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  1. summative program evaluation
    outcome evalution
    evaluates the extent to which goals and objectives have been achieved and the extent to which identified effects of the program can be generalized to other populations and settings
  2. formative program evaluation
    process analysis
    evaluates a program from the planning stages through implementation
  3. cost benefit analysis
    compares the cost of program with the identified benefits
  4. cost effectiveness
    compares the cost of a program to the program output (cost per unit)
  5. evaluative research
    attempts to determine the extent to which an intervention or program has been successful in achieveing its goals and objectives and/or is cost effective
  6. exploratory research
    • (formulative research)
    • designed to provide preliminaty dataon issues and provides a basis for later, more in depth research
  7. case (field) study
    involves an in depth study of a single case
  8. descriptive research
    • (survey research)
    • designed to provide a description of an area of concern or interest and may lead to the formulation of research questions that can be addressed in future studies
  9. historical research
    research that attempts to develop an accurate reconstruction of the past. a historic perpective is used to interpret and organize data obtained in the course of research
  10. correlational research
    seeks to identify the extent to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable or variables using correlation coefficients
  11. explanatory research
    • (causal comparative)
    • involves searching through data in an attempt to identify possible causal factors of observed consequences
  12. experiemental research
    involves the exposure of one or more experimental groups to one or more treatment interventions and the comparison of results to those obtained from one or more control groups in an effort to identify possible cause and effect relationships. Experimental research is a type of explanatory research design
  13. quasi experimental research
    one in which the researcher attempts to approimate the conditions of experimental research in a setting in which he or she is unable to control and or manipulate all relevant variables
  14. single suject design
    • a type of evaluation measurement done on a single case to determine the effectiveness of interventions
    • AB: baseline, intervention
    • ABAB:Baseline, intervention, withdrawl, baseline, intervention
  15. action research
    designed to find solutions or to develop new approaches to solving problems typically in an agency or other practice setting
  16. bell shaped (normal) curve
    a symmetrical distribution consisting of a higher point in the middle and equal tails on either side. approximately 68% of the scores in the distribution lie within one standard deviation of the mean, and 95% fall within 2 standard deviations, much in nature is distributed in this manner
  17. skewed distribution
    occurs when the distribution of some variable is asymmetrical
  18. variance
    the standard deviation squared
  19. statistical significance
    the probability that a difference in scores could have resulted from sampling error alone
  20. descriptive vs inferential statistics
    • D:summarize a set of observations
    • I:allow the researcher to make inferences about a population from data obtained from a sample of that population
  21. correlation coefficient (r)
    • a statistic that reflects the degree to which two variables are associated or co-vary (from +1 to -1)
    • a positive number indicates a positive correlation, negative indicates negative
    • the closer the r value is the 1.00 (positive or negative) the stronger the correlation (.90 is strong, .50 is weak)
  22. external validity
    the amount of confidence we can have that the findings of a study are appliable to the larger population from which the study sample was drawn
  23. internal validity
    the amount of confidence we can have that variations in a dependant variable can be explained by the variations in the independent variable
  24. hawthorne effect
    subject who behave differently than they normally do because they are aware they are being observed for research purposes
  25. lack of sample comparability
    when the experimental and control group were not comparable from the beginning
  26. independent variable
    the item that is thought to influence or cause a behavior or outcome (the intervention)
  27. dependant variable
    the outcome or behavior thought to be caused or influenced by the I.V.
  28. sampling bias
    a systemativ distortion of a sample, affects the extent to which a sample is representative of the population from which it was drawn
  29. sampling error
    the normal differences that exist between a population and sample
  30. reliability
    the consistency in the measurement of a variable, the extent to which repeated administrations of an instrument with the same sample would yeild the same results
  31. validity
    the extent to which and instrument being used measures what it intends to measure
  32. levels or scales or measurement
    the precision wih which a variable is measured and dependent on the nature of the variable and on the method of measurement
  33. nominal measurement
    a level of measurement involving categories that are distinguished only by name (male, female)
  34. ordinal measurement
    a level of measurement that relects each person's position or rank with respect to a characteristic, absolute differences cannot be ascertained (1-satisfied, 2- disatisfied)
  35. interval measurement
    a level of measurement that involves ranking, intervals are equal between rankings (degrees on a thermometer)
  36. ratio measurement
    an interval scale with a true zero point (age, height, weight)
  37. null hypothesis
    predicts that there will be no relationship between two or more variables
  38. random sampling
    a method for assigning subjects to an experimental and control group where every individual has an equal change of being assigned to either unit
  39. between group design
    research designs that are nomothetic (based on norms of groups of participants), these designs use randomization procedures to assign participants to experimental or control groups and involve testing for the average response of participants to an intervention
  40. within series design
    research designs that are ideographic (they focus on individuals) and study participants are used as their own control
  41. self anchored rating scale
    created by the client and socil worker to measure progress in achieving treatment objectives
  42. effectiveness research
    ourcome research conducted in a natural setting (testing a therapy intervention in a mental health agency)
  43. efficacy research
    outcome research conducted in an artificial setting
  44. halo effect
    can occur when evaluating someone too positively or too negatively because of the presence of one or a few characteristics
Card Set:
2011-08-26 00:47:38

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