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Process by which plants containing chlorophyll are able to manufacture carbohydrate by combining CO2 and water. Sunlight is used as energy; chlorophyll is a catalyst.
Monosaccharides (simple sugars, simple carbohydrates)
- Class Members: Glucose (dextrose), Fructose, Galactose
- Sources: Corn Syrup, Fruits, honey, lactose (milk)
Disaccharides (double sugars, simple carbohydrates)
- Class Members: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
- Sources: Table sugar, Molasses, Milk, Starch digestion, intermediate, sweetener in food products starch digestion, final
Polysaccharides (Multiple sugars, complex carbohydrates)
- Class Members: Starch, Glycogen
- Sources: Grains and gran products (cereal, bread, crackers, backed goods) Rice, corn, bulgur, Legumes, potatoes and other vegetables, Storage form of carbohydrate in animal tissue (not a dietary source)
Chemical name for sugar molecules. May occur as single molecules in monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), two molecules in disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), or multiple molecules in polysaccharides (starch, dietary fiber, glycogen).
Sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar (saccharide) units. A monosacharide is composed of one sugar unit; a disaccharide is composed of two sugar units.
Large, complex molecules of carbohydrates composed of many sugar units (polysaccharides). Complex forms of dietary carbohydrates are starch, which is digestible and provides a major energy source, and dietary fiber, which is indigestible (human beings lack the necessary enzymes) and thus provides important bulk in the diet.
- Common table sugar. single-sugar units are glucose and fructose.
- Sucrose= Glucose + Fructose
- Sugar in milk.
- Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
- Breakdown of starch.
- Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
- Most significant polysaccharides in the diet. Found in grains, legumes and other vegetables.
- 45-65% kilocalories consumed come from carbohydrates
found in animal muscle tissue not a significant source of carbohydrate in the diet.
Dietary Fiber (Polysaccharides)
fiber improves health prootion and disease preention, especially to gastrointestinal problems, cardiovascular disease, and the management of diabetes.
Cellulose (Dietary fiber classes.)
- Is the chief part of the framework of plants. It remains undigested in the GI tract and provides important bulk to the diet. The bulk helps move the food mass along,stimulates normal muscle action the intestine, and forms feces for elimination of waste products.
- Source: Stalks and leaves of vegetables, outer covering of seeds.
- Function: Holds water; reduces elevated colonic interaluminal pressure
Legnin (Dietary Fiber class)
- noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber.
- source: Woody part of plants (broccoli stems and fruits with edible seeds, such as strawberries and flaxseeds)
- Function: Antioxidant; binds bile acids, cholesterol, and metals
Noncellulose polysaccharides (Dietary Fiber Classes)
Hemicellulose, pectins, gums and mucilages, and algal substances are noncellulose polysaccharides. They absorb water and swell to a larger bulk, thus slowing the emptying of the food mass from the stomach, binding bile acids in the intestine.
A ligand that binds to a metal to form a metal complex
Nutritive sweeteners that provide 2 to 3 kcal/g; examples include sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol. produced in food industry laboratories for use as sweeteners in candies, chewing gum, beverages, and other foods; excess consumption may result in diarrhea.
A sugar alcohol formed in mammals from glucose and converted to fructose. Named for its initial discovery in nauture, it is found in ripe berries of the tree Sorbus aucuparia and also occurs in small quantites in various other berries, cherries, plums, and pears.
Proteins produced in cells that digest or change nutrients in specific chemical reactions without being changed themselves in the process. Their action is therfore that of a catalyst. Digestive enzymes in GI secretions act of food substances to break them down into simpler compounds. An enzyme usually is named according to the substance (substrate) on which it acts, with the sommon word ending of -ase; for example, sucrase is the specific enzyme for sucrose, which it breaks down into glucose and fructose.
Dietary guidelines for americans
- Choose fiber rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often
- Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as the amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the dietary approaches to stop hypertenstion eating plan.
- Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar and starch containg foods and beverages less frequently
Cells located on the microvilli within the lining of the intestinal tract. the microilli are tiny hair like prjections that proture from the mucosal cells that help increase surface area for the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
An entrance or gateway; for exaple, the protal blood circulation designates the entry of blood vessels from the intestines into the liver, carrying nutrients for major liver metabolism, then draining into the body's main systemic circulation to deliver metabolic products to body cells.