Nervous System Anatomy

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  1. White matter
    Myelinated axons
  2. Gray Matter
    Unmyelinated axons, dendrites and cell bodies
  3. Afferent Pathways
    • White Matter
    • Ascending sensory pathways
    • Posterior part of spinal cord
  4. Efferent Pathways
    • desending motor pathways
    • away from brain
    • anterior part of spinal cord
  5. Protective Structures of the Brain
    • Skull
    • Meninges (Dura mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater)
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
  6. Cerebrum
    2 hemispheres, joined by corpus callosum, outer gray matter, inner white matter
  7. Homunculus
    representation of body on brain tissue by specfic location and function
  8. Wernickes Area
    • Temporal lobe
    • Speech compehension
    • Receptive aphasia
  9. Brocas area
    • Frontal lobe
    • expression of speech
    • Expressive aphasia
    • Words dont mean what they think they mean
  10. Frontal Lobe function
    • Voluntary muscle contraction
    • initiation of movement
    • Reasoning
    • motor control of speech
    • personality
  11. Parietal lobe Function
    • sensory infor is reveived (pain, temp, touch, ect)
    • Language comprehension
  12. Temporal Love Function
    • Interpretation of sensory info,
    • long term memory
    • Hearing
    • Language reception and understanding
  13. Occipital Lobe Function
    vision and processing of visual information
  14. association cortex of cerebrum
    areas of the brain that horizontally link different parts of the brain
  15. Motor Strip
    Precentral gyrus, frontal lobe
  16. Sensory Strip
    • Postcentral gyrus
    • parietal lobe
  17. Right Hemispheric Specialization
    • non-verbal
    • Artistic
    • Processes infor in holistic way
    • Non-verbal communiction
  18. Left Hemipheric Specialization
    • Verbal, analytical
    • Processes info in sequential way
    • Processes language
  19. Internal capsule
    • Deeper structure
    • Descending fibers leave the motor area and travel throught the internal capusle
  20. Diencephalon
    Thalamus and Hyopthalamus
  21. Thalmus
    relay station for body sensations
  22. Hypothalmus
    • Hormone function
    • regulates body temp, appetite, GI activity,
    • Controls storng emotions such as FEAR
  23. Basal Ganglia
    Coordination of motor movement
  24. Limbic System
    • Group of structures
    • governs emotions and memory bases on emotions, (pain, pleasure)
  25. Reticular activating system
    Diffuse group of cells that governs level of awareness
  26. Cerebellum
    • Muscle coordination
    • Tone
    • Posture
    • Equaillbrium
    • Postion Sense
  27. Brainstem
    • Includes midbrain, pons, and medulla
    • Responsible for: visual and auditory reflexes, repiratory center, vasomotor center (heart and blood vessels)
  28. Conus medullaris
    • distal end of spinal cord
    • L2
  29. Cauda equina
    horses tail, spinal nerves continue though the vertebral canal,
  30. Corticospinal
    • Efferent to muscle and body organs
    • Anterior and lateral tracts
    • Most cross over, some do not
  31. Reticulospinal
    • Descending
    • positive and negative influence on flexors and extensors
  32. Vestibulospinal
    • Descending tracts
    • Postural adjustments and regulation of muscle tone
  33. Rubrospinal
    • descending
    • originates in red nucleus of briainstem
    • affects primarly UE muscles
    • coordination
  34. Tectospinal
    • Origniates in the midbrain to the vervical muscles,
    • orientation of head toward a sound or moving object
    • Descending
  35. Anterior Spinothalamic
    • Ascending
    • Pressure, light tough
  36. Lateral Spinothalamic
    • Ascending
    • Pain and Temp
  37. Doral Columns
    • Ascending
    • Discriminative tought
    • proprioception
    • Vibration
  38. Sympathetic NS
    • Prepares teh boyd to defend itself
    • responds to emergency
  39. Parasympathetic NS
    • Returns body to normal resting state
    • Regular consistent activites
  40. Circle of Willis
    Originates from the internal carotia and vertebral arteries
  41. Major Branches of the circle of Willis
    • Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA)
    • Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)
    • Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA)
    • Vertebrobasilar artery
  42. ACA
    • Anterior cerebral artery
    • medial aspect of frontal and parietal lobes and sub-cortical structures
  43. MCA
    • Medial Cerebral Artery
    • Lateral aspect of frontal temporal and parietal lobes and sub-cortical structures
  44. PCA
    • Posterior cerebral Artery
    • Occipital lobe, medial and inferior temportal lobes, upper brainstem, midbrain and thalmus
  45. VBA
    • Vertebrobasilar Artery
    • Pons, inner ear, cerebellum
  46. Reaction to Injury
    • Artery obstruction produces tissue death within minutes
    • within 24-36 hrs becomes soft and edematous
    • inflammatory reaction with scarring function of these neurons lost
  47. Upper Motor Neuron Lesion
    • Disease which affect nerve cells located in the motor cortex, internal capsule or brain stem
    • lesion is above the ant horn cell
    • Examples: hydrocephalus, CVA, Anoxia tumors, CP, MS
    • Symptoms: high tone, increased reflexes
  48. Lower Motor Neuron Disease
    Disease that affet nerves below the level of the brainstem
  49. Muscle Spindles
    Relates info to CNS about change in muscle lenght, speed of contraction and stretch
  50. Golgi Tendon Organs
    when tendon is streched, send impluses to CNS on degree of stretch, Protective
  51. Proprioceptors
    Detects joint position sense (combined inform from spindles, GTO, joint receptors in joint capsule)
Card Set:
Nervous System Anatomy
2011-09-12 22:57:13
Neuro fall

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