AIS Key Terms.txt

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AIS Key Terms.txt
2011-08-25 03:41:52

AIS Key Terms
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  1. business process
    a prescribed sequence of work steps performed in order to produce a desired result for the organization.
  2. internal controls
    the set of procedures and policies adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, check the accuracy and reliability of its data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed managerial practices.
  3. accounting information system
    the processes, procedures, and systems that capture accounting data from business processes; record the accounting data in the appropriate records; process the detailed accounting data by classifying, summarizing and consolidating; and report the summarized accounting data to internal and external users.
  4. supply chain
    the entities, processes and information flows that involve the movement of materials, funds and related information through the full logistics process, from the acquisition of raw materials to the delivery of finished products to the end user.
  5. vendor
    someone who provides materials or operating supplies to an organization.
  6. supply chain management
    the management and control of all materials, funds and related information in the logistics process from acquisition to product delivery.
  7. IT enablement
    using IT systems to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of internal or supply chain processes.
  8. information technology (IT)
    the computer, ancillary equipment, software, services and related resources as applied to support business processes.
  9. business process reengineering (BPR)
    the purposeful and organized changing of business processes to make them more efficient.
  10. bit
    smallest unit of information in a computer system.
  11. byte
    a unit of storage that represents one character, comprised of eight bits.
  12. field
    one item within a record.
  13. record
    a set of related fields for the same entity.
  14. file
    a set of related records.
  15. database
    a collection of data stored on the computer in a form that allows the data to be easily accessed, retrieved, manipulated and stored.
  16. relational database
    stores data in several small two-dimensional tables that can be joined together in many varying ways to represent many different kinds of relationships among the data.
  17. master files
    relatively permanent files that maintain the detailed data for each major process.
  18. transaction file
    the set of relatively temporary records that will be processes to update the master file.
  19. sequential access
    files that store records in sequence, with one record stored immediately after another.
  20. random access (direct access) files
    records stored in random order on a disk media.
  21. indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
    files are stored sequentially, but can also be accessed randomly because an index allows random access to specific records.
  22. batch processing
    all similar transactions are grouped together for a specified time for processing at one time.
  23. online processing
    the opposite of batch processing; transactions are not grouped into batches; each transaction is entered and processed one at a time.
  24. real-time processing
    the transaction is processed immediately and in real time, so that the output is available immediately.
  25. data warehouse
    an integrated collection of enterprise-wide data that includes five to ten fiscal years of nonvolatile data, used to support management in decision making and planning.
  26. operational database
    contains the data that are continually updated as transactions are processed.
  27. data mining
    the process of searching data within the data warehouse for identifiable patterns that can be used to predict future behavior.
  28. network
    two or more computers linked together to share information and/or resources.
  29. local area network (LAN)
    a computer network that spans a relatively small area.
  30. internet
    the global computer network or "information super-highway."
  31. intranet
    a company's private network accessible only to the employees of that company.
  32. extranet
    a company's private network accessible to selected outsiders such as buyers, suppliers, distributors and wholesalers in the supply chain.
  33. e-business
    the use of electronic means to enhance business processes.
  34. electronic data interchange (EDI)
    the intercompany, computer-to-computer transfer of business documents in a standard business format.
  35. point of sale system
    a system of hardware and software that captures retail sales transactions by standard bar coding.
  36. automated matching
    a computer hardware and software system in which the software matches an invoice to its related purchase order and receiving report.
  37. evaluated receipt settlement (ERS)
    an invoice-less system in which computer hardware and software complete an invoice-less match that is a comparison of the purchase order with the goods received.
  38. e-payables or electronic invoice presentment and payment (EIPP)
    terms that refer to web-enabled receipt and payment of vendor invoices.
  39. enterprise resource planning (ERP)
    multi-module software system designed to manage all aspects of an enterprise.
  40. enterprise risk management (ERM)
    a process designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk, in order to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives.
  41. general controls
    IT controls that can be applied to the overall IT accounting system.
  42. application controls
    IT controls used specifically in accounting applications to control inputs, processing and output.
  43. corporate governance
    an elaborate system of checks and balances whereby a company's leadership is held accountable for building shareholder value and creating confidence in the financial reporting process.
  44. IT governance
    the proper management, control, and use of IT systems.
  45. source document
    a record that captures the key data of a transaction.
  46. turnaround document
    an output of the accounting system that can be used as an input in a different part of the accounting system.
  47. general ledger
    provides details for the entire set of accounts used in the organization's accounting systems.
  48. general journal
    the place or original entry for any transactions that are not recorded in special journals.
  49. special journals
    established specific types of transactions, such as sales journals to record all sales.
  50. subsidiary ledgers
    maintain detailed information regarding routine transactions, with an account established for each entity.
  51. legacy system
    an existing system in operation within an organization.
  52. screen scrapers (frontware)
    technology used to add modern, user friendly screen interfaces to legacy systems.
  53. enterprise application integration (EAI)
    a set of processes, software and hardware tools, methodologies, and technologies to integrate software systems.
  54. process maps
    pictorial representations of business processes in which the actual flow and sequence of events in the process are presented in diagram form - the start of a process, the steps within the process, and a finish of the process.
  55. system flowchart
    intended to depict the entire system, including inputs, manual and computerized processes, and outputs.
  56. document flowchart
    shows the flow of the documents and information among departments or units within an organization.
  57. data flow diagram (DFD)
    used by systems professionals to show the logical design of a system.
  58. entity relationship diagrams (ER diagrams)
    pictorial representations of the logical structure of databases.
  59. entities
    the nouns that represent items in the accounting system.
  60. attributes
    characteristics of the entity.
  61. cardinality
    how many instances of an entity relate to each instance of another entity.
  62. client-server computing
    two types of computers are networked together to accomplish the application processing.
  63. distributed presentation
    the client PC manipulates data for presentation, but does not do any other significant processing.
  64. distributed applications
    the client PC does not participate in application processing beyond that described for the distributed presentation method.