Renal System

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Renal System
2011-08-29 09:27:18
Therapuetics II

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  1. How much H2O is reabsorbed at the PCT?
  2. How much and what all is reabsorbed at the DCT and what helps that?
    12 to 15% H2O with the help of ADH

    Na+ with the help of aldosterone
  3. What is reabsorbed at the Loop of Henle?
    Na+ reabsorbed
  4. What and how much and what helps with reabsorbtion at the Collecting Ducts?
    5% of H2O with ADH

    Na+ with aldosterone

    K+ eliminated
  5. What molecules are too large to filter?
    Plasma Protein molecules

    RBC's and WBC's

  6. Where is Aldosterone secreted?
    Adrenal Cortex
  7. What 2 hormones does the kidneys synthenizes/secretes?

  8. What is measured in the formula to calculate kidney function?
    Creatinine Clearance (CRCl)
  9. What is Nephrolithiasis and what is the symptoms?
    Kidney Stones made from urinary salts

    Retroperitoneal pain
  10. What is Toxemia and what are the symptoms?
    Toxic blood caused by kidney failure

    Elevated blood pressure
  11. What is Glomerulonephritis and what are the symptoms?
    Inflammation of the glomerulus

    • Edema
    • low urine volume
    • dark urine
  12. What is Pyelonephritis?
    Infection of the kidneys
  13. What is Diabetes Insipidus and what are the symptoms?
    Increase of urine due to a lack of ADH

    Excessive thirst
  14. What is Cystitis and what are the symptoms?
    Inflammation of the urinary bladder

    blood in the urine
  15. What is a UTI?
    Urinary Tract Infection or the presence of microorganisms
  16. What is Acute Renal Failure?
    The abrupt stoppage of filtration due to low blood volume and acute kidney damage
  17. What is Chronic Renal Failure?
    Irreversible decline in filtration caused by diabetes & high blood pressure
  18. What is Bladder Spasm?
    Continual contraction or relaxation of the smooth muscle wall of the urinary bladder
  19. What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and symptom?
    Enlargement of the male prostate gland

    incomplete bladder emptying
  20. What is H2O and Electrolyte Disorders?
    Dehydration - Extreme loss of H2O

    Edema - accumulation of excess water caused by confestive <3 failure, renal disease

    Hypokalemia - Deficiency of K+ in serum

    Hypocalcemia - Deficiency of Ca+ in serum
  21. Acid-base Disorders
    Respiratory Acidosis - Too much CO2 not removed from the body via hypoventilation

    Respiratory Alkalosis - Low levels of CO2 in the body via hyperventilation

    Metabolic Acidosis - Excessive acidity in the blood via kidney disease

    Metabolic Alkalosis - High levels of alkaline substance caused by vomiting
  22. Cardiovascular Dysfunction
    • Congestive <3 failure
    • Hypertensin
    • Shock
  23. Renal Dysfunction
    Infection or inflammation in the nephritism, glomerulonephritis and pylonephritis
  24. Changes in urine output
    • Oliguria - decreased
    • Anuria - no urine
  25. Increase ammonia levels
    Uremia/toxemia - accumulation of nitrogenous waste products
  26. Increase in flood fluid levels
    Edema - accumulation of excess fluid
  27. Diuretic
    Increases urine
  28. Edema
    Excess Fluid
  29. Natriuresis
    Increased Na+ in urine
  30. How do diurectics help Congestive Heart Failure?
    Pulls excess fluid from the lungs
  31. How do diurectics help hypertension?
    Remove excess fluid to reduce vascular resistance
  32. How do diurectics help ascites?
    Remove excess abdominal fluid back into circulation
  33. How do diurectics help Edema?
    Pull excess fluid out of interstitial tissues and back into the systemic circulation
  34. How does diuretics help Nephrolithiasis?
    Promote excretion of salts
  35. Type of Diurectic
    Osmotic Diurectics work on the PCT
  36. Anuria
    Failure of kidney to produce urine
  37. Osmotic Diurectics used to treat intra-ocular & intra-cranial pressure
    Mannitol - Osmitrol

    Do Not dispense if crystals are present
  38. Drugs for Sodium Re-absorption Inhibitors and mechanism/side effect
    Bumetanide - Burinex

    Furosemide - Lasix

    Blocks re-absorption of Na+ @ Loop of Henle "Loop Diurectics"

    SE: Hypokalemia
  39. Anuria
    Failure of the kidneys to produce urine
  40. Thiazide & thiazide-like diurectics:
    Side Effects
    Blocks re-absoprtion of Na+ @ DCT

    Chlorothiazide - Diuril

    Chlorthalidone - Hygroton

    Metolazone - Zaroxolyn

    Hydrochlorothiazide - Orectic, Esidrex, Hydrodiuril, Microzide

    SE: Photosensitivity for Metolazone & Hydrochlorothiazide
  41. Mannitol
  42. Bumetanide
  43. Furosemide
  44. Chlorothiazide
  45. Chlorthalidone
  46. Metolazone
  47. Hydrochlorothiazide
    • Oretic
    • Esidrex
    • Hydrodiuril
    • Microzide
  48. Aldosterone Antagonists:
    Side Effect
    Promotes elimination of Na+ and reabsorption of K+

    Spironolactone - Aldactone

    SE: Gynecomastia (man boobs)

    Eplenerone - Inspra

    SE: K+ Sparring

    Triametene - Dyrenium

    SE: Photosensitivity
  49. Diuretic Combinations:
    (whole sentance)
    Since the primary side effect of the thiazides is hypokalemia & primary side effect of the aldosterone antaonists is hyperkalemia, combining the two diurectics increases the therapeutic effects and decreases side effects. These agents are primarily active in the distal tubule.
  50. Diurectic Combinations Drugs
    • Triamterene and Hydrochlorothiazide
    • - Dyazide, Maxzide
  51. Additional Diurectic
    Lozol - Indapamide
  52. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    Inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the PCT to cause re-absorption of C2O4

    Acetazolamide - Diamox

    • Reduces eye pressure for patient going into surgery
    • Acute Mountain Sickness
  53. Anti-Diurectics
    Suppresses urine and rate of excretion

    • Vasopressin - Pitressin
    • Diabetes insipidue & vascoconstrictor in shock

    • Desmopressin - DDAVP, Stimate
    • Nocturnal Enuresis, Diabetes Insipidus
  54. What's the 4 functions of the renal system?
    • 1. Filters blood to remove waste
    • 2. Regulates water balance through hormone production
    • 3. Regulates electrolyte balance
    • 4. Regulates acid base balance