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  1. Anatomy
    Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of the body
  2. Physiology
    The study of body functions
  3. organ systems
    A group of organs coordinated to carry on a specialized function
  4. organism
    An individual living thing
  5. metabolism
    All the chemical reactions in cells that break down or build up substances
  6. homeostasis
    A state of balance in which the body's internal environment remains in the normal range
  7. cavity
    a whole that cotains viscera
  8. membrane
    thin covering between a cavity and viscera
  9. anatomical position
    the body is standing erect, face forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and palsm forward
  10. sagittal
    refer to a lengthwise plane that divides the body into right and left portions
  11. Superior
    means that a body part is body below another part, or near the head
  12. inferior
    a body part is below another body part, or near the feet
  13. anterior
    (ventral) towards the front
  14. posterior
    opposite of anterior, means towards the back
  15. medial
    imaginary midline dividing the body in half
  16. lateral
    toward the side with respect to the midline
  17. proximal
    with reference to another part - closer that then the point of reference
  18. distal
    the opposite of proximal - farther from the point of origin
  19. superficial
    situated near the sufer of the skin
  20. deep
    situated more internal than the surface
  21. transferse
    a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
  22. frontal (coronal)
    anterior and posterior portions
  23. dorsal cavity
    cavity in the back of the body
  24. cranial cavity
    contains the skull
  25. ventral cavity
    located in the top of the body
  26. pericardial cavity
    contains the heart
  27. abdominal cavity (contains)
    stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidneys, large & small intestines
  28. mesentery
    holds the abdominal in place
  29. pelvic cavity (contains)
    large portion of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and the internal reproductiv organs
  30. Integumetary System (organs/function)
    skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands// protect underlying tissue
  31. skeletal (organs/function)
    bones, ligaments, cartlages// provide framework anmd protective shield for softer tissues
  32. muscular system (organs/function)
    muscles// provide forces that move the body
  33. nervous system (organs/function)
    brain, spinal cord, nervous and sense organs// these all ecieve and trasport information telling the body what to do
  34. endocrine system (organs/function)
    grands// secrete hormones (chemical messangers)
  35. digestive system (organs/function)
    mouth, tounge, teeth, salvary glands, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, liver, gall baldder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine// to break down and absorb food
  36. respiratory system (organs/function)
    nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs// oxygen passes from the air within the lungs into the blood and carbon leaves
  37. circulatory system (organs/function)
    blood, blood vesssels, lymphatics, and heart// concerned with the circulation of the blood and lymph
  38. lymphatic system (organs/function)
    lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, thymus, spleen// fight against infections
  39. urinary system (organs/function)
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra// remove wastes from the body
  40. reproductive system (organs/function)
    • males:
    • scrotum, testes, epididymis, rasa deferentia, seminal wesicles, prostate gland, bulourethral glands, penis, and urethia
    • female:
    • ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva
    • //creating another individul
  41. thoracic cavity (organs)
    lungs, trachea and esophagus, heart, mediastinum
  42. wrist (name)
  43. reproductive organs (name)
  44. armpit (name)
  45. elbow (name)
  46. buttocks (name)
  47. back (name)
  48. neck (name)
  49. arm (name)
  50. cheek (name)
  51. leg (name)
  52. head (name)
  53. front of elbow (name)
  54. pelvis (name)
  55. breasts (name)
  56. between the anus and reproductive organs (name)
  57. sole (name)
  58. middle of thorax (name)
  59. chest (name)
  60. back of knee (name)
  61. foot (name)
  62. lower posterior region of the head (name)
  63. abdominal wall near thigh (groin)
  64. lower back (name)
  65. palm (name)
  66. Characteristics of Life (list and describe)
    • - movement: change in position, maybe in internal or external
    • - responsiveness: sense changes and react, may be internal or external
    • - growth: increase in body size
    • - reproduction:: new cells and to produce offspring
    • - respiration: use of oxygen & release carbon dioxide (cellular respiration 0 use of oxygen to release energy from foods)
    • - digestion: breaking food into useable forms of energy
    • - absorption: using the vitamins, minerals, and other usable particles into the blood stream and other areas
    • -circulation: mvement of body fluids
    • -assimilation: the ability to change substances into what is needed
    • -excretion: removal of wastes
  67. The necessities of life for ALL organisms (list)
    • - waster
    • - food
    • - oxygen (every organism uses it but not directly)
    • - heat
    • - pressure
  68. Axial (describe)
    upper and low portions
  69. parietal membranes
    menbranes attached to the wall or lines the cavity
  70. visceral membrane
    membrane that covers organ
  71. cavity (actual def)
    potention space between the visceral and parietal membranes
  72. Serous Fluid
    watery fluid that acts as a lubrricant between cavity membranes
  73. parietral pleura
    membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
  74. visceral pleura
    membrane that covers the lungs
  75. Pericardial cavity (break down of name)
    • peri- around
    • cardi- heart
  76. parietal pericardium
    membrane that forms sac around the heart
  77. visceral pericardium
    membran on the heart's surface
  78. parietal perituneum
    membrane that lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
  79. visceral perituneum
    membrane rht covers each organ
  80. cross section
    ex - cutting a bone straight across
  81. oblique section
    ex - cutting a bone diagnally
  82. longitudial section
    ex - cutting a bone, long ways, straight down the middle in hopes of getting too equal parts I would assume
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Chapter 1 Bellwork & Important Words
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