Chapter 1 A&P

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Chapter 1 A&P
2011-08-25 11:02:13
Anatomy Physiology

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. Anterior
    The Front Surface
  2. Psterior
    The Back Surface
  3. Superior
    Anything closer to the head; Above
  4. Inferior
    Anything closer toward the feet; Below
  5. Medial
    Closer toward the middle of the body; Starting point umbillical.
  6. Lateral
    • Away from the middle of the body;
    • Example: Your ears are lateral to your nose.
  7. Proximal
    • Toward an attached base; the closer of two.
    • Example: The thigh is proximal to the foot.
  8. Distal
    Away from an attached base
  9. Superficial
    At,near, or close to the body surface.
  10. Deep
    Father from the body surface.
  11. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic)
    Features that are visible withouta microscope.
  12. Surface Anatomy (A Form of Gross Anatomy)
    The Study of general form and superficial markings.
  13. Reginal Anatomy (A Form of Gross Anatomy)
    • Focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body.
    • Example: Head or neck
  14. Sysemic Anatomy (A Form of Gross Anatomy)
    • The Study of the Structure of organ Systems.
    • Example: Skeletal system or Muscular System
  15. Develompental anatomy(A Form of Gross Anatomy)
    • Describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity.
    • Can also be cosidered as microsocpic anantomy.
  16. Clinical anatomy (A Form of Gross Anatomy)
    • A number of subspecialties important in clinical practice.
    • Example: Pathological anatomy (anatomical features taht change during illness)
  17. Microscopic Anatomy
    Deals with structures that cannot be seen without manification.
  18. Cytology (Subdivision of Microsopic Anatomy)
    The study of the internal structure of indiviual cells.
  19. Histology (Subdivision of Microscopic Anatomy)
    The examination of Tissues.
  20. Anatomy
    The Study of Structure.
  21. Physiology
    The study of Funtions.
  22. Cell Physiology
    Tthe Study of the functions of cells; Considers events at the chemical and molecular levels.
  23. Organ Physiology
    • The study of the physiology of specific organs.
    • Example: Cardiac physiology, the study of the heart function.
  24. Systemic Physiology
    The study of all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems.
  25. Pathological Physiology
    The study of the effects of diseases on organ functions or system functions.
  26. Homeostasis
    Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment.

    (Homeo, unchanging + Stasis, Standing)
  27. Autoregulation
    When a cell, a tissue, an organ, or a organ system adjusts its activites automatically in response to some encironmental change.
  28. Extrinsic Regulation
    Result from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system, two organ systems that control or adjust the activites of many other systems simultaneously.