What are types and symptoms of latex reactions?
- -Irritant Dermatitis: nonimmunologic, skind reddened, dry irritated, cracked.
- -Type IV allergic reaction: immune response, irritate skin.
- -Type I allergic reaction: death, cough, wheezing, runny eyes, nose, shortness of breath, respiratory distress.
Proper handling & disposal methods for each type of waste generated in dentistry?
- -General waste: paper towels, pads, food containe
- -Hazardous waste: presents dangers to humans, amalgam, x-ray film packets.
- -Contaminated waste: Contact with blood & body fluids.(general waste)
- -Infectious or regulated waste: Biohazardous, capable of transmitting disease, Blood and Blood soaked materials, pathologic waste, sharps.
What are the CDC recommendations regarding the use of saliva ejector?
Do not advice patients to close their lips tightly around the tip of the saliva ejector to evacuate oral fluids.
What is the rationale for the CDC recommendations regarding Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseand other prion related diseases?
CDC offers no recommendations regarding the use of special precautions in addition to standard precautions when one is treating known patients with CJD.
What is the rationale for the CDC recommendations regarding laser plumes?
CDC offers no recommendation. Unresolved issue, beacuse the eefect of exposure on dental personnel from the use of dental lasers has not been adequately evaluated.
What are the precautions necessary when one is treating a patient with active tuberculosis?
CDC recommends referrign the patient to a facility with TB engineering controls & a respiratory protection program.