test 1 review CH5 & 6

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test 1 review CH5 & 6
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2011-08-26 05:30:03
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test 1 review CH5 & 6
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  1. how many bones are in the hand and wrist
    27
  2. how many phalanges are in the hand
    14
  3. how many metacarpals are in the hand
    5
  4. how many carpals are in the hand
    8
  5. name the carpal bones
    • Scaphoid
    • Lunate
    • Triquetrum
    • Pisiform
    • Trapezium
    • Trapezoid
    • Capitate
    • Hamate
  6. which bone is the shorest in the forearm
    the radius is the shorter of the two bones
  7. what procedure is done while in a modified sims position
    Barium enema tip inserion
  8. what are the two positionig rules or principles
    • 1. Minimum of 2 projections
    • 2. Minimum of three projections when joint are prime interest area
  9. what is the radial tuberosity
    the rough oval process on the medial and anetior side of the radius, just distal to the neck
  10. what is the trochlear notch
    large concave depression, or notch, that articulates with the distal humerus
  11. what is the radial notch
    the small, shallow depression located on the lateral aspect of the proximal ulna
  12. what is the humeral chondyle
    the expanded distal end of the humerus
  13. the articular portion of humeral chondyle is divided into 2 parts what are they?
    the trochlea and the capitulum
  14. how is the trochlea shaped and what does it articulate with
    it is shapped like a pulley or spool with smooth depression called the trochlear sulcus. it is located laterally and atriculates with the ulna
  15. where is the capitulum located and what does it articulated with
    located on the later aspect of the humerus and it articulates with the head of the radius
  16. what is the lateral epichondyle
    it is a small projection on the lateral aspect of the distal humerus above the capitulum
  17. what is the medial epichondyle
    a larger and more pominent projection thatn the lateral epichondyle and is located on the medial edge of the distal humerus.
  18. what are the 2 anterior depressions on the humerus
    • coronoid fossa
    • radial fossa
    • As teh elbow is completely flexed, the coronoid process and the radila head are received by these respective fossae
  19. what is the posterior depression in the distal humerus
    the olecranon fossa
  20. what are the 2 processes of the proximal ulna
    the olecranon and the coronoid process
  21. what is the median margin of the coronoid process
    the coronoid tubercle
  22. waht is the large concave depression, that articulates with the distal end of the humerus on the ulna
    the trochlear notch
  23. waht is the small, shallow depression located on the lateral apect of the proximal ulna
    the radial notch
  24. which bone(s) are best demonstrated during ulnar deviation
    the scaphoid
  25. which bone(s) are best demonstrated during radial deviation
    • hamate
    • pisiform
    • triquetrum
    • lunate
  26. what do you do for a small to medium cast
    incrase mAs 50-60% or 5-7 kV
  27. what do you do for a large plaster cast
    increase mAs 100% or 8-10 kV
  28. what do you do for a fiberglass cast
    increase mAs 25-30% or 3-4 kV
  29. what is bone metastases
    transfer of desease or cancerous lesions from one organ of part that may not be derectly connected
  30. what is bursitis
    inflamation of a the bursae of fluid filled sacs that enclose the joints
  31. what is carpal tunnes syndrome
    commonly painful disorder of the wrist and hand that results from compression fo the median nerve as it passes through the center of the wrist
  32. describe a barton's fracture
    a fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius involving the wrist joint
  33. describe a Bennett's fracture
    fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, extending into the carpometacarpal joint.
  34. describe a Boxer's fracture
    a transverse fracture htat extends through the metacarpal neck, most commonly seen in the fifth metacarpal.
  35. describe a Colle's fracture
    Transverse fracture of the distal radius in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly
  36. describe a Smith's fracture
    reverse of Colle's. a transverese fracture of the distal radius wiht the distal fragment displaced anteriorly
  37. what is the rotation fo the humeral epichondyles required for an AP medial oblique of elbow
    45 degrees
  38. what is joint effusion
    accumulated fluid in the joint cavity. it is a sign of an uderlying condition, such as fracture, dislocation, soft tussue damage, or inflammation
  39. what is osteoarthritis
    degenerative hoint disease, a noninflamatory joint disease charaterized by gradula deterioration of the articular cartilage with hypertrophic (enlarged or overgrown) bone formation. it is the common type of arthritis
  40. what is osteomyelitis
    a local or generalized infection of bone or bone marrow that may be caused by bacteria introduced by trauma or surgery.
  41. describe a nursemaids elbow
    is a dislocation of the elbow joint caused by a sudden pull on the extended pronated arm
  42. what makes a radiograph a legal document
    markers, patient ID, initials and all of the anatomy
  43. what is the Gaynor Hart method
    Gaynor-Hart Method. Canal or tunnel view, a hyperextended wrist that demonstrates the palmar aspect of the carpals
  44. how should the epichondyles be aligned to IR for a lateral humerus
    perpendicular
  45. what is a dislocation
    displacement from joint
  46. what is a subluxation
    partial dislocation
  47. what is a sprain
    rupture or tearing of connective tissue
  48. what is a contusion
    bruise without fracture
  49. what are some types of fractures
    • simple fx
    • compund (open) fx
    • comminuted fx(spintered or crushed)
    • impacted (fragments driven into e/o
  50. what is a baseball fracture
    mallet finger occurs when the outermost joint of the finger is injured
  51. what is the image criteria for a PA finger
    • entire finger and a minimum of 1/3 of MCP demonstrated.
    • CR perpendicular to MCP
    • must include articulatin carpal
    • symetric appearance (no rotation of fingers)
  52. what is the image criteria for a finger PA oblique
    • Entire finger and MCP joint demonstrated
    • IP and MCP joints open
    • CR perpendicular with MCP
  53. what is the image criteria for a lateral finger
    • entire finger and MCP joint demonstrated
    • CR perpendicular to MCP joint
    • true lateral position
    • digit parallel to IR
  54. what is the image criteria for an AP thumb
    • entire thumb demonstrated (includig articulating carpal)
    • CR perpendicular to MCP joint
    • no toration of phalanges
  55. what is the image criteria for a PA oblique thumb
    • enrite thumb demonstrated
    • joints partially opened (as in 45degree oblique)
    • CR perpendicular to MCP joint
  56. what is the image criteria for a lateral thumb
    • entire thumb demonstrated
    • CR --> MCP joint
    • no rotation from lateral evident
  57. what is the image criteria for a PA hand
    • entire cand and crpals demonstrated
    • CR to 3rd MCP joint
    • no rotation of phalanges or metacarpals
  58. what is the image criteria for a hand PA oblique
    • entire hand and carpals and 1/3 of distal radius and ulna
    • CR--> 3rd MCP joint
    • adequate separation fo phalanges and metacarpals
  59. what is the image criteria for a "fan" lateral
    • entire hand and carpals demonstrated
    • CR-->2nd MCP joint
    • fingers equally separated
  60. what is the image criteria for a lateral hand
    • entire hand and carpals demonstrated
    • CR--> 2nd MCP joint
    • phalanges and metacarpald supperimposed
  61. what is the image criteria for a AP oblique bilateral (norgaard method) projection
    • bilateral hands in 45 degree oblique position
    • midshafts of 2nd - 5th metacarpal and base of phalanges not overlapped
    • MCP joints should open
  62. what is the image criteria for a PA wrist
    • distal radius, ulna and carpals demonstrated
    • CR--> midcarpal region
    • no rotation
  63. what is the image criteria for a PA oblique wrist
    • Distal radius, ulna and carpals demonstrated
    • CR--> mid carpal region
    • trapezium seen on its entirety
  64. what is the image criteria for a lateral wrist
    • distal radius, ulna and carpals demonstrated
    • CR--> midcarpal region
    • no rotation
  65. what is the image criteria for a carpal canal (tangential inferosuperior projection--Gaynor Hart method)
    • carpal sulcus is open
    • pisiform and hamate are separated
    • rounded scaphoid in profile
  66. what is the image criteria for a carpal bridge (tangential projection) posterior aspect of the wrist
    • tangential view of dorsal aspect
    • CR--> proximal third metacarpal
  67. what is the image criteria for a AP forearm
    • carpals to distal humerus included
    • humeral epichondyles are in profile
    • only slight, if any, superimposition fo distal radioulnar joint
  68. what is the image criteria for a lateral forearm
    • carpals and distal humerus included
    • elbow flexed 90 degrees
    • head of ulna superimposed over radius
  69. what is the image criteria for an AP elbow
    • distal humerus
    • proximal radius and ulna
    • epichondyles parallel
  70. if AP cannot be done what is an alternate view
    2 partially flexed AP projections
  71. what is the image criteria for a lateral oblique elbow
    • radial head, neck and tuberosity in profile
    • lateral epicohdyle and capitulum in profile
  72. what is the image criteria for a medila oblique elbow
    • coronoe process in profile
    • trochlea and medila epicondyle in profile
  73. what is the image criteria for a lateral elbow
    • three concentric arcs visible
    • olecranon in profile
  74. the jones method
    • PA axial
    • acute flexion of the elbow.
    • forearm and humerus should be superimposed
    • medal and lateral epicondyles and parts of trochlea, capitulum and olecranon process all should be seen in profile
  75. coyle method
    • erect for radial head 90 degrees
    • erect for coronoid process 80 degrees
    • supine, angled 45 for radial head 90 degrees
    • supine, angled 45 for coronoid process flexed 80 degrees
    • the joint space between radialhead and capitulum should be open and clear.
    • the radial head, neck and tuberosity should be in profile and free of superimposition except for a small part in the coronoid process
  76. radial head lateral projections
    • hand supinated
    • hand lateral
    • hand pronated
    • hand with maximum internal rotation
    • elbow should be flexed 90 in true lateral position.
    • epicondyles superimposed
    • radial head and neck should be partially superimposed by ulna
  77. which projection/routine would best demonstrate a Bennets fracture
    hand study
  78. which projection would best demonstrate a possible evevated fat pad near the elbow joint
    lateral
  79. where is the CR centered for a PA projectin of 2nd digit
    MCP joint
  80. what type of CR angle ir required for the modified roberts method
    15 degrees proximal
  81. what is a modified roberts method
    • AP projection of thumb
    • CR--> directed 15 degrees proximally, entering at the first CMC joint
  82. what is diagnosed most often with the folio method
    ulnar collateral ligament injury (skier's fx)
  83. what is the folio method
    • position hands side by side to center of cassette, rotated laterally into +- 45 oblique position, resulting in true PA projections of both thumbs
    • place round spacer between proximal thumb region and rubber band around distal thumbs
    • -- image criteria show entire thumbs from first metacarpals to distal phalanges.
    • demonstrates MCP angles and joint spaces at MCP joints
  84. what is the image criteria for an AP humerus projection
    • entire humerus is demonstrated
    • greater tubercle in profile
    • medial and lateral epicondyles in profile
  85. what is the image criteria for a lateromedila and medolateral humerus projection
    • epicondyles perpenducular to CR
    • CR to mid humerus
  86. what is the image criteria for a lateral humerus - recumbent
    • entire humerus demonstrated
    • lesser tubercle in profile
    • epicondyles superimposed
  87. lwhat is the image criteria for a lateral mid and distal humerus trauma position
    • mid and distal humerus
    • distal 2/3 of humerus demonstrated
    • 90 degree perspective from AP projection
    • Epicondyles superimposed
  88. what is the image criteria for a horizontal beam transthoracic lateral humerus (tauma)
    • demonstrates entire humerus without rotation
    • unaffected limb raised over head
    • CR to mid aspect of humerus
  89. what is the image criteria for a transthoracic lateral -proximal humerus
    • proximal humerus clearly seen
    • humeral head and glenoid cavity seen
    • humeral head in neutral rotation
  90. positions, central ray, film size and distance for a thumb
    AP- perpendicular to MCP joint 8x10 40"tabletop

    OBL-perpendicular to MCP joint 8x10 40"tabletop

    LAT- perpendicular to MCP joint 8x10 40"tabletop
  91. positions, central ray, film size and distance for 2nd - 5th digits
    PA - perpendicular to MCP joint to include articulating carpal, 8x10, 40" tabletop

    OBL- perpendicular to MCP joint to include articulating carpal, 8x10, 40" tabletop

    LAT-perpendicular to MCP joint to include articulating carpal, 8x10, 40" tabletop
  92. positions, central ray, film size and distance for a hand
    PA- perpendicular to 3rd MCP joint, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    OBL- perpendicular to 3rd MCP joint, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    LAT- perpendicular to 3rd MCP joint, 8x10, 40" tabletop
  93. positions, central ray, film size and distance for a wrist
    PA- perpendicular to mid-carpal area, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    OBL-perpendicular to mid-carpal area, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    LAT-perpendicular to mid-carpal area, 10x12, 40" tabletop
  94. positions, CR, film size and distance for the carpal bones
    PA - stecher for semi-supine, perpendicular to navicular, 8x10, 40" tabletop
  95. positions, CR, film size and distance for special views of the hand
    "Ball catcher's" AP oblique - perpendicular to a point midway between both hands at the level of the 5th MCP joint, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    Gaynor Hart(carpal tunnel)- 25-30 degress cephalad to the palm of the hand, 8x10, 40" table top

    Radial and ulanar deviation- perpendicular to midcarpal area, 8x10, 40" talbe top
  96. positions, CR, film size and distance for a forearm
    AP (arm on same plane)- perpendicular to shaft of the forearm, 14x17, 40" tabletop

    LAT(elbow flexed at 90 degrees)-perpendicular to shaft of the forearm, 14x17, 40" tabletop
  97. positions, CR, film size and distance for an elbow
    AP (arm on same plane)- perpendicular to midportion of elbow joint, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    Oblique(hand pronated)- perpendicular to midportion of elbow joint, 10x12, 40" tabletop

    LAT(flex at 90 degrees)- perpendicular to midportion of elbow joint, 8x10, 40" tabletop
  98. positions, CR, film size and distance for a humerus
    AP- perpendicular to shaft of humerus, 14x17, 40" to bucky or tabletop

    LAT- perpendicular to shaft of humerus, 14x17, 40" to bucky or tabletop
  99. positions, CR, film size and distance for a humerus special position
    • Transthoracic lateral Lawrence method
    • perpendicular to head of humerus, 10x12, 40" to bucky, full inspiration

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