Biology

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Author:
Ashleystenger
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98591
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Biology
Updated:
2011-08-28 11:58:19
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Biology vocab
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Chapter one vocab and notes.
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  1. What is Adaptation?
    Adaptation is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce.
  2. What is an Atom?
    An atom is the smallest partical of an element, that retains the property of that element.
  3. What is an Autotroph?
    An autotroph is a self feeder. It is normally a photosynthetic organisim.
  4. What is the Binomial system?
    The binomial system is a method of naming organisims by genus and species, often called the scientific name.
  5. What is Biodiversity?
    Biodiversity is the diversity of living organisims; often measured as the variety of different species in an individual ecosystem or the entire biosphere.
  6. What is a Biosphere?
    The part of the earth that is inhabited by living organisims; this includes living and non-living components.
  7. What is a Cell?
    A cell is the smallest unit of life consisting at the minimum, of an outer membrane that encloses a watery medium containing organic molecules, including material composed of DNA.
  8. What does the Cell Theory imply?
    The cell theory implies that every living organisim is made up of one or more cells. Cells are the functional unit of all organisims, and all cells arise from preexisting cells.
  9. What is a Chromosome?
    A chromosome is a DNA double helix togeather with proteins that help to organize and regulate the use of DNA.
  10. What is a community?
    A community is all interacting populations within an ecosystem.
  11. In the scientific method, a decision about the validity of a hypothesis, made on the basis of experiments or observations is called what?
    A conclusion
  12. In an experiment the control_______, while the Variable_______?
    control stays the same while the variable changes to test the hypothesis.
  13. What is Cytoplasm?
    Cytoplasm is all of the material contained in the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus.
  14. What is deductive reasoning?
    The process of generating hypothesis about the results of a specific experiment or the nature of a specific observation.
  15. What is deoxyribonucleic acid?
    (DNA) A molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; containes the genetic information of all living cells
  16. What is a domain?
    A domain is the broadest category of classifying organisms. Organisms are classified into three domains: BACTERIA...ARCHAEA...and EUKARYA
  17. What is an ecosystem?
    All organisms and their non living envirnment within a defined area.
  18. What is an Element?
    An element is a substance that can not be broken down, or converted to a simpler substance by ordinary chemicl means.
  19. What is energy?
    Energy is the capicity to do work.
  20. What does Eukaryotic mean?
    Eukaryotic refers to cells of organisms of the domain Eukarya( plants, fungi, and protists.)Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane- bound nucleus and contain other organelles.
  21. What does Evolution mean?
    Evolution is the descent of modern organisms, with modification, from preexisting life forms;a change in genetic makeup( the proportions of different genotypes) A population from one generation to the next.
  22. What is an experiment?
    In the scientific method, the use of carefully controlled observations, to test the predictions generated by a hypothesis.
  23. What is a Gene?
    A gene is the unit of heredity; a segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome that encodes the information for the amino acid sequence of a protein and hence particular traits.
  24. What is a Heteratroph?
    A heteratroph is an organism that eats other organisms; the consumer.
  25. What is Homeostasis?
    Homeostasis is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal envirnment.. that is required for the optimal functioning of cells.
  26. What is a hypothesis?
    In the scientific method, a supposition based on previous observations that is offered as an explanation for an observed phenomenon and is used as the basis for further observations or experiments.
  27. What is Inductive Reasoning?
    The process of creating a generalization based on many specific observations that support the generalization, coupled with an absence of observations that contradict it.
  28. What is a kingdom?
    A kingdom is the second broadest taxonomic category, contained within a domain, and consisting of related phyla or divisions.
  29. What is a Molecule?
    A molecule is a partical composed of one or more atoms held togeather by chemical bonds; the smallest partical of an element that displays all the properties of that compound.
  30. What does Multicellular mean?
    Many-celled; most members of the kingdoms. Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia are multicellular organisms, with intimate cooperation among cells.
  31. What is a Mutation?
    A mutation is a change in DNA sequence.
  32. What is a Nautral Causality?
    Natural causality is the scientific principle that natural events occur as a result of preceding natural causes.
  33. What is Natural Selection?
    The universal survival and reproduction of organisms due to envirnmental forces, resulting in the preservation of favorable adaptations. Usually, natural selection refers to specifically to differential survival and reproduction on the basis of genetic differences among individuals.
  34. What is a Nucleus?
    The organelle of Eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material.
  35. What is a Nutrient?
    A nutrient is a substance acquired from the envirnment and needed for survival, growth, and development of the organism.
  36. What does Observation mean?
    In the scientific method, the recognition of and a statement about a specific phenomenon, usually leading to the formulation of a question about the phenomenon.
  37. What is an Organ?
    An organ is a structure such as a liver, kindney, or skin. Organs are composed of two or more distinct tissue types that function togeather.
  38. What is an organ system?
    Two or more organs that work togeather to perform a specific function. the digestive system is and ex of an organ system.
  39. What is an organelle?
    An organelle is a membrane- enclosed structure found inside a Eukaryotic cell that performs a specific function.
  40. What is an organic molecule?
    A molecule that contains both carbon and hydrogen.
  41. What is an organism?
    An organism is an individual living thing.
  42. What does photosynthesis mean?
    Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions in which the energy of light is used to synthesize high-energy organic molecules, usually carbohydrates, from low-energy inorganic molecules, usually carbon dioxide and water.
  43. What is a plasma membrane?
    A plasma membrane is the outer membrane of a cell, composed of a bilayer of phosphlipids in which proteins are embedded.
  44. What does population mean?
    All of the members of a particular species within an ecosystem, found in the same time and place and actually or potentially interbreeding.
  45. What is a prediction?
    In the scientific method, a statement that describes an expected observation or expected outcome of an experiment, assuming that the specific hypothesis is true.
  46. What does Prokaryotic mean?
    Prokaryotic refers to the cells of the domains bacteria or Archaea. These cells have genetic material that is NOT enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus; they also lack other membrane-bound organelles.
  47. What is a Question?
    In the scientific method, a statement that identifies a particular aspect of an observation that a scientist wishes to explain.
  48. What is the scientific Method?
    The Scientific method is a rigerous procedure for making observations of a specific phenomena and searching for the order underlying those phenomena.
  49. What is a scientific theory?
    A scientific theory is a general explanation of natural phenomena developed through extensive and reproducible observations; usually more general and reliable than a hypothesis.
  50. What does the scientific theory of evolution state?
    The theory that modern organisms decended, with modification from preexisting life forms.
  51. What does species mean?
    • Species is the basic unit of taxonomic classification, consisting of a population or series of populations of closely related and similar organisms.
    • In sexually reproducing organisms, Species can be defined as a population or series of populations that interbreed freely with one another under natural conditions, but do not interbreed with members of other species.
  52. What is Tissue?
    A group of (normally similar) cells that togeather carry out a specific function. For example muscle. A tissue may also include extracellular material produced by its cells.
  53. What does Unicellular mean?
    Single-celled; most members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea and the kingdom Protista are unicellular.

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