biology clep.txt

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biology clep.txt
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  1. matter
    anything takes up space and has mass
  2. compound
    substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
  3. element
    any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
  4. trace elements
    an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts
  5. atom
    smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
  6. neutron
    an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
  7. proton
    a subatomic particle with single positive charge found in nucleus of an atom
  8. electron
    a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus
  9. isotopes
    one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
  10. valence electrons
    the electrons in the outermost electron shell
  11. chemical bonds
    an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells
  12. covalent bonds
    a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
  13. polar covalent bonds
    a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive
  14. electronegativity
    the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
  15. anion
    a negatively charged ion
  16. cation
    an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
  17. hydrogen bond
    a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecules is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent in another bond
  18. cohesion
    the binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
  19. adhesion
    the attraction between different kinds of molecules
  20. surface tension
    a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
  21. heat
    total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. It is energy in most random form
  22. temperature
    a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy
  23. specific heat
    the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
  24. solution
    a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)
  25. solvent
    dissolving agent of a solution
  26. solute
    a substance that is dissolved in a solution
  27. aqueous solution
    a solution in which water is the solvent
  28. acid
    a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  29. base
    a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  30. hydrophilic
    having an affinity to water
  31. hydrophobic
    having aversion to water tend to coalesce and form droplets of water
  32. pH
    A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
  33. buffers
    A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
  34. acid precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6.
  35. organic chemistry
    The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
  36. hydrocarbons
    An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
  37. isomers
    One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types are structural , geometric and enantiomers.
  38. structural isomers
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
  39. geometric isomers
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
  40. enantiomers
    Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
  41. functional groups
    A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
  42. hydroxyl groups
    A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
  43. carbonyl groups
    A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
  44. aldehyde
    An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  45. ketone
    An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
  46. carboxyl group
    A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
  47. amino group
    A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
  48. sulfhydryl group
    A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
  49. phosphate group
    A functional group important in energy transfer.
  50. macromolecule
    A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
  51. polymer
    A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
  52. monomer
    The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
  53. condensation reaction
    A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
  54. dehydration reaction
    A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
  55. hydrolysis
    A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
  56. carbohydrates
    A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
  57. monosaccharides
    The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
  58. disaccharides
    A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
  59. starch
    A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
  60. glycogen
    An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
  61. cellulose
    A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
  62. fatty acid
    A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
  63. saturated fatty acid
    A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
  64. unsaturated fatty acid
    A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
  65. phospholipids
    A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
  66. cholesterol
    A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
  67. steroids
    A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
  68. polysaccharides
    A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
  69. glycosidic linkage
    A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
  70. fat
    constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
  71. amino acid
    An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
  72. protein
    A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
  73. peptide bond
    The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
  74. beta (B) pleated sheet
    One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
  75. denaturation
    For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
  76. RNA
    A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
  77. DNA
    A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
  78. nucleic acid
    A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
  79. purines
    One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
  80. pyrimidines
    One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
  81. organelles
    One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  82. electron microscope
    A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
  83. cell fractionation
    The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.
  84. ultra centrifuges
    A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities.
  85. cytosol
    The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
  86. prokaryotic cell
    A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
  87. nucleoid
    A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
  88. cytoplasm
    The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
  89. plasma membrane
    The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
  90. nucleus
    (1) An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
  91. nuclear lamina
    A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
  92. chromatin
    The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing,exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
  93. food vacuoles
    A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
  94. contractile vacuoles
    A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
  95. plastids
    One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
  96. central vacuole
    A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
  97. tonoplast
    A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap
  98. mitochondria
    An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
  99. chloroplasts
    An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  100. cristae
    (plural, cristae) An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
  101. thylakoids
    A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
  102. grana
    A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
  103. stroma
    The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  104. peroxisome
    A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
  105. cytoskeleton
    A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
  106. centrosome
    Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
  107. flagella
    A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
  108. cilia
    A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
  109. actin
    A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
  110. cell wall
    A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.
  111. extracellular matrix
    The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
  112. collagen
    A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
  113. chromosomes
    A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
  114. nucleolus
    A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
  115. ribosomes
    A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits
  116. smooth ER
    That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
  117. Rough ER
    That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
  118. endoplasmic reticulum
    An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
  119. glycoproteins
    A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
  120. golgi apparatus
    An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  121. transport vesicles
    A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
  122. lysosomes
    A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  123. phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
  124. selective permeability
    (the ability to allow some sub. to cross the plasma membrane more easily) A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
  125. fluid mosaic model
    The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
  126. integral proteins
    Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  127. peripheral proteins
    Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
  128. diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
  129. concentration gradient
    An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  130. passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
  131. hypertonic
    In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
  132. hypotonic
    In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
  133. isotonic
    Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
  134. osmoregulation
    The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
  135. osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  136. turgid
    Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
  137. flaccid
    Limp. Walled cells are limp in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter.
  138. plasmolysis
    A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment
  139. facilitated diffusion
    The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
  140. aquaporins
    (water channel proteins that facilitate the amount of diffusion)A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
  141. gated channels
    A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
  142. active transport
    The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  143. sodium potassium pump
    A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
  144. electrochemical gradient
    The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
  145. proton pump
    An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential
  146. cotransport
    The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
  147. exocytosis
    The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
  148. endocytosis
    The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
  149. phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
  150. pinocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
  151. ligands
    A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
  152. receptor mediated endocytosis
    The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
  153. electrogenic pump
    An ion transport protein generating voltage across the membrane.
  154. nucleus
    chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes translate the genetic message into polypeptide
  155. chromatin
    organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material
  156. nucleolus
    specialized structure in special type of RNA, ribosomal RNA, is synthesized + assembled w/ proteins imported from cytoplasm into main components of ribsomal subunits which pass nuclear portes to cytoplasm where they combine to form ribosomes
  157. nuclear envelope
    double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles
  158. ribosomes
    use info, from the DNA to make proteins and carry out protein synthesis
  159. free ribosomes
    suspended in cytosol which will function in cytosol (ex:enzymes)
  160. bound ribosomes
    attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
  161. endoplasmic reticulum
    network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
  162. smooth ER
    synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells) involves adding hydroxyl groups to drugs to make soluble and easier to flush from body
  163. rough ER
    sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production
  164. golgi apparatus
    center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping products are usually modified during their transit from the cis pole to the trans pole
  165. cis face
    golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen,cavity, to this face
  166. trans face
    golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
  167. lysosomes
    digestive compartments (macromolecules) carry out intracellular digestion . Use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material (autophagy)
  168. mitochondria
    sites of cellular respiration the catbolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats + other fuels w/ oxygens help
  169. chloroplast
    sites of photosynthesis. convert solar energy--> chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H20
  170. peroxisomes
    generate and degrade H2O2 in performing various metabolic functions transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen and they produce H2O2. Use O to break fatty acids that can be sent to mitochondria
  171. cytoskeleton
    organizing the structures and activities of cells
  172. microtubules
    maintenance of cell shape (compression resisting girders) cell motility organelle and chromosome movement
  173. microfilaments
    actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction
  174. intermediate filaments
    anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
  175. centrosomes
    region where cells microtubules are initiated
  176. centrioles
    composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring
  177. ECM
    function in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation (glycoproteins) collagen most abundant in animal cells
  178. tight junctions
    membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
  179. desmosome
    function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets Intermediate filaments reinforce this
  180. gap junctions
    provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
  181. amphipathic molecules
    Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions .
  182. fluid mosaic model
    The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
  183. freeze-fracture
    splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope, protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix, supporting the fluid mosaic model.
  184. Peripheral proteins
    are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead, the are loosely bound to the surface of the protein, often connected to integral proteins
  185. Integral proteins
    penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).
  186. functions of the proteins
    1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity, sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction, relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition, allowing other proteins to attach two adjacent cells together 5. Intercellular joining of adjacent cells with gap or tight junctions 6. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, maintaining cell shape and stabilizing the location of certain membrane proteins.
  187. Cell-cell recognition
    the ability of a cell to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another is crucial to the functioning of an organism carbohydrates are important for this
  188. transport proteins
    span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
  189. diffusion
    the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
  190. passive transport
    • the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen
    • the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
  191. concentration gradient
    an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area -->substances tend to move form where there are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  192. osmosis
    the passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter
  193. facilitated diffusion
    the passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins
  194. gated channels
    many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus
  195. active transport
    uses energy to move solutes against their gradients; requires the cell to expend metabolic energy; enables a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across he membrane ; ATP supplies the energy for active transport
  196. ATP
    ATP can power active transport by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the transport protein. This may induce a conformation change in the transport proteins translocating the solute across the membrane
  197. sodium potassium pump
    actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
  198. voltage
    electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges
  199. membrane potential
    voltage across a membrane. ranges from -50 to -200 millivolts. inside of cell negative compared to the outside
  200. electrochemical gradient
    drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gradient
  201. electrogenic pumps
    special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps 2 K+ for every 3 Na+ setting up a voltage across membrane
  202. proton pump
    in plants bacteria and fungi it is the major electrogenic pump actively transporting H+ out of the cell
  203. cotransport
    a single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movement can be coupled with the active transport of another substance against its concentration gradient
  204. phagocytosis
    the cell engulfs a particle by extending psedopodia around it and packaging it in a large vacuole
  205. pinocytosis
    a cell creates a vesicle around a droplet of extracellular fluid
  206. thermodynamics
    (1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.
  207. 1st law of thermodynamics
    The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  208. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases.
  209. entropy
    A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
  210. free energy
    The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
  211. exergonic reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
  212. endergonic reaction
    A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
  213. ATP
    An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
  214. energy coupling
    In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
  215. phospholipid
    A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
  216. catalyst
    A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  217. activation energy
    The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
  218. substrate
    The reactant on which an enzyme works
  219. competitive inhibitor
    A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
  220. noncompetitive inhibitor
    A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
  221. active site
    The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
  222. induced fit
    The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
  223. cofactor
    Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
  224. coenzyme
    An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function in important metabolic reactions.
  225. allosteric site
    A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
  226. feedback inhibition
    A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
  227. fermentation
    A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
  228. cellular respiration
    The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
  229. redox reactions
    A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
  230. oxidation
    The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
  231. reduction
    The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
  232. reducing agent
    The electron donor in a redox reaction.
  233. oxidizing agent
    The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
  234. NaD+
    a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism
  235. electron transport chain
    A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
  236. glycolysis
    The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration
  237. krebs Cycle
    A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
  238. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
  239. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
  240. Acetyl CoA
    The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
  241. Cytochrome
    An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
  242. ATP synthase
    A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
  243. proton motive force
    The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
  244. aerobic
    Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
  245. anaerobic
    Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
  246. alcohol fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
  247. lactid acid fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
  248. faculative anaerobes
    An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
  249. beta oxidation
    A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
  250. autotrophs
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
  251. heterotrophs
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
  252. chlorophyll
    A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
  253. stroma
    The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  254. light reactions
    The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
  255. calvin cycle
    The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
  256. NADP+
    An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
  257. photophosphorylation
    The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
  258. wavelength
    The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  259. electromagnetic spectrum
    The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
  260. visible light
    That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
  261. photon
    A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
  262. spectrophotometer
    An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
  263. absorption spectrum
    The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
  264. chlorophyll A
    A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
  265. chlorophyll B
    A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
  266. action spectrum
    A profile of the relative performance of different wavelengths of light.
  267. carotenoids
    An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
  268. reaction center
    The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
  269. primary electron acceptor
    A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from the chlorophyll a molecule.
  270. photosystem I
    One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
  271. photosystem II
    One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
  272. noncyclic electron flow
    A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
  273. bundle sheath cell
    A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
  274. mesophyll cell
    A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
  275. CAM
    A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
  276. noncyclic phosphorylation
    The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
  277. cyclic electron flow
    A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
  278. cyclic photophosphorylation
    The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
  279. rubisco
    Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
  280. C3 plants
    A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
  281. photorespiration
    A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
  282. C4 plants
    A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
  283. cell division
    reproduction of cells
  284. cell cycle
    sequence of events in the life of a cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two composed of M, G1, S, and G2 phases
  285. genome
    complete complement of organisms genes; genetic material
  286. chromosomes
    gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins
  287. somatic cells
    any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm
  288. gametes
    sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
  289. chromatin
    complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
  290. sister chromatids
    replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II
  291. centromere
    centralized region that joins the two sister chromatids
  292. mitosis
    nuclear division process; prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophse
  293. cytokenisis
    the division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells after mitosis
  294. meiosis
    a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims that results in cells with half the chromosomes number of the original cells
  295. mitotoic phase
    phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokenisis
  296. interphase
    period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high, chromsomes and organelles are duplicated and cell size may increase. 90% of cell cycle
  297. G1 phase
    first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase, after DNA synthesis occurs
  298. G2 phase
    the second growth face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
  299. S phase
    synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated
  300. prophase
    the first subphase of mitosis in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form but the nucleolus and nucleus are still in intact
  301. cell plate
    a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis
  302. prometaphase
    The second subphase of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
  303. metaphase
    3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate
  304. anaphase
    fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
  305. telophase
    the fifth and final subphase of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokenisis actually begins
  306. mitotic spindle
    an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
  307. kinetochore
    a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
  308. binary fission
    prokaryotes cell division . Each daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
  309. cleavage
    cytokenisis process; pinching of the plasma membrane; the succession of rapid cell division without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cell
  310. cell cycle control system
    a cyclically operating set of molecultes in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
  311. G0 phase
    a non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
  312. cyclin
    a regularity protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically
  313. growth factor
    a protein that must be present in the extracellular environment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells
  314. density dependent inhibitor
    any factor that has a greater impact on a population as the population increases
  315. transformation
    the conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.
  316. tumor
    a mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue, caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell
  317. benign tumor
    a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
  318. malignant tumor
    cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs
  319. metastasis
    the spread of cancer to locations distant form original site
  320. genes
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
  321. heredity
    The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
  322. variation
    Differences between members of the same species.
  323. genetics
    The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
  324. asexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
  325. sexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
  326. clone
    (1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell. See also gene cloning.
  327. life cycle
    The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
  328. somatic cell
    Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
  329. karyotype
    A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type.
  330. homologous chromosomes
    Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
  331. crossing over
    The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
  332. sex chromosomes
    One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
  333. gametes
    A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
  334. haploid cells
    A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
  335. fertilization
    The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
  336. diploid cells
    A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
  337. meiosis
    A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
  338. alternation of generations
    A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
  339. sporophyte
    The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
  340. gametophyte
    The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
  341. synapsis
    The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
  342. tetrad
    A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
  343. chiasmata
    The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis.
  344. character
    A heritable feature.
  345. trait
    A characteristic
  346. true breeding
    Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.
  347. hybridization
    The mating, or crossing, of two varieties.
  348. P. generation
    The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.
  349. F1 generation
    The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.
  350. F2 generation
    Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
  351. dominant allele
    In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.
  352. recessive allele
    In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype.
  353. codominance
    A phenotypic situation in which the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
  354. complete dominance
    A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
  355. law of segregration
    Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
  356. punnett square
    A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
  357. homozygous
    Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
  358. heterozygous
    Having two different alleles for a given genetic character
  359. phenotype
    The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
  360. genotype
    The genetic makeup of an organism
  361. monohybrids
    An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.
  362. law of independent assortment
    Mendel's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.
  363. incomplete dominance
    A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties
  364. pleiotropy
    The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
  365. epistasis
    A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
  366. quantitive characters
    A heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive effect of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance).
  367. polygenic inheritance
    An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
  368. pedigree
    A family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible.
  369. cystic fibrosis
    A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
  370. sickle cell anemia
    A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
  371. amniocentesis
    A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus.
  372. chromosome theory of inheritance
    A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
  373. wild type
    An individual with the normal phenotype.
  374. sex linked genes
    A gene located on a sex chromosome.
  375. duchenne muscular dystropy
    A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
  376. linked genes
    Genes that are located on the same chromosome.
  377. genetic recombination
    The general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents.
  378. parental types
    Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
  379. linkage map
    A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers, the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also genetic map.
  380. cytological maps
    Charts of chromosomes that locate genes with respect to chromosomal features.
  381. hemophilia
    A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele, characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
  382. nondisjunction
    An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
  383. trisomic
    A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be trisomic for that chromosome.
  384. monosomic
    A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.
  385. polyploidy
    A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
  386. duplication
    An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome.
  387. inversion
    An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, reattachment of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated, but in a reverse orientation.
  388. barr body
    A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome.
  389. transformation
    (1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
  390. bacteriophage
    A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. See phage.
  391. double helix
    The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
  392. origins replication
    Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
  393. RNA polymerase
    An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
  394. leading strand
    The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction.
  395. lagging strand
    A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
  396. DNA ligase
    A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 39 end of a new DNA fragment to the 59 end of a growing chain.
  397. primer
    An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
  398. helicase
    An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
  399. nuclease
    A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
  400. mismatch repair
    The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
  401. replication fork
    A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
  402. telomeres
    The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically, the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule. See also repetitive DNA.
  403. transcription
    The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
  404. mRNA
    A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
  405. translation
    The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
  406. RNA processing
    Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes.
  407. primary transcript
    An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA.
  408. triplet code
    A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
  409. template strand
    The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
  410. codons
    A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
  411. promoter
    A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
  412. terminator
    A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
  413. transcription unit
    unit, a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
  414. RNA splicing
    The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
  415. introns
    A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
  416. exons
    A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
  417. spliceosome
    A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron, and joining the two adjacent exons.
  418. ribosomes
    A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
  419. domains
    A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
  420. transfer RNA
    An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
  421. anticodon
    A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
  422. ribosomal RNA
    The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.
  423. polyribosomes
    An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
  424. point mutation
    A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
  425. base pair substitution
    A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
  426. missense mutations
    The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
  427. frameshift mutation
    A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
  428. insertion
    A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
  429. deletion
    (1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
  430. mutagens
    A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
  431. capsid
    The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape.
  432. viral envelope
    A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
  433. atoms
    The building blocks of all matter.
  434. properties of matter
    results of the structure of atoms and their interactions with each other.
  435. element
    A substance that can't be broken down into any other substance. The simplest form of an element is an atom.
  436. Protons
    Positive charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.
  437. Neutron
    Neutral charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.
  438. electrons
    Negative charged particles of an atom. They orbit the nucleus. They have much less mass than protons and neutrons.
  439. Nucleus
    Center of an atom. The number of protons in the nucleus is the same as the atomic number on the periodic table of elements.
  440. Uncharged atom
    An atom that has the same number of protons and electrons.
  441. Electron cloud
    Also referred to as the electron shell and orbital. It is the 3 dimensional space that electron orbit the nucleus.
  442. Energy level
    The amount of energy in a electron cloud. The weakest level is the shell closest to the nucleus. As the shell gets stronger more electrons may fill it. Electron fill the shell closest to the nucleus.
  443. Valence shell
    The last shell of the electron cloud. Atoms are more stable when this shell is full.
  444. Covalent bond
    a chemical bond between atoms when they share electrons between their valence shells. These are the strongest chemical bonds.
  445. What is the strongest chemical bond?
    A Covalent bond.
  446. molecule
    two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond.
  447. compound
    When two or more atoms form a unique substance via a chemical bond. Water is an example.
  448. ion
    A charged atom. More protons that electrons makes a positive ion and more electrons than protons makes a negative ion.
  449. ionic bond
    When positive and negative ions are attracted to each other. Weaker than a covalent bond. Table salt is an ionic bond.
  450. polar molecules
    molecules that have regions of a partial charge. Water molecules have a positive hydrogen charge.
  451. Hydrogen bond
    The force of attraction between water molecules that hold them together . A weak chemical bond.
  452. Chemical reaction
    When two or more molecules react with each other to form one or more moleculte types.
  453. Reactants
    The reacting molecules of a chemical reaction.
  454. Products (Chemical Reaction)
    The result of a chemical reaction.
  455. Decomposition (Chemical reaction)
    In a chemical reaction when a compound breaks down into components
  456. Combination (Chemical reaction)
    When compounds combine.
  457. Replacement
    When a compund breaks apart and forms a new compund with a free reactant.
  458. Endothermic reaction
    A reaction that requires energy
  459. Exothermic reaction
    A reaction that produces energy
  460. First law of thermodynamics
    That matter and energy is neither created nor destroyed.
  461. Second law of thermodynamic
    All reaction spread energy which tend to diminish it's availability.
  462. A compund that is able to dissolve many types of organic and inorganic compunds
    Water.
  463. acid
    A chemical that donates protons when dissolved in water. Below 7 on the pH scale
  464. base
    A chemical that accepts protons when dissolved in water. Above 7 on the pH scale.
  465. Neutralize each other when combined in water.
    Acids and bases. When combined in water they produce water and a salt (ionic compound)
  466. Organic compounds
    compounds that contain carbon.
  467. Organic molecules
    contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosporus, and some metal ions.
  468. Carbohydrates
    Made of Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The Ratio of H and O is always 2:1. Just like water.
  469. Sugar
    A type of carbohydrate
  470. Starch
    A type of carbohydrate
  471. monosaccharide
    The basic sugar unit.
  472. hexo monosaccharide
    six carbon sugars. The most commone monosaccharide. They are usually ring shaped.
  473. disaccharide
    When two monosaccharide units form together. Glucose and fructose make table sugar. A water molecule is liberated when one is formed.
  474. trisaccharide
    When threee monosaccharide's combine.
  475. polysaccharide
    When four or more monosaccharide's combine.
  476. Starches
    A polysaccharide. Plant's store starches in their cell's for future energy. Also used for structure in a plant's cell. The most common is cellulose
  477. Cellulose
    Most common starch in a plant cell. It is a long chain of water insoluable polysaccharides
  478. Glycogen.
    A polysaccharide made of joined glucose units. Used by many animals for short term energy. Found in muscle and liver tissue.
  479. lipids
    Organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Ratio of H to O is alway greater than 2:1. Includes waxes, steroids, phospholipids, and fats.
  480. phospholipids
    form components of cel membranes.
  481. waxes.
    provide a moisture barrier.
  482. Fats
    long term energy storage.
  483. proteins
    In every living cell. Large chains of amino acids.
  484. monomer
    a single amino acid
  485. polymers
    connected monomers (Amino Acids).
  486. Amino Acids
    Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and phospoirus. 20 common amino acids that make thousands of different proteins.
  487. peptide bonds
    The bond that holds monmers together to form polymers.
  488. polypeptide
    Another name for proteins. Nameds this because of the peptide bonds that monomers use to connect together.
  489. Enzymes
    A special protein. It functions as a catalyst for reactions
  490. Catalyst
    A substance that changes the speed of a reaction. The catalyst is not affected at all during this reaction. All catalyst end in -ase.
  491. -ase (Ending of compound)
    This is a catlyst. All catalysts end with this.
  492. Nucleic Acids
    DNA and RNA. These are polymers (proteins)
  493. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid. Two strands that pair up via a hydrogen bond. They form a double helix shape.
  494. RNA
    ribonucleic acid. Generally a single strand
  495. nucleotides
    monomers that form nucleic acids. Each one has a sugar group and a phosphate group with a nitrogen base.
  496. deoxyribose
    sugare molecule in DNA
  497. ribose
    sugar molecule in RNA
  498. Watson Crick model
    The double helix model of DNA
  499. Describe the difference between magnification and resolving power
    Magnification is the ratio of an object's image size to its real size. Resolution is a measure of the clarity of the image and is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points.
  500. Organelles
    Membrane-bound compartments in a cell which cannot be resolved by a light microscope
  501. A useful technique for studying cell structure and function, which takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from one another
    Cell fractionation (instrument used is the centrifuge)
  502. How do stains used for light microscopy compare with those used for electron microscopy? (CC 6.1, p. 97)
    Appendix A
  503. Which type of microscope would you use to study (a) the changes in shape of a living white blood cell, (b) the details of surface texture of hair, and (c) the detailed structure of an organelle? (CC 6.1, p. 97)
    Appendix A
  504. Basic features common to all cells
    Plasma membrane (contains the cytosol), chromosomes, and ribosomes
  505. Which domains consist of prokaryotic cells?
    Domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells
  506. Which domains consist of eukaryotic cells?
    Protists, fungi, animals, and plants
  507. Where is most of the eukaryotic cell's DNA located? Where is most of the prokaryotic cell's DNA located?
    In the nucleus; In the nucleoid
  508. Cytoplasm
    The interior of a prokaryotic cell or the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell
  509. What are the smallest bacterial cells known? Give their respective size.
    Mycoplasmas, 0.1 to 1.0 micrometers in diameter
  510. Give the size for typical bacteria; Typical eukaryotic cells
    1-5 micrometers in diameter; 10-100 micrometers
  511. A selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell
    Plasma membrane
  512. Fimbriae
    Attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes
  513. Nucleoid
    The region in a prokaryotic cell where most of the cell's DNA is located and not enclosed by a membrane
  514. Ribosomes
    Complexes that synthesize proteins; free in the cytosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
  515. Cell wall
    Rigid structure outside the plasma membrane
  516. Capsule
    Jellylike outer coating of many prokaryotes
  517. Flagella
    Locomotion organelles of some bacteria
  518. Where does most of an animal cell's metabolic activities occur?
    In the cytoplasm
  519. The most prominent organelle in an animal cell
    The nucleus
  520. Endoplasmic reticulum
    A network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough (ribosome-studded) and smooth regions
  521. Centrosome
    Region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles
  522. Cytoskeleton
    Reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of protein and includes: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
  523. Microvilli
    Projections that increase the cell's surface area
  524. Peroxisome
    Organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water
  525. Nuclear envelope (part of the nucleus)
    Double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with the ER
  526. Nucleolus (part of the nucleus)
    Structure involved in production of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli
  527. Chromatin (part of the nucleus)
    Material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as individual chromosomes in a dividing cell
  528. Golgi apparatus
    Organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and excretion of cell products
  529. Lysosome
    Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolized
  530. Mitochondrion
    Organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
  531. Name the systems present in animal cells but not plant cells
    • 1. Lysosomes
    • 2. Centrosomes, with centrioles
    • 3. Flagella (but present in some plant sperm)
  532. Plastids
    Organelles present in plant cells, the most important of which are chloroplasts
  533. Cell wall (in plant cells)
    Outer layer that maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein
  534. Cental vacuole (in plant cells)
    Prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
  535. Chloroplast
    Photosynthetic organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
  536. Plasmodesmata
    Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
  537. Structures present in plant cells but not animal cells
    • 1. Chloroplasts
    • 2. Central vacuole
    • 3. Cell wall
    • 4. Plasmodesmata
  538. Chromatin
    A complex of proteins and DNA that make up chromosomes
  539. How many chromosomes does a typical human cell have in its nucleus?
    A typical human cell has 46 chromosomes in its nucleus, the exceptions being the germ cells which have only 23 chromosomes
  540. Distinguish between the two types of ribosomes
    Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol and bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope. Bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes, for packaging within certain organelles (such as lysosomes), or for export from the cell (secretion). Cells that specialize in protein secretion frequently have a high proportion of bound ribosomes
  541. Endomembrane system
    Carries out tasks within the cell, including: synthesis of proteins and their transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
  542. Which structures are included in the endomembrane system?
    • 1. Nuclear envelope
    • 2. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • 3. Golgi apparatus
    • 4. Lysosomes
    • 5. Various kinds of vacuoles
    • 6. Plasma membrane
  543. Cell Theory
    This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
  544. nucleotide
    monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  545. codon
    three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
  546. anticodon
    group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
  547. polypeptide
    synonym for protein; chain of amino acids
  548. what assorts independently during meiosis?
    chromosomes
  549. true-breeding
    organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves through self-pollination
  550. alleles
    the different forms of a gene
  551. homozygous
    organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
  552. heterozygous
    organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
  553. phenotype
    physical characteristics
  554. independent assortment
    states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes and helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, and other organisms
  555. incomplete dominance
    when one allele is not completly dominant over another
  556. codominance
    when both alleles contribute to the phenotype
  557. homologous
    term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
  558. diploid
    a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
  559. haploid
    a cell that has one set of homologous chromosomes, a cell that has a single set of chromosomes and therefore only 1 set of genes
  560. meiosis
    a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  561. lipids
    Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets
  562. triglycerides
    Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body
  563. unsaturated fat
    A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants
  564. saturated fat
    a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals
  565. phospholipid
    A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.
  566. protein
    Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids
  567. amino acids
    Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein
  568. enzyme
    A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction)
  569. peptide bond
    A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.
  570. organic compounds
    Carbon-containing compounds. Important examples include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
  571. inorganic compounds
    For the most part, compounds containing no carbon. There are some exceptions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and others.
  572. carbohydrate
    Organic compound used by the cells of the human body in energy-producing reactions and as structural material. The three main types of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
  573. What is the key limiting factor on cell size?
    The size of a cell is limited by the ratio of its surface area to volume.
  574. A cell will only remain stable if...
    ...the surface area of the plasma membrane maintains a balance with the volume of the cytoplasm.
  575. The salivary gland...
    ...secretes saliva which enters the digestive tract and aids the digestive process.
  576. Gregor Medel
    Studied the relationships between traits expressed in parents and offspring and the genes that caused the traits to be expressed.
  577. In order to become an established part of an island ecosystem there must be...
    ...a populations large enough to ensure successful reproduction, a food source, a suitable habitat, and a source of moisture.
  578. Lymphocytes
    Are cells involved in immunity and are produced in bone marrow as stem cells.
  579. B Cells
    Produce antibodies into the bloodstream that find and attach themselves to foreign antigens (toxins, bacteria).
  580. T Cells
    Some patrol the blood for antigens, but are also equipped to destroy antigens. They may regulate immune responses as well.
  581. Mass extinctions promote diversification...
    ...because ecological niches open up, making conditions favorable for the establishment of new, diverse species.
  582. Common elements found in proteins are
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
  583. What phylum are snakes in?
    Chordata
  584. Cellular Respiration
    Is the process that releases energy for use by the cell.
  585. A hydrogen bond
    Is weaker than ionic, covalent, disulfide, or double bonds.
  586. A hydrogen bond involves
    the attraction of atoms of different polarity and can be easily broken.
  587. Ionic bonds involve
    the transfer of electrons.
  588. Covalent bonds
    share electrons.
  589. Chimpanzees
    Are more closely related to Homo Sapiens than to other apes, but Homo Sapiens did not evolve from chimpanzees.
  590. About five million years ago...
    ...the lineage that led to the modern Homo Sapiens diverged from the lineage that led to the modern chimpanzee.
  591. The evolution leading to Homo Sapiens...
    Is more like branching out of a tree with dead ends and new branches appearing simultaneously than like steps on a ladder.
  592. Early hominids...
    Stood upright before there was an increase in brain size.
  593. The large brain and upright posture
    of Homo Sapiens did not evolve together.
  594. Most fossils of Hominids
    are from continents other than North America.
  595. The stomach secretes
    digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid, and gastric juices which aid in digestion. The mucous secreted by the stomach protects the stomach lining from the acids and juices.
  596. Algae and Protozoa belong to the kingdom
    Protista
  597. Plants and animals obtain usable nitrogen
    through nitrogen fixing bacteria and lighting.
  598. When the water concentration inside and outside the cell is equal,
    it is said to be in an isotonic state.
  599. Isotonic Conditions
    are produced when water passes through the cell membrane by osmosis from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, to equalize water concentration.
  600. The effect of a substrate concentration on the initial reaction rate in the presence of a limited amount of enzyme...
    will increase the reaction rate as the concentration of substrate is increased until all the enzymes are used, then the reaction rate will level off.
  601. An enzyme
    Is a special protein that acts as a catalyst for organic reactions.
  602. A catalyst
    is a substance that changes the speed of a reaction without being affected itself.
  603. Kingdom Protista
    Contain one celled eukaryotes such as algae and protozoa.
  604. Kingdom Animalia
    contain organisms that are multicellular eukaryotes including vertebrates and invertebrates.
  605. Kingdom Fungi
    contains organisms that are multicellular eukaryotes including molds and mushrooms.
  606. Kingdom Plantae
    contains multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms including gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  607. Cellular Metabolism
    Energy transformations that occur as chemicals are broken down or synthesized within the cell.
  608. Catabolism
    breaking down
  609. Anabolism
    synthesis
  610. Hydrolysis
    a reaction that adds water to another compound. (2 hydrogens, 1 oxygen).
  611. Chlorophyll
    must be present for photosynthesis to occur, it is not used up in the process.
  612. Chlorophyll has the ability to
    absorb a photon of light and is found in the grana of the chloroplast.
  613. Electron Transfer System (ETS)
    produces the most ATP molecules, yielding 34 ATPs per glucose molecule.
  614. The products of the Krebs cycle
    are easily converted to ATP, but the main energy products of the Krebs cycle liberate electrons then used in the electron transfer reactions.
  615. Photolysis is a reaction of photosynthesis where
    chlorophyll pigments absorb photons of light, leaving the chlorophyll in a higher energy (excited) state, these then supply energy to reactions that produce ATP from ADP and Pi.
  616. Pi
    Inorganic phosphate
  617. A mutation
    is an accidental change of the DNA sequence of the gene that can result in creating a change of trait that is not found in the parent.
  618. Differential reproduction
    proposes that those individuals within a population that are most adapted to the environment are also the most likely individuals to produce viable offspring.
  619. The Hardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium
    states that where random mating is occurring within a population that is in equilibrium with its environment, the gene frequencies and genotype ratios will remain constant from generation to generation. It is a mathematical formula that shows why recessive genes do not disappear over time from a population.
  620. Allopatric speciation
    occurs when two populations are geographically isolated from each other. Over time this results in the production of two separate species.
  621. Gene Migration occurs when
    an individual from an adjacent population of the same species immigrates and breeds with a member of a previously locally isolated group, resulting in a change in the gene pool.
  622. The primary role of DNA in the cell
    is the control of protein synthesis. Genetic traits are expressed and specialization of cells occur as a result of the combination of proteins produced by the DNA of a cell.
  623. DNA replication
    allows for the genetic code to be preserved in future generations of cells.
  624. Genetic imprinting
    is when expression of genetic traits is determined by weather the trait is inherited from the mother or the father.
  625. Genetic maintenance
    the preservation of the integrity of genetic information from one generation to another.
  626. Genetic screening
    the systematic search for individuals with a specific genotype in a delineated population.
  627. In DNA Guanine pairs with
    Cytosine
  628. In DNA Thymine pairs with
    Adenine
  629. Interphase
    is the period when the cell is active in carrying on the function it was designed to perform within the organism. Cells spend much more time in interphase than in cell division.
  630. Lysosomes
    are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that digest dead or unused material within the cell or materials absorbed by the cell for use.
  631. Free ribosomes
    where protein synthesis occurs. They float unattached in the cytoplasm. They contain RNA that is specific to their function in protein formation.
  632. DNA produces particular genetic traits through
    Protein synthesis
  633. Endocytic vesicles
    are formed when the plasma membrane of a cell encloses a molecule outside the membrane, then releases a membrane bound sack containing the desired molecule into the cytoplasm. This process allows the cell to absorb molecules that are larger in size than would be able to pass through the cell membrane.
  634. The nucleus
    contains the chromosomes and is the site of reproduction through mitosis and meiosis.
  635. Centrioles
    are tubes constructed of a geometrical arrangement of microtubules in a pinwheel shape. Their function includes the formation of new microtubules, but is primarily to form the structural skeleton around which cells split during mitosis and meiosis.
  636. Ribonucleic acid
    is a molecule that stores information for protein synthesis and genetic coding.
  637. Cellulose, starch, lipid, and sugar molecules
    all store energy within their chemical bonds.
  638. The cell membrane (plasma membrane)
    engages in both passive and active transport.
  639. Aggregate fruit
    is a compound fruit that develops from many ovaries of a single flower fusing together (raspberry).
  640. Multiple fruit
    is a compound fruit that forms from several ovaries of separate flowers that fuse together during ripening (strawberry, or pineapple).
  641. Simple fruits
    fruits that develop from a single ripened ovary (apple, olive, acorn, cucumber).
  642. Cuticle
    Covers and protects the leaf.
  643. Stem tissues include:
    vascular tissue, including both xylem and phloem, and sieve plates existing between cells of the stem.
  644. A prosthetic group
    is an ion that binds to an enzyme making it more able to catalyze a reaction.
  645. Prosthetic groups
    may be ions or non-protein molecules, they are similar to cofactors, but differ in that they are tightly attached by covalent bonds to the enzyme, rather than being separate atoms or molecules.
  646. An inhibitor
    attaches to an enzyme and blocks the enzyme reaction rather than enhancing it, like a prosthetic group would.
  647. Phloem tissue
    is made of stacked cells connected by sieve plates that allow nutrients to pass from cell to cell. They transport food made in the leaves (by photosynthesis) to the rest of the plant).
  648. Xylem tissue
    transfers water and does not require sieve plates to allow nutrients through.
  649. Meristem tissue
    is found in the root cap and is responsible for quick growth in the roots.
  650. Internodal tissue
    is found on the stem between nodes.
  651. Ectoderm tissue
    is the outermost of the three main layers of an embryo.
  652. Characteristics of water valuable to living organisms:
    transparency, polarity, high specific heat, and density (lower density when solid than when liquid.).
  653. Water has a pH of
    approximately 7, making it neither basic (under 7) nor alkaline (over 7).
  654. Carrying capacity
    is the number of organisms that can be supported within a particular ecosystem.
  655. Natality
    refers to the birthrate of a population.
  656. Population includes
    the number of organisms in a given community, can be above or below the carrying capacity.
  657. The community
    is comprised of all the organisms that interact within a given ecosystem whether or not it is at carrying capacity.
  658. The biosphere
    includes all living and nonliving components of the Earth to support living things.
  659. Spiracles
    respiratory organs within insects
  660. Most chemical pollutants accidentally ingested by humans
    are filtered by the liver, mixed with broken down pigments in the bile, then bile is secreted into the small intestine, proceeds to the large intestine, and is expelled in the feces.
  661. Gametogenesis
    the process of forming eggs and sperm cells in the reproductive organs.
  662. Gametocide
    the destruction of gametes, (sex cells such as sperm and eggs).
  663. Germ layers
    The cells of a developing embryo (at the gastrula stage) differentiate into layers, that will later develop into different tissues and organs, including the mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm.
  664. Mesoderm
    Between the endoderm and ectoderm, layer that will eventually form the muscles, and organs of the skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, reproductive, and excretory systems.
  665. Endoderm
    Layer that will become the gut lining as well as some accessory structures.
  666. Ectoderm
    Layer that will become the skin, some endocrine glands, and the nervous system.
  667. Morula
    the solid mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
  668. Blastula
    develops from the morula as a thin layer of cells surrounding an internal cavity.
  669. Circadian rhythms
    Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night. An organisms daily repeated behavior such as wake and sleep cycles that function according to its internal clock.
  670. Altruism
    is a social behavior of an organism that is beneficial to the group at the individual's expense.
  671. Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
    a type of innate behavior (instinct.) The FAP is a preprogrammed response to a particular stimulus (known as a releaser stimulus). FAP's include courtship behaviors and feeding of young. These are not learned behaviors, they are automatically performed without any prior experience.
  672. Habituation
    occurs when an individual learns not to respond to a particular stimulus, for instance when a stimulus is repeated many times without consequence.
  673. Imprinting
    is a behavior that is learned during a critical point (often very early) in an individual's life. Imprinting enables the young the recognize members of their own species.
  674. Habitat
    the physical place where a particular organism lives. It must include all the factors that will support its life and reproduction.
  675. Niche
    the role played by an organism in its food chain.
  676. Biosphere
    The part of the earth that contains all living things, including the atmosphere (air), the lithosphere (earth), and the hydrosphere (water).
  677. A gene is
    a length of DNA (with corresponding histones) is responsible for the production of a certain protein that causes a particular trait to be expressed in an organism.
  678. Genome
    the total amount of genetic information available for a given species.
  679. Chromosome
    contains many genes and is a structure comprised of linear DNA and associated proteins.
  680. Nucleotides
    are the monomers that form nucleic acids, containing a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  681. A species role in the food chain is part of its
    niche
  682. The habitat of an organism includes
    biotic (living) factors such as population and food source, and abiotic (non-living) factors such as weather, temperature, soil features, sunlight).
  683. Vascular bundles
    are where the sugars synthesized by photosynthesis travel through to various parts of the plant.
  684. Vascular bundles make up the
    veins in the leaf and are also distributed throughout the stem
  685. Epidermal tissue
    is the outermost layer of cells of the stem.
  686. Meristem tissue
    consists of undifferentiated cells capable of quick growth and specialization. It is responsible for elongation of the stem.
  687. Parenchyma tissue
    has loosely packed cells that allow for gas and moisture exchange.
  688. The cuticle
    is the waxy protective outer coating of leaves.
  689. Biogeochemical cycles
    Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
  690. Recycled environmental factors
    Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and water. These are all recycled through biogeochemical processes.
  691. Silicon
    is the major component of sand and is the most abundant element found in the lithosphere. It is not recycled.
  692. As energy is transferred through trophic levels
    some energy is lost as heat and becomes unusable.
  693. Plasmodesmata
    channels is cell membranes that carry water between cells.
  694. Phosphorous
    becomes available for erosion as undersea sedimentary rocks are up-thrust by volcanic activity, erosion releases it from rocks into streams where it combines with oxygen to form phosphates in lakes that are then absorbed by plants, it is recycled through the food chain as animals consume plants and other animals, it is returned to the ground by animal waste.
  695. Phosphorous gas
    is very rare and is not absorbed by plant leaves. Phosphorous is nearly always found in solid form.
  696. The cell membrane
    is composed of a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids with protein globules imbedded within the layers. The construction of the membrane allows it to aid the function of the cell by permitting entrance and exit of molecules as needed by the cell.
  697. Mitochondria
    are the organelles where cellular respiration occurs.
  698. A lysosome
    is a packet of digestive enzymes that destroy cellular wastes.
  699. Chromatin
    is disorganized, unravelled, DNA with histones attached.
  700. The nucleus
    is the organelle where cellular reproductive processes occur.
  701. Ecotone
    the sharp boundary of an ecosystem.
  702. The Cambrian Period
    is the earliest period of the Paleozoic era. Began with the Cambrian explosion, this explosion of life resulted in the representatives of most of the modern phyla being present.
  703. Phyla
    subsets below the kingdom level
  704. Precambrian period
    Fossilized burrows from multicellular organisms begin to appear in the geological record approximately 700 million years ago during the Precambrian period. These multicellular animals had only soft parts and could not be fossilized.
  705. Mesozoic era
    Ended with the extinction of the dinosaurs.
  706. Cenozoic era
    the most recent and present era. It includes the radiation of flowering plants, the angiosperms.
  707. Paleozoic era
    There was extensive radiation of fish during the Devonian and Silurian periods within the Paleozoic Era.
  708. The cell's "powerhouses"
    Mitochondria, they constitute the center of cellular respiration.
  709. Alveoli
    are surrounded by capillaries that allow for carbon dioxide to diffuse into the lungs and oxygen to diffuse out.
  710. Trachea
    The trachea includes the windpipe or larynx in its upper portion, and the glottis, an opening that allows the gases to pass into the two branches known as the bronchi.
  711. Bronchi
    The bronchi lead to the two lungs where they branch out in all directions into smaller tubules known as bronchioles.
  712. Larynx
    The vocal cords are found in the larynx.
  713. Pharynx
    The pharynx is between the nasal passage and the trachea. Air passes into the body via the nasal passage, then passes through the pharynx and on to the trachea.
  714. Arthropoda
    The phylum of insects (bees).
  715. Aves
    the class composed of birds.
  716. Annelida
    the phyla composed of segmented worms.
  717. Nematoda
    the phyla of round worms.
  718. Porifera
    the phyla of sponges.
  719. An enzyme
    is a protein, which is a polymer of amino acids. They generally have the suffix -ase- like lactase.
  720. Lactose
    is the sugar that lactase acts upon.
  721. Aganatha
    super-class of vertebrae including organisms with no jaws.
  722. Gnathostomata
    super-class of vertebrae including organisms with jaws.
  723. Protista
    is a kingdom that includes algae and protozoa.
  724. Cnidaria
    is a phylum that contains jellyfish, hydra, etc.
  725. Porifera
    is a phylum that contains sponges.
  726. The synthesis of ATP molecules to store energy is an example of
    anabolism
  727. Anabolsim
    the process whereby cells build molecules and store energy (in the form of covalent chemical bonds).
  728. Catabolism
    Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
  729. Lysis
    a suffix meaning "to break apart."
  730. O
    • ||
    • ||
    • C ---OH
    • This is a carboxyl group and is the signature group found within organic acids.
  731. Cell walls
    provide rigidity to plant cells (and some bacteria) and are not found within animal cells.
  732. Bryophytes
    nonvascular plants such as mosses which lack tissue for conducting food or water.
  733. Angiosperms
    plants that produce flowers as reproductive organs. They have two divisions, monocots and dicots.
  734. Gymnosperms
    produce seeds without flowers. They include conifers (cone-bearers) and cycads.
  735. R-selection
    an opportunistic life strategy strategy. Lichens invading a bare rock area after a volcanic eruption is an example.
  736. Cerebrum
    controls sensory and motor responses, and controls memory, speech, and intelligence factors.
  737. Forebrain
    controls olfactory lobes (smell)
  738. Hypothalamus
    controls hunger and thirst
  739. Cerebellum
    controls balance and muscle coordination
  740. Midbrain
    Contains optic lobes, controls sight.
  741. The Cell Theory was
    developed by the German scientists Schleiden and Schwann
  742. The Cell Theory states
    that all living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of life, all cells come from pre-existing cells.
  743. The Nitrogen cycle includes the following scenarios:
    Bacteria break ammonia into nitrites, then into nitrates that are usable by plants; volcanic activity produces ammonia and nitrates that enter the soil and can be absorbed by plants; lightning reacts with atmospheric nitrogen to form nitrates that are absorbed by plants; nitrogen is recycled from dead organisms and reenters the food chain.
  744. Enzymes catalyze reactions
    in both living and non-living environments.
  745. High temperatures
    destroy most enzymes.
  746. An enzyme is unaffected by the reactions it catalyzes,
    so it can be used over and over again.
  747. Enzymes are usually
    very specific to certain reactions.
  748. Some enzymes contain a
    non-protein component that is essential to their functions.
  749. Scurvy
    is a disease caused by lack of vitamin C in which the body is unable to build enough collagen (a major component of connective tissue).
  750. Vitamin C
    is a coenzyme required in the synthesis of collagen.
  751. Vitamins
    are organic cofactors or coenzymes that are required by some enzymatic reactions.
  752. Mature sporophyte
    the individual we recognize as an adult fern.
  753. Prothallus
    small, green, heart-shaped gametophyte plant form of a fern that can make its own food and absorb water and nutrients from the soil
  754. Tundra
    has extreme cold temperatures, low precipitation, modified grassland, perma-frost, a short growing season and some plants and animals.
  755. Desert
    has extreme hot or cold temperatures, with very low precipitation, sandy or rocky terrain, sparse vegetation (mainly succulents), small animals, rodents, and reptiles.
  756. Savanna
    is a kind of plain characterized by a warm climate, grassland, and seasonally dry climate conditions.
  757. Phototropism
    an orienting response to light.
  758. When stems bend toward the light it is due to
    phototropism. the hormone auxin, in response to light, migrates from the light to the dark side of the shoot tip. The cells on the dark side now contain more auxin, which causes the cells on that side to elongate more rapidly than cells on the light side. The result is that the plant bends toward the light.
  759. The theory of punctuated equilibrium
    assumes that there are periods of stability during which little evolutionary change occurs, and that speciation can occur rapidly over a very short period of time.
  760. Sudden appearance and disappearance of fossil species
    can be accounted for by the theory of punctuated equilibrium. The fossil record shows periods of stability with regard to appearance and disappearance of species as well as periods of sudden change.
  761. A sex linked recessive disease
    has an equal (50%) chance of being passed from a carrier mother to a son or a daughter.
  762. Hemophilia
    sex-linked recessive disorder carried on the x chromosome defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting
  763. Color blindness
    A sex-linked recessive disorder carried on the x chromosome in which an individual cannot perceive certain colors.
  764. Saprophytic
    (of some plants or fungi) feeding on dead or decaying organic matter
  765. parasitic
    decomposition of living matter for consumption.
  766. pathogenic
    disease causing
  767. The pituitary gland
    is composed of an anterior and posterior lobe. The stalk of the lobe is connected to the hypothalamus. Antidiuretic Hormone (AH) is produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary. Upon nervous stimulation from the hypothalamus, the posterior pituitary releases ADH, which acts on kidney tubule to reabsorb water.
  768. A sudden change in the amount of extracellular fluid will be corrected by events following the release of substances from this organ.
    The pituitary gland.
  769. The pancreas
    secretes insulin to lower blood sugar and maintain equilibrium.
  770. A person eats three candy bars. Within minutes this endocrine gland affects blood-glucose homeostasis.
    The pancreas.
  771. The adrenal glands
    produce adrenaline. This hormone is a well-known constrictor of blood vessels.
  772. The hormone aldosterone
    is secreted by the adrenal cortex to promote sodium reabsorption in the kidney.
  773. Restriction enzymes
    cleave strands of DNA segments at certain sites.
  774. Carbon
    is an abundant element found in protoplasm. Together with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, it composes over 90% of cellular structure.
  775. autotroph
    (self feeder) is an organism that makes its own food.
  776. duality
    Because electrons move at speeds near to that of light, we need to think of them as matter (having mass is a property of matter), and energy ( or quanta of energy), like photons. This is also known in physics as wave-particle _________.
  777. lipids
    ___________ are involved mainly with long-term energy storage. They are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water.
  778. lipids
    "Mixing like oil and water," is an old adage, but it has a fair bit of science behind it. Fatty (oily) substances are a part of organic macromolecules known as ________ , which have areas lacking polar covalent bonds. Water molecules dislike such molecules, causing fats to clump together.
  779. nucleic acids
    In 1950, Stanley Miller designed an experimental test for Oparin's hypothesis that cellular life was preceded by a period of chemical evolution. According to the theory, pre-cellular life would have begun with the formation of __________ _______.
  780. mass
    The atomic _______ is the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom.
  781. elements
    • The ancient Greek philosophers developed the concept of the atom, calling it the fundamental particle of matter that could not be broken down. Today we accept that ___________ are substances consisting of one type of atom. However, we also discovered that atoms can be broken down
    • in nuclear reactions.
  782. Big Bang
    According to the most widely accepted theory, the universe began 10 to 20 billion years ago with the ______ ______ , when a very small "egg" of high density and temperature exploded and formed the expanding universe.
  783. polymer
    During a condensation reaction of monomers, a hydroxyl (OH) group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen (H) is removed from the other. This results in a covalent bond between them, thereby forming a _________.
  784. C
    A lack of Vitamin ___ results in scurvy.
  785. monomers
    Each organic molecule group has small molecules (__________) that are linked repeatedly to form a larger organic molecule (macromolecule).
  786. plasma membrane
    The ______ _________ is found in all cells. It separates the inner parts of the cell from the outer environment.
  787. Red Shift
    When stars/galaxies are moving away from us, the energy they emit is shifted to the red side of the visible-light spectrum. Those moving towards us are shifted to the violet side. A phenomenon called ______ _______ is a strong evidence in the favor of the Big Bang theory.
  788. dissociation
    In chemical reactions, when two reactants bond together we call it a combination, as in A+B -> C. In ____________, we represent the reaction by C -> A+B. (note: -> represents a right arrow)
  789. Carbohydrates
    The general formula Cx(H2O)x is commonly used to represent many ____________, which means "watered carbon." They are formed by green plants from carbon dioxide and water during the process of photosynthesis.
  790. molecules
    • _________________ are compounds with elements in definite, fixed ratios, like water. Those atoms are held together usually by one of the three bonds
    • ionic, covalent or hydrogen. On the other hand, soil is a mixture with uncertain components.
  791. Atomic. Mass. Units (or a.m.u.)
    The mass of particles within an atom are measured in __________.
  792. polar
    In its solid form--ice--water is less dense than when it is liquid, another unusual property! The root of these anomalies in the water molecule is its electronic structure, due to a _________ covalently bonded molecule.
  793. soluble
    One of the most common functional groups is the -OH (hydroxyl) group. Its presence will enable a molecule to be water ___________.
  794. cellulose
    _______________ is a polysaccharide that forms the fibrous part found in plant cell walls.
  795. Heavy Water
    By combining oxygen with deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, one gets _________ _______ ( D2O).
  796. shells
    The orbitals (types s,p,d and f) are arranged in ________, or increasing energy levels from the nucleus outward.
  797. attracted
    Functional groups are clusters of atoms with characteristic structure and functions. For instance, polar molecules (with +/- charges) are ________ to water molecules and are termed "hydrophilic".
  798. covalent
    ___________ bonds are formed when atoms share electrons. Like child custody between two parents, the electrons tend to spend more time with one atom than the other. The number of electrons shared differs based on the atoms involved.
  799. carbon
    The element __________ is the basis of known life. Biological systems, while unique to each species, are based on its chemical bonding properties.
  800. catenation
    Since carbon can make covalent bonds with another carbon atom, carbon chains and rings that serve as the backbones of organic molecules are possible. This property is known as ___________.
  801. radioactive
    A majority of isotopes show nuclear instability, e.g. the tendency of C-14 to convert into C-12. They disintegrate spontaneously with a release of energy, resulting in a process known as ___________ decay.
  802. carbohydrates
    There are two main types of _____________: sugars and starches.
  803. Noble Gases
    The rightmost column of the periodic table contains inert elements known as the ________ _____, because they tend to occur in elemental form and are least likely to react.
  804. dissacharides
    _____________ are formed when two monosaccharides are chemically bonded together.
  805. Canada
    The oldest known rocks on Earth are 3.96 billion years old and are from Arctic __________. Thus, life appears to have begun soon after the cooling of the Earth and formation of the atmosphere and oceans.
  806. adipose
    Diets are attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells known as ___________ cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body.
  807. Heterotroph. Animals, fungi, bacteria, and many protistans are examples.
    A(n) ____________ (other-feeder) is an organism that obtains its energy from another organism.
  808. water
    Hydrocarbons are insoluble in _________ and are less dense than water, so they float on its surface. They are usually soluble in one another, however, as well as in certain organic solvents.
  809. panspermia
    After the formation of the earth, there are several theories for how life began, leaving aside the supernatural. The idea of _____________ hypothesized that life originated out in space and came to earth inside a meteorite.
  810. cytosine
    The four "letters" in the DNA code are _________, guanine, adenine, and thymine (list them separated by commas).
  811. hydroxide
    Water tends to dissociate into H+ and OH- ions, where the oxygen retains the electrons and only one hydrogen. Thus, becoming a negatively charged ion known as ________ (OH-).
  812. peptide
    A ____________ bond is a link between the amino group [-NH2] of one amino acid and the carboxyl group [-COOH] of the next amino acid in the protein chain. All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations of the same twenty amino acids.
  813. protons
    The atomic number of an element is the number of ___________ contained in its nucleus.
  814. ionic
    In an ________ bond, two or more atoms bond together to form a molecule by transferring electrons to each other
  815. condensation
    The formation of the ester bond by _____________ (the removal of water from a molecule) allows the linking of monosaccharides into disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  816. organic
    In the early days of science, inorganic substances could be extracted from the rocks, sediments, or waters of the Earth, whereas _____________ substances were found only in the tissues or remains of living organisms.
  817. water
    About 2/3 of the body is made up of ________.
  818. bonding
    Most atoms found in biological systems tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a Noble Gas, outer electron shell configuration of 2 or 8 electrons. The number of electrons that are gained or lost is characteristic for each element, and is the cause of atomic __________.
  819. isomers
    ____________ are molecules with identical molecular formulas but a different arrangement of their atoms.
  820. water
    It is vital to life, and yet a strange molecule. ___________ participates in virtually every process that occurs in plants and animals. Although the molecules are simple in structure (H2O), the physical and chemical properties of the compound are extraordinarily complicated.
  821. hydrogen
    Due to __________ bonding, water molecules associate strongly. In an ice crystal, the association is a highly ordered, but loose structure. When the ice melts, this orderly arrangement breaks down partially and the molecules pack more closely together. This makes the liquid denser than the solid, which is why ice forms on top of liquid water.
  822. isotopes
    The number of protons--the atomic number--is unique for each element, e.g. Carbon is 6. However, the number of neutrons can differ, resulting in substances known as ___________.
  823. VII-A
    Ionic bonds generally form between elements in Group I (having one electron in their outer shell) and Group __________ (having seven electrons in their outer shell).
  824. replication
    • Biochemically, living systems are separated from other chemical systems by three things
    • the capacity of ___________ from one generation to another, the presence of enzymes and other necessary complex molecules for living, and a membrane that separates the internal cells from the outer environment.
  825. polar
    In covalent bonds, when electrons spend more time with one atom than the other, a type of covalent bond, known as a _______ bond develops. Water (H2O) is an example. Since the electrons spend so much time with the oxygen (oxygen having a greater electronegativity, or electron affinity), that end of the molecule acquires a slightly negative charge.
  826. antigens
    ____________ are substances located on the outside of cells, viruses, and in some cases other chemicals.
  827. proteins
    _____________ constitute about 80 percent of the dry weight of muscle, 70 percent of that of skin, and 90 percent of that of blood.
  828. energy
    Fats and oils function for _________ storage. Animals convert excess sugars (beyond their glycogen storage capacities) into fats. Fats yield 9.3 Kcal/gm, while carbohydrates yield 3.79 Kcal/gm. Fats store six times as much energy as glycogen.
  829. electrons
    In an atom, ___________ occupy orbitals, or areas where they are most likely to be found.
  830. 7
    The pH scale is a logarithmic scale representing the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. It is represented as the negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration. If the pH of water is _____, then the concentration of H+ ions is 10-7.
  831. hydrogen
    In ice, we find another type of bond called ___________ bonds. These result from the weak electrical attraction between the positive end of one H2O molecule and the negative end of another.
  832. 3
    What you see below is the Modern Periodic Table of elements. Phosphorous in column VA, row 3 has 5 electrons in its outer shell, and has _____ shells in total.
  833. triple point
    The _______ _______ of water represents the unique conditions at which it can exist in all three phases in equilibrium.
  834. nucleic acids
    _________ ______ are substances that comprise the genetic material of living cells. They direct the course of protein synthesis, thereby regulating all cell activities. Furthermore, by their transmission from one generation to the next, they are the vehicle for inherited characteristics.
  835. glucose
    The products of photosynthesis are assembled to make ___________. Thus, energy from sunlight is converted into the C-C covalent bond energy.
  836. protein
    Another nucleic acid known as Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is commonly present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Most cytoplasmic RNA is associated with the ribosomes in a cell, where __________ synthesis occurs.
  837. hydrocarbon
    A ___________ is a compound that is made up only of C (carbon) and H (hydrogen) atoms. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound; the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Benzene and methane are good examples.
  838. cohesion
    The hydrogen bonds make water molecules sticky, a property known as __________.
  839. nucleus
    All kinds of atoms contain varying quantities of subatomic particles, arranged around a ________, as if in a solar system.
  840. ion
    Take the case of Chlorine, which belongs to a group of elements with seven electrons in the outer shell, instead of the desired eight. Thus, it will tend to gain one electron in any reaction, gaining a charge of (-1), which makes it a charged atom known as an _______.
  841. prokaryote
    A ______________ is any self-contained cell or organism that lacks internal unit membranes. Bacteria are among the best-known organisms of this kind.
  842. aqueous
    The polarity of the water molecule plays a major part in the formation of ___________ solutions. If an ionic compound, such as sodium chloride, is placed in water, the polar water molecules reduce the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged sodium and negatively charged chloride ions.
  843. sugars (monosaccharides)
    __________ are structurally the simplest carbohydrates. They are the structural unit which makes up the other types of carbohydrates.
  844. energy
    Chemical bonds store __________. The C-C covalent bond has 83.1 Kcal (kilocalories) per mole, while the C=C double covalent bond has 147 Kcal/mole.
  845. two
    Around the nucleus, electrons are arranged in orbitals, and each orbital can hold only ______ electrons.
  846. unsaturated
    The presence of a double C=C covalent bond reduces the number of hydrogens that can bond to the carbon chain, hence termed ___________.
  847. deoxyribonucleic acid
    Of the two major types of nucleic acids, ______________ (better known as DNA) is the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of living organisms. DNA functions in information storage. The English alphabet has 26 letters and over 50,000 words. DNA has 4 letters (C, G, A, and T) and 20 words (the 20 amino acids) that can make an infinite variety of sentences (polypeptides).
  848. hydrophilic
    A hydrocarbon is hydrophobic except when it has an attached ionized functional group such as carboxyl acid (COOH). If so, the molecule is __________.
  849. 180
    If molecular weight is the addition of the atomic masses in a molecule, the weight of glucose (C6H12O6) is _______.
  850. Biology
    The study of life and living organisms. A problem solving process.
  851. Evolution
    Gradual process by which something changes into a different and usually more complex form.
  852. Polymers
    Basic biological molecules join to form larger biological __________.
  853. Myoglobin
    The main oxygen transport protein in muscle. Made of a single chain.
  854. Hemoglobin
    The main oxygen transport protein in blood. Made of two alpha chains and two beta chains.
  855. Biological Community
    A collection of organisms whose members interact with each other within an ecosystem.
  856. Ecosystem
    All organisms in an area together with the physical environment which they inhabit.
  857. Tissue
    Organ systems are made of organs which are made of _____________ which are made of cells.
  858. Scientific Method
    State problem, refine the problem, propose hypothesis, make observations,
  859. Hypothesis
    Tentative, untested explanation of a scientific issue.
  860. Causation
    The act or process of causing something to happen,
  861. Correlation
    A statistical comparison of two variables. Does not necessarily mean that one causes the other.
  862. Element
    A form of matter tha cannot be decomposed into simpler substance by ordinary chemical methods.
  863. Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus
    The six elements that make up 99% of the matter in living systems.
  864. Atom
    The fundamental unit of chemical matter.
  865. Nucleus
    An atom's center of mass and center of positive charge.
  866. Proton
    A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
  867. Neutron
    An uncharged subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
  868. Electron
    A negatively charged subatomic particle located outside the nucleus.
  869. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in the nuclei.
  870. Ion
    A charged species that results from the gain or loss of electrons from a neutral atom or molecule.
  871. Chemical Bond
    An attractive forve between tow or more atoms or ions that holds them together.
  872. Covalent Bond
    A bond whose electrons are shared between atoms.
  873. Ionic Bond
    A chemical bond formed by the attraction between positive and negative ions.
  874. Molecule
    A group of at least two covalently bonded atoms
  875. Molecular formula
    An expression indicating the number of each type of atom in one molecule of a substance.
  876. Compound
    A substance composed of two or more elements combined in fixed proportions.
  877. Hydrogen Bond
    A weak to moderate attractive force between a hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, and an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom on another molecule. Usually represented by dotted lines.
  878. Chemical reaction
    A process in which a substance or substances are converted into one or more new substances with different propertied and composition.
  879. Less Than
    A chemical reaction produces energy when the difference between the reactants and the products is ____________zero.
  880. Surface Tension
    The energy needed to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount.
  881. Polarity
    A condition or state in which a substance has an uneven distribution of electron density. Enables compounds to dissolve and enables hydrogen bonding.
  882. Bond Polarity
    Occurs when one atom in a bond is more electronegative than the other.
  883. Molecular Polarity
    Occurs when there is?
  884. Electronegativity
    The tendency of an atom in a bond to attract shared bonding electrons.
  885. Solvent
    A liquid which dissolves another substance without any change in its chemical composition.
  886. Cohesion
    The attractive force between similar molecules in the same phase.
  887. Adhesion
    The attractive force between molecules in one phase and different molecules in another phase.
  888. Specific Heat
    The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a 1 gram sample of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
  889. Organic Compound
    A compound that contains carbon.
  890. Isomers
    Have ths same molecular formul;a but different chemical and physical properties. The atoms are bonded in a different order. Some hydrocarbons are an example of Isomers.
  891. Functional Group
    A specific combination of bonded atoms that reacts in a characteristic and predictable way. Examples are Ethers and Alchohols which are represented by a generic molecule. Includes Alchohol, Ether, Aldehyde, Ketone, Carboxylic Acid, and Ester., Amine, Amide, and Phosphoesters.
  892. Monosaccharides
    Used by organisms to produce energy, Most common form is glucose. Also includes Fructose and, less commonly, Ribose, and Deoxyribose.
  893. Amino Acids
    Biological compounds containing and amino group and a carboxylic acid group.with one of 20 side chains.
  894. Nucleotides
    A compound containing a nitrogenous base covalently bonded to a pentose sugar and a phosphate group. Classified by the pentose sugar they contain, Ribose or Deoxyribose.
  895. Nucleoside
    A compound containing a nitrogenous base covalently bonded to a pentose sugar
  896. Macromolecules
    Very large molecules with molecular masses as high as several million atomic mass units. Polymers of small similar molecules. Includes Polysaccharides, fats, and proteins.
  897. Condensation Reaction
    Where two molecules are joined by the elimination of a smaller molecule.
  898. Energy, Support, and Transport
    Three roles of Macromolecules.
  899. Polysaccharides
    One of the most abundant carbohydrates providing either energy storage or structural support. Polymers of 10 or more simple sugars, composed of thousands of monomers and up to 100M molecular mass.. Includes Cellulose in plants and Chitin animals with exoskeletons.. Also includes starch. and glycogen.
  900. Proteins
    Macromolecules made from polypeptides. Two type are globular and fibrose.
  901. Fats
    Group of Macromolecules that Includes Triglycerides and Phospholipids.
  902. Hemoglobin
    The main oxygen carrying protein in blood. Globular.
  903. Cell
    The simplest unit of biological organization. Term coined by Robert Hooke who invented the first microscope. Basic unit of life.
  904. Schleiden
    Discovered that plant tissues are made of cells.
  905. Schwann
    Discovered that animal tissues are made of cells.
  906. Virchow
    Challenged the notion of spontaneous generation by postulating that cells come from pre-existing cells.
  907. Pasteur
    Scientist who successfully disproved spontaneous generation.
  908. Nerve Cell
    This type of cell is made up of dendrites and axons.
  909. Plasma Membrane
    The barrier between cells made of a bilayer or phospholipid molecules.
  910. Eukaryotic Cell
    Cells containing membrane enclosed compartments. Typically 10-30 micrometers.
  911. Prokaryotic
    Cells that do not contain membrane enclosed compartments. Single celled organsms roughly one micrometer long. Attached Flagellum gives the organism mobility.
  912. Domain
    One of the three broad categories into which all organisms are grouped. Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria.
  913. Organelle
    A distinct structure or compartment within a eukaryotic cell that performs specific tasks.
  914. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Organelle responsible for the synthesis of RNA into Proteins.
  915. Golgi Apparatus
    Organelle that sorts and modifies proteins from ER and prepares them for transport to specific parts of the cell.
  916. Mitochondria
    The main sites of energy transformation in eukaryotic animal cells.
  917. Lysosomes
    Membrane enclosed sacs containing digestive enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
  918. Cytoskeleton
    Unique to eukaryotic cells; anchors the organelles in place in the cell, includes three types of fibers Microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
  919. Cell Wall
    In plant cells only, this supports the cell shape and protects the cell.
  920. Chloroplast
    In plant cells only, this organelle is responsible for photosynthesis
  921. Vacuole
    In plants only, a membrane enclosed region that serves as a toxic waste dump. The deterioration of these hastens the death of the cell and the plant.
  922. matter is composed of ______
    elements
  923. smallest unit of an element
    atom
  924. five elements essential to life
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium
  925. energy is
    the ability to do work
  926. kinetic energy
    energy in motion
  927. potential energy
    stored energy
  928. entropy
    the increase in randomness and loss of usable energy
  929. first law of thermodynam ics
    in any process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
  930. second law of thermodynamics
    whenever energy is used, some of the energy is wasted
  931. endothermic reaction
    absorbs heat; endo, within
  932. exothermic reaction
    gives off heat; exo, outside
  933. catalysts
    affect the rate of the reaction but are not changed in the reaction
  934. solution
    homogenous(alike) mixture of one or more substances in another substance
  935. solute
    dissolved
  936. solvent
    dissolver (water: universal solvent)
  937. suspension
    particles are mixed but not dissolved
  938. colloid
    mixture of fine particles that do not settle out quickly (ex. protoplasm)
  939. reversible colloid
    can change between gel and sol phases (ex. protoplasm)
  940. nonreversible colloid
    cannot change between gel and sol (ex. egg whites)
  941. osmosis is
    the diffusion of water(!!) through a semipermiable membrane; equilibrium is never reached.
  942. biosynthesis is
    the putting together of living things
  943. what is chief ingredient in living things
    carbon
  944. carbohydrates are
    organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; provide structure and store energy
  945. monosaccharides are
    single sugars; glucose(C6H12O6) is a monosaccharide that is manufactured by plants in photosynthesis
  946. disaccharides
    double sugars; maltose, sucrose, lactose; formed when monosaccharides undergo dehydration synthesis, when a suger looses hydrozyl group (OH) and another gives hydrogen, resulting in a water molecule and a disaccharide
  947. hydrolosys in disaccharides means
    when a cell needs a monosaccharide, enzymes cause disaccharides to undergo hydrolysis, which means the breaking down of a disaccharide by adding a water molecule
  948. polysaccharides
    many sugars; complex carbs
  949. starch
    is a polysaccharide; stored by plants; a major energy source for humans; humans can't make it
  950. glycogen
    polysaccharide; animal starch (animals and humans eat starches abd break them down to monosaccharides; the liver converts them to glycogen for storage)
  951. cellulose
    composed of long chains of glucose; is a polysaccharide; found in plant cell walls; nondigestible by most animals; part of our diet called bulk or rubbage(fiber)
  952. Chitin
    polysaccharide; strong and flexible; makes up shells of crabs, lobsters, shrimp, insects; found in cell walls of fungi
  953. Lipids are
    group of organic substances slightly soluble in water; very soluble in other organic liquids; mostly structural but also store energy; humans and animals store their excess energy as lipids
  954. fatty acids
    most abundant form of lipids; building blocks for other lipids; have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends; in water, will align themselves; good source of energy; found in dairy and animal tissues
  955. proteins
    made of amino acids; polypeptide chain of amino acids; make up the majority of an organism's cells; used as enzymes or as building blocks
  956. DNA is
    found in nucleus of cell; contain info necessary for the manufacture of an organism's proteins; nucleic acid form genes; watson and crick discovered
  957. structure of DNA
    made of nucleotides; sugar, phosphate, base; adenine, thyOOmine; guani`ne, cytosine
  958. DNA replication
    process of making two DNA molecules from one strand
  959. RNA
    another nucleic acid; single strand; sometime replaces thymine
  960. LOOK AT: function of organic compounds page 40 of notes!!!
    proteins only one that is enzymatic
  961. protoplasm
    the living content in a cell
  962. Cell
    is the smallest and most basic unit of most living things (organisms).
  963. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    observed tiny organisms (he called them "animalcules") with the use of microscopes.
  964. Robert Hooke
    was the first to use the term "cells," when he observed cell walls of dead cork under a light microscope.
  965. Prokaryotes
    have no nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. A singled-celled organism in which the DNA is not contained in a nucleus; a bacterium or an archaean.
  966. Organelles
    cell components that perform particular functions
  967. Eukaryotic
    Type of cell that starts life with a nucleus.These cells contain membrane-bound intracellular organelles, including a nucleus. For example, plant, fungi, and animal cells, as well as protozoa.
  968. Cell Theory
    all organisms consist of one or more cells; the cell is the smallest unit of organization with the properties of life; and each new cell arises from another cell.
  969. Virus
    noncellular infectious particle that consists of DNA or RNA, a protein coat and, in some types, an outer lipid envelope; it can be replicated only after its genetic material enters a host cell and subverts the host's metabolic machinery.
  970. Electron microscope
    many cell organelles are very small and require the magnification and resolution power of this.
  971. Cell membrane
    the plasma membranes which all cells are enclosed within.
  972. Nucleus
    In eukaryotic cells only, organelle with an outer envelope of two pore-ridden lipid bilayers; separates chromosomes from the cytoplasm.
  973. Cytoplasm
    the region between the nucleus and the cell membrane.
  974. Cytoplasmic organelles
    Since all of the organelles outside the nucleus but within the cell membrane exist within the cytoplasm, they are all called these.
  975. Cell membrane
    encloses the cell and separates it from the environment. It may also be called a plasma membrane. This membrane is composed of a double layer of phospholipids with globular proteins embedded within the layers. The combination of the lipid bilayer and the proteins embedded within it allow the cell to determine what molecules and ions can enter and leave the cell, and regulate the rate at which they enter and leave.
  976. Endocytic vesicles
    form when the plasma membrane of a cell surrounds a molecule outside the membrane, then releases a membrane bound sack containing the desired molecule or substance into the cytoplasm. This process allows the cell to absorb larger molecules than would be able to pass through the cell membrane, or that need to remain package within the cell.
  977. Microvilli
    are projections of the cell extending from the cell membrane. They are found in certain types of cells, for example, those involved in absorption (such as the cells lining the intestine). These filaments increases the surface area of the cell membrane, increasing the area available to absorb nutrients. They also contain enzymes involved in digesting certain types of nutrients.
  978. Cytoskeleton
    provides structural support to a cell.
  979. Microtubules
    long, hollow, cylindrical protein filaments, which give structure to the cell. These filaments are scattered around the edges of a cell and form a sort of loose skeleton or framework for the cytoplasm.
  980. Microfilaments
    are double-stranded chains of proteins, which serve to give structure to the cell.Together with the larger microtubules, these form the cytoskeleton, providing stability and structure.
  981. Centrioles
    are structural components of many cells, and are particularly common in animal cells.They are tubes constructed of a geometrical arrangement of microtubules in a pinwheel shape. Their function includes the formation of new microtubules, but is primarily the formation of structural skeleton around which cells split during mitosis and meiosis.
  982. Ribosomes
    are the site of protein synthesis within cells.
  983. Attached ribosomes
    are attached to the ER. Proteins made at the site of attached ribosomes are destined for use within the membrane-bound organelles.
  984. Free ribosomes
    float unattached within the cytoplasm. The proteins synthesized by these are made for use in the cytoplasm.
  985. Endoplasmic reticulum
    a large organization of folded membranes, is responsible for the delivery of lipids and proteins to certain areas within the cytoplasm. A sort of cellular highway. It is responsible for processing lipids, fats, and steroids, which are then packaged and dispersed by the Golgi apparatus.
  986. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    has attached ribosomes. In addition to packaging and transport of materials within the cell, this is instrumental to protein synthesis.
  987. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    a network of membranous channels. It does not have attached ribosomes.
  988. Golgi apparatus
    is the instrumental in storing, packaging and shipping of proteins.
  989. Secretory vesicles
    packets of material packaged by either the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum.
  990. Exocytosis
    fusion of a cytoplasmic vesicle with the plasma membrane; as it becomes part of the membrane, its contents are released to extracellular fluid.
  991. lysosomes
    are membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes. They digest unused material within the cell, damaged organelles, or materials absorbed by the cell for use.
  992. Mitochondria
    are centers of cellular respiration. Double-membraned organelle of ATP formation; site of second and third stages of aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
  993. Endosymbiont hypotheses
    Mitochondria are thought to be an evolved form of primitive bacteria (prokaryotic cells) that lived in a symbiotic relationship with eukaryotic cells more than 2 billions years ago. This concept is a plausible explanation of how mitochondria, which have many of the necessary components for life on their own, became an intergral part of eukaryotic cells.
  994. Nucleus
    is an organelle surrounded by two lipid bilayer membranes. The nucleus contains chromosomes, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli.
  995. Nucleolus
    is a rounded area within the nucleus of the cell where ribosomal RNA is synthesized. This rRNA isincorporated into ribosomes after exiting the nucleus.
  996. Nuclear membrane
    is the boundary between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear membrane is actually a double membrane, which allows for the entrance and exit of certain molecules through the nuclear pores.
  997. Nuclear pores
    forming a passageway between the inside of the nucleus and the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. They allow the cell to selectively move molecules in and out of the nucleus. They scattered about the surface of the nuclear membrane.
  998. Cell Walls
    surround plant cells. (Bacteria also have this.) They are made of cellulose and lignin, making them strong and rigid. It encloses the cell membrane providing strength and protection for the cell. It also allows plant cells to store water under relatively high concentration.
  999. Cell
    smallest and most basic unit of most living things
  1000. organisms
    living things
  1001. viruses are what kind of cellular
    noncellular
  1002. Can viruses fufill the characteristics of life
    not without invading the cell of another organism
  1003. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    observed tiny organisms with microscopes
  1004. Robert Hooke
    1st to use the term "cells" when he observed cell walls of dead cork under a light m.scope
  1005. 2 types of cells
    prokaryotic and eukaryotic
  1006. organelles
    cell components that perform particular functions
  1007. does eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
    type of cell with nucleus
  1008. cell theory
    all living things are made up of one or more cells, cells are basic unit of life, all cells come from preexisting cells
  1009. unicellular
    one cell
  1010. multicellular
    many cells
  1011. mitochondria
    organelles that make E available to the cells
  1012. least to greatest in sz: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, virus
    virus, prokaryotic, eukaryotic
  1013. how to viruses survive and replicate
    by invading living cell then using cell's mechanism to reproduce, destroying the cell in the process
  1014. cell membrane
    aka: plasma membrane- cells are enclosed in this. contains lipid bilayer
  1015. nucleus location
    near center of eukaryotic cells, contains chromosomes
  1016. cytoplasm location
    between nucleus and cell membrane
  1017. cytoplasmic organelles
    all organelles outside the nucleus but w/in the cell membrane
  1018. endocytic organelles
    allow the cell to absorb larger molecules than would be able to pass through the cell membrane or needed to remain packaged w/in the cell
  1019. microvilli
    projections of the cell extending from the cell membrane. increase the surface area of the cell membrane thus increasing area avail to absorb nutrients
  1020. cytoskeleton
    provides structural support to a cell
  1021. microtubules
    long, hollow, cylindrical protein filaments which give structure to cell
  1022. cilia / flagella
    organelles which allow some cells to move on their own
  1023. microfilaments
    dbl stranded chains of proteins which serve to give structure to the cell
  1024. microfilaments + lg microtubules form
    form cytoskeleton providing stability and structure
  1025. centrioles
    tubes that form new microtubules
  1026. basal bodies
    structurally similar to centrioles, function to anchor and aid in the movement of flagella
  1027. ribosomes
    site of protein synthesis composed of certain protein molecules and RNA (rRNA)
  1028. free ribosomes
    float unattached w/in the cytoplasm
  1029. attached ribosomes
    attached to the ER destined for use in the membrane bound organelles
  1030. ER- endoplasmic reticulum
    lg organization of folded membranes responsible for the delivery of lipids and proteins to certain areas within the cytoplasm
  1031. Rough ER- RER
    attached to ribosomes; packs and transports materials with in the cell but also important in protein synthesis
  1032. smooth ER- SER
    network of membranous channels- does not attach to ribosomes
  1033. Golgi apparatus
    aka golgi bodies or golgi complex: important in storing, packing, and shipping proteins
  1034. secretory vesicles
    packets of material packed by ER or Golgi app.
  1035. lysosomes
    membrane bound organelles containing digestive enzymes
  1036. mitochondria
    center of cellular respiration
  1037. cellular respiration
    process of breaking up covalent bonds with sugar molecules by intake of Oxy and release of ATP
  1038. cellular respiration intake and release
    intake oxy , release ATP
  1039. where are mitochondria more numerous
    in cells that require more E
  1040. cristae
    where cellular respiration occurs; folds of internal membranes
  1041. endosymbionic hypothesis
    mitochondria became eukaryotic by evolution from prokaryotic 2bill yrs ago
  1042. vacuoles
    membrane bound fluid filled sacs
  1043. contractile vacuoles
    expell waste and excess water form single celled organisms
  1044. nucleus
    organelle surrounded by 2 lipid bilayer membranes
  1045. nucleoulus
    rounded area within the nucleus of cell where Ribosomal RNA is synthesized
  1046. nucleus contains
    chromosomes, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli
  1047. Nuclear membrane
    between nucleus and cytoplasm; allows for entrance and exit of certain molecules via nuclear pores
  1048. nuclear pores
    pts @ which the dbl nuclear membrane fuse togethor creating a passageway between the inside of nucleus and cytoplasm outside
  1049. plant cell structure differs from animal by what 3 things
    cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole
  1050. cell wall
    made of cellulose and lignin which makes it strong and rigid. encloses cell membrane
  1051. cell membrane of plant tissue
    sometimes channels connect to cytoplasm of adjacent cells
  1052. chloroplasts
    found in plant cells- site of photosynthesis
  1053. chlorophyll
    pigment molecules that give chloroplasts their green color
  1054. stroma
    body of cholorplast containing embedded disk-like plates
  1055. grana
    embedded disk-like plates in stroma- site of photosynthetic reactions
  1056. central vacuole
    makes volume of plant cells, stores water and soluble nutrients for plant's use
  1057. tonoplast
    central vacuole is bound by this type of membrane
  1058. 4 types of transport in cell membrane
    passive transport, facilitated diffusion, active transport, bulk transport
  1059. bulk transport
    exo- and endocytosis
  1060. passive transport
    substances move freely across membrane without cell expending E
  1061. 2 types of passive transport
    simple diffusion, osomosis
  1062. simple diffusion/ diffusion
    molecules and ions flow through cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentraion
  1063. osmosis
    diffusion only in water molecules, does not require the addition of E
  1064. isotonic or isomotic
    equalized concentration by osmosis
  1065. facilitated diffusion
    does not req. added E; transfer occurs with help of specialized proteins;
  1066. active transport
    req. E output from cell.-req. membrane bound proteins; opposite of norm diffusion; E from ATP added causes a protein molecule embedded in the membrane to change shape and move molecules across membrane
  1067. endocytosis
    lg. molecules are taken into pocket of membrane, pocket pinches off, delivering molecules in sack to cytoplasm
  1068. endocytosis
    expels substance from cell; opposite of endocytosis
  1069. enzymes
    protein molecules acting as catalysts for organic reactions
  1070. where proteins are synthesized
    @ the ribosomes, true for enzymes too.
  1071. why are enzymes effective catalyzts
    bc of their shape
  1072. active site
    uniquely shaped area for the substrate
  1073. substrate
    fits the active site
  1074. enzyme substrate complex
    substrate + active site=
  1075. product of enzymatic reaction
    release of unchanged enzyme
  1076. how endothermic reactions occur
    enzyme is coupled with breakdown of ATP or sim. molecules
  1077. how exothermic reactions occur
    coupled with the production of ATP or other molecule with high E chemical bonds
  1078. Cofactor
    non-protein substance sometimes req. in enzymatic reactions
  1079. inorganic cofactor
    metal ions- ex. iron, copper, or zinc
  1080. organic cofactor
    aka coenzymes- some not made by cells but must be obtained in the diet-usually vitamins
  1081. a vitamin is an example of what kind of cofactor
    organic
  1082. inhibitor
    substance that attaches to an enzyme before substrate ensuring cellular reaction will not take place
  1083. prosthetic group
    similar cofactors- facilitate enzyme reaction but are bound to enzyme, rather than being separate atoms or molecules
  1084. how can environmental conditions be an inhibitor
    things like high heat and acidity can change the shape of the active site and make the enzyme ineffective
  1085. regulation
    enzyme control- occurs when the product of the reaction is also an inhibitor to the reaction or when a particular molecule is a regulator by changing the structure of the active site making the enzyme more or less effective
  1086. primary producers
    photosynthetic organisms that harvest solar E and transform it to chemical stored via carbs, fats, and proteins
  1087. cellular metabolism
    general term including all types of E transformation including- photosynthesis, respiration, growth, movement etc
  1088. E in each step of the food chain
    is lost in the form of heat
  1089. anabolism
    process where cells build molecules and store E in the form of chemical bonds
  1090. catabolism
    process of breaking down molecules and releasing stored E
  1091. ATP
    adenosine triphosphate: E from the sun is transformed by photosynthetic organisms into chemical E in the form of this; contains one nitrogenous base, simple sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
  1092. E currency of cellular activity
    ATP
  1093. If E in carbs, fats, and proteins where released at once
    the cell would be overwhelmed
  1094. ADP
    adenine diphosphate
  1095. AMP
    adenine monophosphate
  1096. autotroph
    (self feeder) is an organism that makes its own food.
  1097. duality
    Because electrons move at speeds near to that of light, we need to think of them as matter (having mass is a property of matter), and energy ( or quanta of energy), like photons. This is also known in physics as wave-particle _________.
  1098. lipids
    ___________ are involved mainly with long-term energy storage. They are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water.
  1099. lipids
    "Mixing like oil and water," is an old adage, but it has a fair bit of science behind it. Fatty (oily) substances are a part of organic macromolecules known as ________ , which have areas lacking polar covalent bonds. Water molecules dislike such molecules, causing fats to clump together.
  1100. nucleic acids
    In 1950, Stanley Miller designed an experimental test for Oparin's hypothesis that cellular life was preceded by a period of chemical evolution. According to the theory, pre-cellular life would have begun with the formation of __________ _______.
  1101. mass
    The atomic _______ is the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom.
  1102. elements
    • The ancient Greek philosophers developed the concept of the atom, calling it the fundamental particle of matter that could not be broken down. Today we accept that ___________ are substances consisting of one type of atom. However, we also discovered that atoms can be broken down
    • in nuclear reactions.
  1103. Big Bang
    According to the most widely accepted theory, the universe began 10 to 20 billion years ago with the ______ ______ , when a very small "egg" of high density and temperature exploded and formed the expanding universe.
  1104. polymer
    During a condensation reaction of monomers, a hydroxyl (OH) group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen (H) is removed from the other. This results in a covalent bond between them, thereby forming a _________.
  1105. C
    A lack of Vitamin ___ results in scurvy.
  1106. monomers
    Each organic molecule group has small molecules (__________) that are linked repeatedly to form a larger organic molecule (macromolecule).
  1107. plasma membrane
    The ______ _________ is found in all cells. It separates the inner parts of the cell from the outer environment.
  1108. Red Shift
    When stars/galaxies are moving away from us, the energy they emit is shifted to the red side of the visible-light spectrum. Those moving towards us are shifted to the violet side. A phenomenon called ______ _______ is a strong evidence in the favor of the Big Bang theory.
  1109. dissociation
    In chemical reactions, when two reactants bond together we call it a combination, as in A+B -> C. In ____________, we represent the reaction by C -> A+B. (note: -> represents a right arrow)
  1110. Carbohydrates
    The general formula Cx(H2O)x is commonly used to represent many ____________, which means "watered carbon." They are formed by green plants from carbon dioxide and water during the process of photosynthesis.
  1111. molecules
    • _________________ are compounds with elements in definite, fixed ratios, like water. Those atoms are held together usually by one of the three bonds
    • ionic, covalent or hydrogen. On the other hand, soil is a mixture with uncertain components.
  1112. Atomic. Mass. Units (or a.m.u.)
    The mass of particles within an atom are measured in __________.
  1113. polar
    In its solid form--ice--water is less dense than when it is liquid, another unusual property! The root of these anomalies in the water molecule is its electronic structure, due to a _________ covalently bonded molecule.
  1114. soluble
    One of the most common functional groups is the -OH (hydroxyl) group. Its presence will enable a molecule to be water ___________.
  1115. cellulose
    _______________ is a polysaccharide that forms the fibrous part found in plant cell walls.
  1116. Heavy Water
    By combining oxygen with deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, one gets _________ _______ ( D2O).
  1117. shells
    The orbitals (types s,p,d and f) are arranged in ________, or increasing energy levels from the nucleus outward.
  1118. attracted
    Functional groups are clusters of atoms with characteristic structure and functions. For instance, polar molecules (with +/- charges) are ________ to water molecules and are termed "hydrophilic".
  1119. covalent
    ___________ bonds are formed when atoms share electrons. Like child custody between two parents, the electrons tend to spend more time with one atom than the other. The number of electrons shared differs based on the atoms involved.
  1120. carbon
    The element __________ is the basis of known life. Biological systems, while unique to each species, are based on its chemical bonding properties.
  1121. catenation
    Since carbon can make covalent bonds with another carbon atom, carbon chains and rings that serve as the backbones of organic molecules are possible. This property is known as ___________.
  1122. radioactive
    A majority of isotopes show nuclear instability, e.g. the tendency of C-14 to convert into C-12. They disintegrate spontaneously with a release of energy, resulting in a process known as ___________ decay.
  1123. carbohydrates
    There are two main types of _____________: sugars and starches.
  1124. Noble Gases
    The rightmost column of the periodic table contains inert elements known as the ________ _____, because they tend to occur in elemental form and are least likely to react.
  1125. dissacharides
    _____________ are formed when two monosaccharides are chemically bonded together.
  1126. Canada
    The oldest known rocks on Earth are 3.96 billion years old and are from Arctic __________. Thus, life appears to have begun soon after the cooling of the Earth and formation of the atmosphere and oceans.
  1127. adipose
    Diets are attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells known as ___________ cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body.
  1128. Heterotroph. Animals, fungi, bacteria, and many protistans are examples.
    A(n) ____________ (other-feeder) is an organism that obtains its energy from another organism.
  1129. water
    Hydrocarbons are insoluble in _________ and are less dense than water, so they float on its surface. They are usually soluble in one another, however, as well as in certain organic solvents.
  1130. panspermia
    After the formation of the earth, there are several theories for how life began, leaving aside the supernatural. The idea of _____________ hypothesized that life originated out in space and came to earth inside a meteorite.
  1131. cytosine
    The four "letters" in the DNA code are _________, guanine, adenine, and thymine (list them separated by commas).
  1132. hydroxide
    Water tends to dissociate into H+ and OH- ions, where the oxygen retains the electrons and only one hydrogen. Thus, becoming a negatively charged ion known as ________ (OH-).
  1133. peptide
    A ____________ bond is a link between the amino group [-NH2] of one amino acid and the carboxyl group [-COOH] of the next amino acid in the protein chain. All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations of the same twenty amino acids.
  1134. protons
    The atomic number of an element is the number of ___________ contained in its nucleus.
  1135. ionic
    In an ________ bond, two or more atoms bond together to form a molecule by transferring electrons to each other
  1136. condensation
    The formation of the ester bond by _____________ (the removal of water from a molecule) allows the linking of monosaccharides into disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  1137. organic
    In the early days of science, inorganic substances could be extracted from the rocks, sediments, or waters of the Earth, whereas _____________ substances were found only in the tissues or remains of living organisms.
  1138. water
    About 2/3 of the body is made up of ________.
  1139. bonding
    Most atoms found in biological systems tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a Noble Gas, outer electron shell configuration of 2 or 8 electrons. The number of electrons that are gained or lost is characteristic for each element, and is the cause of atomic __________.
  1140. isomers
    ____________ are molecules with identical molecular formulas but a different arrangement of their atoms.
  1141. water
    It is vital to life, and yet a strange molecule. ___________ participates in virtually every process that occurs in plants and animals. Although the molecules are simple in structure (H2O), the physical and chemical properties of the compound are extraordinarily complicated.
  1142. hydrogen
    Due to __________ bonding, water molecules associate strongly. In an ice crystal, the association is a highly ordered, but loose structure. When the ice melts, this orderly arrangement breaks down partially and the molecules pack more closely together. This makes the liquid denser than the solid, which is why ice forms on top of liquid water.
  1143. isotopes
    The number of protons--the atomic number--is unique for each element, e.g. Carbon is 6. However, the number of neutrons can differ, resulting in substances known as ___________.
  1144. VII-A
    Ionic bonds generally form between elements in Group I (having one electron in their outer shell) and Group __________ (having seven electrons in their outer shell).
  1145. replication
    • Biochemically, living systems are separated from other chemical systems by three things
    • the capacity of ___________ from one generation to another, the presence of enzymes and other necessary complex molecules for living, and a membrane that separates the internal cells from the outer environment.
  1146. polar
    In covalent bonds, when electrons spend more time with one atom than the other, a type of covalent bond, known as a _______ bond develops. Water (H2O) is an example. Since the electrons spend so much time with the oxygen (oxygen having a greater electronegativity, or electron affinity), that end of the molecule acquires a slightly negative charge.
  1147. antigens
    ____________ are substances located on the outside of cells, viruses, and in some cases other chemicals.
  1148. proteins
    _____________ constitute about 80 percent of the dry weight of muscle, 70 percent of that of skin, and 90 percent of that of blood.
  1149. energy
    Fats and oils function for _________ storage. Animals convert excess sugars (beyond their glycogen storage capacities) into fats. Fats yield 9.3 Kcal/gm, while carbohydrates yield 3.79 Kcal/gm. Fats store six times as much energy as glycogen.
  1150. electrons
    In an atom, ___________ occupy orbitals, or areas where they are most likely to be found.
  1151. 7
    The pH scale is a logarithmic scale representing the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. It is represented as the negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration. If the pH of water is _____, then the concentration of H+ ions is 10-7.
  1152. hydrogen
    In ice, we find another type of bond called ___________ bonds. These result from the weak electrical attraction between the positive end of one H2O molecule and the negative end of another.
  1153. 3
    What you see below is the Modern Periodic Table of elements. Phosphorous in column VA, row 3 has 5 electrons in its outer shell, and has _____ shells in total.
  1154. triple point
    The _______ _______ of water represents the unique conditions at which it can exist in all three phases in equilibrium.
  1155. nucleic acids
    _________ ______ are substances that comprise the genetic material of living cells. They direct the course of protein synthesis, thereby regulating all cell activities. Furthermore, by their transmission from one generation to the next, they are the vehicle for inherited characteristics.
  1156. glucose
    The products of photosynthesis are assembled to make ___________. Thus, energy from sunlight is converted into the C-C covalent bond energy.
  1157. protein
    Another nucleic acid known as Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is commonly present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Most cytoplasmic RNA is associated with the ribosomes in a cell, where __________ synthesis occurs.
  1158. hydrocarbon
    A ___________ is a compound that is made up only of C (carbon) and H (hydrogen) atoms. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound; the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Benzene and methane are good examples.
  1159. cohesion
    The hydrogen bonds make water molecules sticky, a property known as __________.
  1160. nucleus
    All kinds of atoms contain varying quantities of subatomic particles, arranged around a ________, as if in a solar system.
  1161. ion
    Take the case of Chlorine, which belongs to a group of elements with seven electrons in the outer shell, instead of the desired eight. Thus, it will tend to gain one electron in any reaction, gaining a charge of (-1), which makes it a charged atom known as an _______.
  1162. prokaryote
    A ______________ is any self-contained cell or organism that lacks internal unit membranes. Bacteria are among the best-known organisms of this kind.
  1163. aqueous
    The polarity of the water molecule plays a major part in the formation of ___________ solutions. If an ionic compound, such as sodium chloride, is placed in water, the polar water molecules reduce the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged sodium and negatively charged chloride ions.
  1164. sugars (monosaccharides)
    __________ are structurally the simplest carbohydrates. They are the structural unit which makes up the other types of carbohydrates.
  1165. energy
    Chemical bonds store __________. The C-C covalent bond has 83.1 Kcal (kilocalories) per mole, while the C=C double covalent bond has 147 Kcal/mole.
  1166. two
    Around the nucleus, electrons are arranged in orbitals, and each orbital can hold only ______ electrons.
  1167. unsaturated
    The presence of a double C=C covalent bond reduces the number of hydrogens that can bond to the carbon chain, hence termed ___________.
  1168. deoxyribonucleic acid
    Of the two major types of nucleic acids, ______________ (better known as DNA) is the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of living organisms. DNA functions in information storage. The English alphabet has 26 letters and over 50,000 words. DNA has 4 letters (C, G, A, and T) and 20 words (the 20 amino acids) that can make an infinite variety of sentences (polypeptides).
  1169. hydrophilic
    A hydrocarbon is hydrophobic except when it has an attached ionized functional group such as carboxyl acid (COOH). If so, the molecule is __________.
  1170. 180
    If molecular weight is the addition of the atomic masses in a molecule, the weight of glucose (C6H12O6) is _______.
  1171. A particular plant has individuals that are either mal or femal. A male individual of this plant may have all of the following EXCEPT:
    The filament, anther, pollen grains, and tube nuclei are all parts of the male reproductive system in plants. The male structure is the stamen, consisting of the anther atop a long, hollow filament. The anther has four lobes and contains the cells that become pollen. The tube nuclei develop from pollen grains. The stigma is only found on female plants.
  1172. Which of the following represents a plausible progression in the evolution of plants?
    Scientists conclude that in the evolution of life (including plants) the first cells were prokaryotic, and that eukaryotic cells developed as cells with varying functions were incorporated into more complex cells (the Endosymbiont Theory). In addition the early Earth atmosphere was void of oxygen, so early cells were anaerobic, with aerobic cells evolving later. Cyanobacteria are autotrophic (photosynthetic) prokaryotes that are considered ancestors of multicellular plants. Both answers (A) and (B) wrongly place eukaryotes before prokaryotes. Answer (C) wrongly places aerobic cells before anaerobic cells. Answer (D) wrongly places anaerobic cells between aerobic cells and plants.
  1173. Which of the following is found in a carbohydrate molecule?
    A carbohydrate molecule contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio CH2O. Nitrogen, N, and sulfur, S, are elements that are not found in carbohydrates. Amine, NH2, and phosphate, PO4, groups are found in other organic molecules, but not in carbohydrates.
  1174. Unlearned series of actions that are a pre-programmed but complex response to a particular environmental signal
    A fixed action pattern (FAP) is the most complex of stereotyped behaviors. It is a pre-programmed and complex response to a particular environmental signal known as a releaser or a sign stimulus. FAPs include courtship behaviors, circadian rhythms, and feeding of young. Organisms automatically perform FAPs without any prior experience (they are not learned).
  1175. The conversion of light energy into chemical energy is accomplished by
    The process of photosynthesis is the crucial reaction that converts the light energy of the Sun into chemical energy that is usable by living things. While catabolism, metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and protein synthesis are necessary processes for most organisms, only photosynthetic organisms convert energy directly from light.
  1176. The sum total of a species' genetic information is known as its
    The sum total of genetic information of a species is its genome. Genes are portions of chromosomes that determine the inheritance of an organism's characteristics. Polyploidy refers to the existence of a multiple of the normal number of chromosomes in a cell.
  1177. Cytoplasm splits forming two distinct cells
    Telophase ends with the splitting of the cytoplasm into two distinct cells, a process known as cytokinesis.
  1178. Chromatin condenses, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, nuclear membrane dissolves, kinetochore forms
    During prophase, the first stage of mitosis, the chromatin condenses into chromosomes; the centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, and spindle fibers begin to extend from the centromeres of each chromosome toward the center of the cell. In the second part of prophase the nuclear membrane dissolves and the spindle fibers attach to the centromeres at the kinetochore.
  1179. Paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochore, each chromosome travels along the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell
    Anaphase is characterized by the separation of the paired chromosomes at the kinetochore. Each chromosome travels along the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
  1180. The iron-containing molecule that carries oxygen within red blood cells throughout the body via the circulatory system is
    Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin molecules (that contain iron) in red blood cells. Lymphocytes, erythrocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils are all non oxygen-carrying types of blood cells.
  1181. The ____________ is the organ that prevents food from entering the bronchial tubes.
    The epiglottis is the flap of tissue that covers the glottis, preventing food particles from entering the bronchial tubes. Before reaching the glottis (the opening that allows gases to pass into the bronchi), air passes through the pharynx and into the trachea. The larynx is the upper portion of the trachea; the glottis is the lower portion of the trachea.
  1182. Infertile cell resulting from meiosis II in females
    Three polar bodies are formed when primary oocytes undergo meiosis I and II. The fourth cell that is formed is an egg cell. Polar bodies are not fertile.
  1183. Bones perform many functions in the human body. All of the following are functions of bones EXCEPT:
    In addition to being the primary structure and support for the human frame, the 206 bones of the skeleton protect the soft internal organs of the human body, produce red blood cells from its marrow, and allow for movement by providing a base for muscles and ligaments. While the bones do store calcium and phosphates, they do not produce them.
  1184. The illustration above is called
    The illustration is called a Punnett square and is used to illustrate genetic crosses. The genotype is the representation of the alleles present in a particular organism (for example Tt, where upper case T stands for the dominant allele for "tall" and lower case t stands for the recessive allele for short), while the phenotype is the description of the physical attribute of a particular genotype (for example the phenotype for Tt would be "tall" since tall is dominant). While Mendel was instrumental in the study of genetics, Reginald Punnett, not Mendel, developed the Punnett square; thus, it is not called a "Mendelian Diagram." Phenogram is not a term that is used in genetics.
  1185. All of the following are true EXCEPT:
    • Animal cells have organized nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
    • Animal cells do not have cell walls or plastids
    • Animals only reproduce asexually
    • Animals develop from embryonic stages
    • Animals are heterotrophic (they do not produce their own food)
    • Animal species are capable of sexual reproduction, though some, such as the hydra and other invertebrates, asexually reproduce. All animal cells are eukaryotic (have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles). Only plants and blue-green bacteria have cell walls and/or plastids. Animals do develop from embryos and are heterotrophic, which means that they gain their energy directly or indirectly by ingesting autotrophs.
  1186. Sharks and dolphins have similar body shapes. Which of the following is the most likely explanation of this fact?
    The similarity of body shapes between sharks and dolphins most likely results from the convergent evolution of traits that are favorable to survival in the ocean. Sharks (cartilaginous fish) and dolphins (mammals) do not share a common ancestry, nor did one evolve into the other. Sharks and dolphins have different niches in the ocean community, so they are not in competition. Allopatric speciation occurs between geographically isolated populations of the same species that eventually develop into separate species.
  1187. Match the tissue type (all are types of primary root tissue) labeled a-e (and corresponding to answer choices A-E) on the diagram of a root cross-section below with the correct name given in the following question.
    The center of the root contains the vascular cylinder (e), including xylem and phloem tissue.
  1188. Match the tissue type (all are types of primary root tissue) labeled a-e (and corresponding to answer choices A-E) on the diagram of a root cross-section below with the correct name given in the following question.
  1189. Epidermis
    The outermost layer of primary tissue is the epidermis (b). The epidermis is one cell layer thick. It protects the internal root tissue and absorbs nutrients and water.
  1190. Members of which of the following categories are most closely related?
    The order of classification from least specific to most specific is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, so of those listed, genus is the most specific, with members most closely related to each other.
  1191. Which of the following is NOT included in the Oparin Hypothesis?
    • Oparin's hypothesis included the idea that most water on Earth was in the form of water vapor and steam, not ice. Answer choices (B)
    • (E) are all consistent with Oparin's hypothesis that proposed the Earth was approximately 4.6 billion years old and had a reducing atmosphere with very little oxygen present. There was an abundance of ammonia, hydrogen, methane, water vapor, and steam (H2O). There was a great deal of heat energy available as the Earth was cooling. Recurring violent lightning storms also provided energy. The cooling of the Earth also caused much of the water vapor surrounding the Earth to condense, forming hot seas. The concentration of organic molecules became very high; they began forming into larger, charged, complex molecules called coacervates.
  1192. Change in frequency of particular genes in a population over time due to chance fluctuations
    Genetic drift occurs as a gene pool experiences a change in frequency of particular genes due to chance fluctuations. Over time the genetic pool within this finite population changes.
  1193. The development of members within a population that possess differences preventing successful reproduction with the original population
    A geographic separation within a population may develop members with a genetic difference that prevents successful reproduction with the original species. The genetically different members reproduce with each other, producing a population that is separate from the original species. This process is called sympatric speciation.
  1194. The tendency for an individual to express altruistic traits toward close relatives, thus preserving the genes that produce altruistic traits
    Kin selection results in the preservation of traits that are
  1195. A form of symbiosis in which one species benefits while the other is harmed is called
    Parasitism is symbiosis in which one organism benefits, but the other is harmed. Mutualism is symbiosis that benefits both organisms. Amensalism is symbiosis where one organism is neither helped nor harmed but the growth of the other is inhibited. Predation is not symbiosis; rather it is the killing of an organism by another. Habituation is also not symbiosis; it is a behavioral response where there is less and less response by an individual to a stimulus over time.
  1196. Large protein molecules may be secreted from a cell by the process of
    Large molecules (such as proteins) are not able to pass through the cell membrane, but are instead engulfed by the cell membrane. Endocytosis is the process whereby large molecules (i.e., some sugars, or proteins) are taken up by a sack of membrane and delivered to the interior of the cell where it can be used. (This process, for instance, is used by white blood cells to engulf bacteria.) Exocytosis uses the same processes but exports substances to the exterior of the cell. Diffusion, active transport, and facilitated diffusion all refer to processes of passing substances through the cell membrane by various means.
  1197. The enzyme amylase is present in saliva and is instrumental in the breakdown of starches in early digestion. Which of the following is the most likely reason for amylase's suitability to aid in the catalysis of starches?
    It is the shape of the active site of the enzyme that allows the enzyme to work on the substrate to form product(s). The active site of the amylase molecule matches the shape of starch molecules. The speed of the reaction and the amount of substrate do not enhance amylase's enzymatic functions. Specific enzymes are needed for specific reactions.
  1198. Which of the following kingdoms contains photosynthetic organisms?
    Photosynthetic organisms are found in the Kingdom Plantae and the Kingdom Protista, and are not found in the Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Animalia, or Kingdom Monera. Mycota is another term for Fungi.
  1199. Which of the following elements is generally not found in organic tissue?
    Argon is a noble gas; it does not occur naturally in organic tissue. All organic molecules contain carbon, but also commonly contain oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur (as well as phosphorous, not listed in answers).
  1200. Produce seeds without flowers
    Gymnosperms produce seeds without flowers.
  1201. Conifers and cycads
    Gymnosperms produce seeds without flowers, and include conifers (cone-bearers) and cycads.
  1202. Organisms store energy within
    Chemical bonds are where energy is stored within cells.
  1203. The diploid generation in plants is known as the
    The diploid (2n) generation in plants is known as the sporophyte. The prothallus is the haploid (n) structure that develops into the mature gametophyte in ferns. The gametophyte is always haploid as well. What we consider the adult generation in a plant's life cycle may be haploid (ex. mosses) or diploid (ex. ferns). Spores are male haploid gametes.
  1204. The fossil of a fish is found in a limestone bed. The imprint of a skeleton is easily discernable, including several vertebrae. The fish most likely belonged to the class
    Since the skeleton of the fish was easily identifiable, the fish must belong to the class of bony fish—Osteichthyes. Cephalochordates have a notochord, but no vertebrae. Porifera is the phylum including sponges; Cnidaria is the phylum including jellyfish and hydra; Platyhelminthes is the phylum containing flat worms.

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