Pharmacology B

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  1. Chronotropic effect
    affectting Heart Rate
  2. Inotropic effect
    effecting Contractility
  3. Dromatropic effect
    affecting Cardiac Impulse Conduction Velocity
  4. Factors affecting cardiac output
    • Preload
    • Afterload
    • Contractility
    • Heart rate
    • Cardiac Output= The amount of blood pumped by the L ventricle each minute.
    • CO= SV x HR
    • - meaning SV and HR are inversley related.
  5. Preload vs Afterload
    Ventricular filling pressure vs Systemic vascular resistance
  6. Blood Pressure Values
    a) Normal
    b) Pre-hypertensive
    c) Hypertension (stage 1)
    d) Hypertension (stage 2)
    • a) < 120/ <80
    • b) 120-139/ 80-90
    • c) 140/159/ 90-99
    • d) > 160/ >100

  7. 3 Systems that help regulate blood pressure
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • - inc HR directly via Beta-receptor stimulation
    • The kidneys
    • - controls blood volume via water reabsorbtion
    • (volume is proportional to Bp)
    • Systemic/peripheral vascular resistance
    • -vasoconstriction via alpha-receptor stimulation
    • =inc resistance= HR
  8. Anti-hypertensive agents
    • Diuretics
    • Sympatholytics
    • Angiotensin Inhibitors
    • Vasodilators
  9. Diuretics (anti-hypertensive)
    • Thiazide diuretics
    • Loop Diuretics: most potent
    • K+ sparing diuretics: prevent hypokalemia, used with thiazides

    Cause and increase in renal Na+ excretion (natriuresis)= increased water excretion. This decreases blood volume and thus, decreases CO (and SVR)
  10. Thiazide Diuretics (1)
    Diuril (Chlorothiazide)

    Moderate natriuretic effect. Can cause hypokalemia
  11. Adrenergic blockers (anti-hypertensive)
    alpha 1 antagonists: cause vasodilation, reduce SVR. Can result in reflex CV stimulation or kidney reabsorbtion (renin-angioT-aldos system)

    Beta antagonists/blockers: block receptors on the heart and juxtaglomerular cells= dec HR and blood volume.
Card Set
Pharmacology B
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