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What are the six main functions of the engine company?
- 1. Search, rescue and treatment
- 2. Initial Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) duties
- 3. Stretch Hoselines
- 4. Operate Nozzles
- 5. Pump hoselines
- 6. Loss control
What are the Ladder company functions?
- 1. Search and rescue
- 2. Ventilation
- 3. Forcible entry
- 4. Raise ladders
- 5. Provide access/check fire extension
- 6. Utility control
- 7. Operate aerial master streams
- 8. Perform overhaul
- 9. Extrication
- 10. Loss control
- 11. Provide lighting
What are the 5 main Rescue Company functions?
- 1. Transportation of sick and injured to hospitals
- 2. Initial Rapid Intervention (IRIT) duties
- 3. Search, Rescue and Treatment
- 4. Utility Control (gas and electric)
- 5. General firefighting duties assigned by command
What are the HAZMAT Squad functions?
- 1. Safety
- 2. Accountability
- 3. Rehab
AFD Risk Management Plan states?
- We may risk a lot to protect savable lives
- We may risk a little to protect savable property
- We will risk nothing to save what is already lost
When are exterior streams not to be operated on the fire ground?
When there are interior crews operating
A hazard zone is defined as?
any area that requires an SCBA, charged hoseline, special protective clothing, or in which firefighting personnel are at risk of becoming lost, trapped, or injured by the environment or structure.
The warm zone is defined as?
Just outside the hazard zone
Cold zone is defined as?
outside of the warm zone where no one is at risk because of the incident
A 100' length of unprotected steel expands 9" when heated to what temperature?
The signs of building collapse may include?
- 1. Cracks in exterior walls
- 2. Bulges in exterior walls
- 3. Sounds of structural movement--creaking, groaning, snapping etc.
- 4. Smoke or water leaking through walls
- 5. Flexible movement of any floor or roof where firefighters walk.
- 6. Interior or exterior bearing walls or columns are leaning, twisting, or flexing.
- 7. Sagging or otherwise distorted roof lines.
- 8. Time of fire involvement.
The 4 attributes of smoke are?
- 1. Volume
- 2. Velocity
- 3. Density
- 4. Color
There are two fireground strategies, what are they?
Tactical priority benchmarks are?
- 1. All clear
- 2. Fire under control
- 3. Loss Stopped
What is the permissible exposure limit for CO at a given level of exertion?
- 120 ppm for 20 minutes
- 90 ppm for 30 minutes
- 55 ppm for 60 minutes
At what point are afd personnel allowed to remove their SCBA's with an atomsphere containing CO?
When are SCBA evaluations for members of the operations division?
Once a year as the commander of the Battalion section or division determines its necessary.
A full protective clothing ensemble includes what?
turnout coat and pants, Nomex hood, firefighting boots, firefighting gloves, a helmet with faceshield, and goggles.
Rehab sector is to provide?
- Physical assessment
- Rest, hydration, and refreshments
- Medical evaluation and treatment of injuries
- Monitoring of physical condition
- Transportation to medical facilities
- Initial stress support assessment
Rehab sections are?
- 1. Entry point
- 2. Hydration and replenishment
- 3. Medical treatment and transport
- 4. Medical Reassignment
Highrise emergency response will be categorized as?
- 1. Fire alarm activation
- 2. Report of smoke and or fire
- 3. Determination or a working fire and or sprinkler system activation by initial responding units.
Highrise Fire alarm organization
- Incident Command- BC
- Attack- Engine
- Lobby control- Ladder
For a report of fire or smoke in a highrise building what will the dispatch consist of?
- 4 engines
- 3 ladders
- 3 rescues
- Squad 1 or 3 and Squad 2
- 3 BC's
At a highrise incident the BC's arriving in order of 1-4 are designated as?
- 1. Assume and establish command in the Lobby
- 2. Take position in the designated attack stairwell and assume role of Fire Attack Branch director.
- 3. Join the first in the Lobby and assume the role of Support Officer (Incident accountability)
- 4. Establishes a command post outside the stucture and assumes command of the incident. The first BC is then reassigned as the Systems Branch Director and the third BC will asssume the role of Accountability branch manager.
Resource division is located where in a highrise incident?
Two floors below the fire floor.
The EMS branch is located where in a highrise incident?
3 floors below the fire
The service branch (or rehab) is located where in a highrise incident?
3 floors below the fire
Fire floor attack group is comprised of what companies?
Two engines and a rescue. 3 firefighters and engine officer will advance the 2-1/2" attack line, the other engine officer and ff are IRIT in the stairwell, and the rescue driver and officer conduct a primary search.
Equipment that needs to be taken with the attack group in a highrise incident are?
Standpipe kit (60deg elbow, in-line pressure gauge, 1-1/8" solid tip nozzle, 18" pipe wrench, door chocks, latch straps, chalk, spanner wrenches, 150' of 2-1/2" hose, forcible entry tools, pike pole, thermal imaging camera, 100' of search rope, Spare SCBA bottles.
Phase 1 elevator operations call elevators where?
To the Ground floor
Elevators have three modes in phase one operations, what are they?
Inside the elevator for phase two there are 3 positions for the key switch, what are they?
Class 1 Standpipes are designed for whose use?
- It provides a 2-1/2" outlet and rated at 500 gpm
Class 2 standpipes are designed for who to use?
- Occupant use
- It provides 1-1/2" and only rated for 100gpm.
Class 3 standpipes are designed for who to use?
For both the occupant and the firefighter. It provides 2-1/2" and a 1-1/2" outlets
What psi do standpipes systems require?
What is core construction considered to be?
All systems operate in the middle of the building
What floor does fire attack set up?
The standpipe operations should be set up on the floor below the fire
The first step in using a portable ladder should be?
Selecting the appropriate ladder
Selecting the appropriate ladder requires a ff to do what?
Estimate the height of the window or roof line
How many rungs should be above the roof line when setting up a ladder?
What kind of ladders and how many feet should a pumper have?
- 1 Roof
- 1 Extension 12 ft or longer
- 1 attic
What kind of ladders and how many feet should a ladder have?
- A total of 115ft
- 1 attic
- 2 roof
- 2 extension
What kind of ladders and how many feet should a quint have?
- A total of 85ft
- 1 attic
- 1 roof
- 1 extension
Preincident Plans should be made available to who?
The plans should be made available to all units that would respond to that location.
What is the preincident plan inteneded to do for the IC?
Help him make an informed decision
MSDS stands for what?
Material Safety data sheet
An incident plan usually includes 1 or more diagrams that show details of building location and what else?
Access routes, entry points, exposures, hydrants, and alternative water supplies. Also special hazards, dimensions, occupancy, and construction type.
NFPA 1620 talks about what?
Recomended Practice for Preincident Planning
A target hazard is described as what?
Properties that pose an increased risk to firefighters. Usually and particularly larger buildings present unusual risks.
An exposure is described as?
any other building or item that might be in danger if an incident occurs in another building or area.
Fire load is described as?
the amount of combustible material along with the rate of heat release.
A large fire involving multiple structures
A preincident survey is?
Information gathered that goes into a preincident plan
A preincident survey should be done with what from the owner and or occupant?
Knowledge and cooperation
Preincident survey starts and ends where?
Starts outside and moves to the inside. It should be conducted from top to bottom.
A sizeup is describes as?
An ongoing observation and evaluation of factors that are used to develop objectives, strategies, and tactics of fire suppression.
What is NFPA 220 about?
Standards on building construction
Hitches are used for what?
knots that wrap around an object and secure the working end to an object so that it can be lifted
Loop knots are used for?
hoisting, rescuing, anchoring
Bends are used for what?
They are used to join two ropes together
What three things need to be done to a knot?
Set, dress, and safety
NFPA 1006 talks about?
Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications
NFPA1670 talks about?
Operations and training for technical search and rescue incidents
Watch Out Situations are?
- 1. Fire not scouted and sized up
- 2. In country not seen in daylight
- 3. Safety zones and escape routes not identified
- 4. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior
- 5. uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards
- 6. Instructions and assignment not clear
- 7. No communication link with crew members or supervisor
- 8. Constructing line w/out safe anchor point
- 9. Building a fire line downhill with fire below
- 10. Attempting frontal assault on fire
- 11. Unburned fuel between you and fire
- 12. Cannot see main fire; not in contact with someone who can
- 13. On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below
- 14. Weather becoming hotter and drier
- 15. Wind increases and/or changes direction
- 16. Getting frequent spot fires accross the line
- 17. Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult
- 18. Taking a nap near the fireline.
Standard FF orders are?
- 1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts
- 2. Know what your fire is doing at all times
- 3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.
- 4. Identify escape routes and safety zones and make them known.
- 5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger
- 6. Be alert, keep calm. Think clearly, Act decisively
- 7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces
- 8. Give clear instructions and be sure they are understood
- 9. Maintain control of your forces at all time
- 10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.
Visual indicators of a stable atmosphere are?
Cloud in layers, stratus type clouds, smoke column drifts apart after limited rise, poor visibility due to smoke or haze, fog layers, steady winds.
What are the 4 types of inversion?
Nighttime, Valley winds, Sea and land breezes
Critical fire conditions are?
Strong shifting winds, very low RH, high temperature, unstable atmosphere, dry lightining
Examples of weather phenomena are?
Cold fronts, foehn winds, thunderstorms, dust devils, firewhirls.
Extreme fire behavior consists of?
4 elements including rapid rate of fire spread, intense burning, spotting, and crowning
What seven factors within the fire environment must be monitored?
Fuel characteristics, fuel moisture, fuel temperature, topography, atmospheric stability, and fire behavior
Steep slopes are considered steep if the are greater than what angle?
What are the methods of attacking a wildland fire?
Direct, Indirect, Flanking/Parallel
What are the methods of communication?
Hand signals, written, use of runners, mirrors, whistles or airhorns, adn two way radios
Boneyarding or Bone piling is used in what stage?
What are the 3 categories of tactical plans for a wildland fire?
Defensive mode, Offensive mode, Combined mode
What are the 5 teamwork guidelines?
know yourself, seek improvement, be technically and tactically proficient, set the example for others, keep leader informed, and be a team member not a yes man
Firing devices are?
A drip torch, fusee, or berry gun
Types of water hose in wildland are?
Simple hose lays are?
Pump to nozzle with no junctions
A progressive hose lay is?
Trunk 1-1/2" with a lateral 1"
Signs of damage of a fire shelter are?
Visible dark gray stains, aluminum particles at bottom of the bag, tears >1/4", Dents or punctures in foil one inch wide, 1/2" of foil missing
Site preparation includes what for fire shelter deployment?
Lowest point, greatest distance from fuels, smooth surface, texture of shelter seal, utilize heat barriers, remove ground fuels 4'x8', deploy in a group
The risk management process in wildland fires is?
Situation awareness, hazard assessment, hazard control, decision point, evaluate
3 fuel characteristics are?
Fuel type, fuel loading, fuel availability
The 6 major fuel typs are?
Grass, Grass shrub, Shrub, Timber understory, Timber litter, Slash-Blowdown
Fuel characteristics that influence fire behavior are?
Fuel type, fuel loading, fuel availability, and fuel arrangement
What are fuel classes or categories for size?
- 1 hr = 0"- 1/4"
- 10hr = 1/4"- 1"
- 100hr = 1"- 3"
- 1000hr = 3"- 8"
A stable atmosphere resists what kind of motion?
FF survival is best when what is practiced?
What are the 4 keys to FF survival?
Develop a survival attitude, know equipment, know your crew, know your district
A 6 point fireground size-up includes what?
Occupancy, location of fire, egress when things go wrong, fire affects on the building, occupants location, way to entry
RIT essential equipment is?
TIC, RIT pack and tag line, PPE, forcible entry tools, and hand lights.
optional equipment are wire cutters, webbing, flashlight, knife
Emergency traffic is?
a report of emergency conditions
Firefighter in trouble
What does the 2nd searching ff reaching the victim do?
Checks immediate area, locates 2nd means of egress, removes hazard from immediate area, illuminates work area
Managing a mayday consists of what?
Stop! get oriented, communicate w/crew, Alert command-mayday, solve your problem, activate your pass, solve your problem, conserve your air
Emergency escape techniques are?
Follow hose line, locate door or window, perform a wall breach, perform emergency exit
You get out alive during a mayday by?
prevention, stay low, stay calm, stay oriented, never give up.
3 types of ff rescue are?
assisting a member of your own crew, assisting a ff encountered during interior operations, assisting a ff as part of a RIT
3 Stages of FF rescue are?
searching for ff, assessing and stabilizing a ff, removing the ff
When searching for a FF you should do what?
Use a systematic search, speed is critical, perform search and size-up (lunar), have a plan
Search techniques are?
Conventional, pass assisted, radio assisted, rope assisted, TIC assisted
When a mayday is called what is the mneumonic used for information to be relayed?
- Last known location
- Unit ID#
- Resources needed
What are the 4 reasons we need RIT?
Fireground is dynamic, inadequate preparation, standards and regulations, safety for ff
2 exceptions to the 2 in 2 out rule are?
Incipient stage fire and immediate action to save a life
RIT Packs are with QI, BC, or Squads
RIT does what when first assigned to be RIT?
360 recon, widen openings, ground ladders, unblock egress, monitor radio
RIT Team consists of what team members?
RIT officer, Navigation/Air Supply, 2 Searching FF
1st FF responsibility on a RIT team are?
Secure pass, advise team ff located, checks ff air supply, checks for wires and injuries, converts ff for removal
What should happen after a ff says ready?
a pause to let the other ff respond
Take a minute to what?
Make a minute
Denver drill is for what?
restricted window rescue
The Nance drill is for what?
FF fallen through the floor
Where is VES done?
Away from the fire, away from hose
When is VES done?
When someone has come out of the building where the fire is and tells you their son is still inside in the bedroom, (can see person from the window). Urgent rescue profile
VES is only done on what type of structures?
Bottlenecks tend to occur where at fires?
The front door
VES is a search for?
What is the Equipment needed for VES?
radio, 6' pike pole, Irons, TIC
VES stands for what?
Vent, Enter, Search
The best chance of survival is?
During a RIT operation other crews should?
Complete their assigned tasks
RIT benchmarks are?
RIT entering the structure, ff located, air supply secured, RIT exiting the structure, RIT out of the structure and PAR
What are 3 FF constants?
Complacency, Peer pressure, less fireground experience means more training.
What is the procedure to perform a VES?
- 2 ff one on the outside one on the inside. Vent the window entirely, sound the floor, place the pike pole on window sill for life line out. Go directly to the door, look in the hall for victim and shut the door. locate victim and communicate the victim is located. Exit the room and give a CAN report
What are the priorities of a search?
- 1. Around the fire
- 2. The rest of the fire floor
- 3. The floor above the fire floor
- 4. The top floor down
- 5. Then below the fire floor
Who is the best to get information from at a fire incident?
From escapees that have just come out of the building
How should partners remain in contact with each other?
Direct visual, voice, physical
What is the most important element of search and rescue?
What senses should FF use when searching for a victim?
What should a ff do every few seconds when searching for a victim?
Yell out is anyone there and hold breath and listen for a response
A search is described as what?
a player looking for victims who need assistance to leave a dangerous area
Rescue is described how?
The physical removal of a person from confinement or danger
A FF should rescue who first?
Victims in the most immediate danger
Where are the occupants in the most immediate danger?
- Close to the fire
- Above the fire
- In the path of the fire
A search and rescue size-up includes what 7 elements?
- size of building
- construction type
- time of day and day of the week
- # of occupants
- degree of risk
- ability of occupants to exit on their own
Search and Rescue equipment are?
PPE, Radio, Handlight, Forcible Entry Tools, Hose Lines, TIC, Ladders, Long ropes, Enough Air
The two major structural support systems for roofs are?
- Solid beam
- Truss construction
What are gusset plates
What are 3 roof designs?
- Flat roof
- Pitched roof
- Arched roof
Parapet walls are?
Walls that extend above the normal roofline
Kerf Cuts are?
cuts as wide as the saw blade to examine smoke
Tools used in ventilation are?
Irons, pry bars, tin cutters, pike poles, saws, ppv, and other hooks
Types of ventilation roof cuts are?
Rectangular or square cuts, Louver cut, Triangular cut, peak cut, trench cut
NIOSH says the percent of lightweight construction in the US is?
Benchmarks for ventilation are?
- Ventilation team on the roof
- Ventilation complete (Watch for falling debris)
- Ventilation team off the roof and PAR
What apparatus carry TICs?
TIC can withstand what temperature?
700 deg F
At what point do you use a ladder for rescue?
Last option for rescue
What do the TIC lights mean?
- Full charge, 3 hours Green light
- 1/2 charge, 90 minutes yellow light
- 1/4 charge, 45 minutes red light
- 5-15 min charge red flashes
When using hydraulic ventilation how far should the nozzle be inside the opening?
How much air can hydraulic ventilation move in one minute?
What are the basic indicators of roof collapse?
Spongy feeling, visible saggings, walls and roof assembly separating, structural failure in portion of a building, any sudden increase in the intensity of the fire
Roof covering is?
weather resistant surfaceof the roof and may have several layers
Roof decking is?
A rigid layer made of wooden boards, plywood sheets, or metal panels
How far should a PPV fan be placed outside the door?
How can a ff increase the efficiency of the ppv?
close all the doors to unaffected areas of the structure
The biggest concern when using a ppv is what?
fire spread if used in the wrong way.
Two types of ventilation are?
Ventilation is described as?
The process of removing smoke, heat, and toxic gases from a burning building and replacing them w/cooler, cleaner more oxygen rich air.
An open space within a wall where wires and pipes can run
Seat of the fire is described as?
The main area of the fire
What 3 major tactical priorties are directly related to ventilation?
life safety, fire containment, property conservation
What factors should be considered when ventilating?
size of fire, stage of combustion, location of fire w/in a building, available ventilation options
A primary cut for ventilation should be located where?
Over the seat of the fire
A secondary cut for ventilation should be used how?
limiting fire spread
3 types of mechanical ventilation are?
Pitch is calculated how?
The rate of run to the rate of rise
The objectives of vertical ventilation are?
Provide the largest opening, put in appropriate location, use least amount of time, use safest technique
Types of existing roof openings are?
monitor, ventilator, scuttle hatch, stairway door w/skylight
Flashover is what?
The sudden ignition of all combustible objects in a room
Propane, Methane, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Cyanide have what ignition temps and what flammable ranges?
- Propane 896/ 2.1-9.5%
- Methane 1076/ 5-15%
- Carbon Monoxide 1128/ 12.5-74%
- Hydrogen Cyanide 1000/ 5.6-40%
Permit required confined space is?
- 1. has a potential for hazardous atmosphere
- 2. contains material for engulfment or entrapment
- 3. has internal covering walls that could trap or asphyxiate
A low angle rescue is considered low angle when?
The angle is < 30 degrees
A high angle rescue is considered high when?
The angle is > 30 degrees
For HTR rescue what are the zones cold, warm, and hot zones sectioned off at in feet?
- 0-50 hot
- 50-100 warm
- 100-150 cold
NFPA 1670 is for what?
Wilderness Search and Rescue
How many deaths occur from flash floods every year?
Water Velocity is calculated how?
Water force X 2
What is a Helical flow?
Circular flow near the bank
What is a Laminar flow?
Straightest and fastest
Terminology for river rescue is?
Facing down river/ River righ, left, upstream, downstream
PPE for swift water is?
PFD, whistle, knife, and tennis shoes
If you are 5 ft away from water you must have what?
In a swift water situation, if you are on a slope you must be on?
A throw line is how long and how thick?
75 ft long and 12mm thick
Swift water rescue techniques are?
Reach, Throw, Row, Go and Tow, Helo
Who gives the flashflood warnings?
National Weather Service
Spoil pile is?
Soil removed from a trench and placed in a pile
Stabalized sides of an excavation site
Some arroyos in ABQ are?
Embudo Arroyo, Hahn arroyo, Bear canyon arroyo, Tramway channel
Confined space IDLH types are?
O2 deficient, Flamable, Toxic
What is the most important attribute of smoke?
Unfinished wood emits what color of smoke?
Smoke through a door:
a. smoke exits, thins but still fills the door
b. smoke rises and the opening clears
c. smoke exits through the top half and clean air enters through the bottom half
- a. Fire is below you
- b. Fire is above you
- c. Fire is on the same level
Methods of fire extinguishment are?
Remove the fuel, Cool the burning fuel, Break the chemical reaction, Remove the O2
Helmet & Rockers ranks are?
BLEVE stands for?
Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
What are the key attributes of smoke?
What PSI do we hold in our cylinders?
How many liters are in the air cylinder?
Cascade systems or compressors are used to do what?
Fill air bottles
Hydrostatic testing for air cylinders should occur when?
Every 5 years
The pathway of air in an SCBA is?
Cylinder shut off valve, high pressure airline, regulator, face piece
Ignition Temperature is describe as?
The minimum temperature required to begin self contained combustion independent of a heating source
Mechanical energy is converted to heat when?
two materials rubbing against each other creating friction and producing heat
Electrical energy is converted to heat when?
electricity flows through a wire or any other conductive material
The fire tetrahedron is?
- chemical and chain reaction
The process that oxygen combines w/another chemical to create a new compound
a rapid chemical process in which the combination of a substance with oxygen produces heat and light, or fire
The decomposition of material brought about by heat in the absence of oxygen
Is the process of transferring heat through matter by movement of the kinetic energy form one particle to another
Convection is described as?
The circulatory movement that occurs in a gas or fluid w/areas of differing temperature owing to the variation of the density and the action of gravity
Plume is described as?
Heated gases and smoke that rises in the air
Radiation is described as?
The transfer of heat through emission of energy in the form of invisible waves
The five classes of fires are?
- A - Ordinary solid combustible materials (wood, paper, &cloth)
- B - Flammable or combustible liquids (gas, oil, kerosene)
- C - Energized electrical equipment
- D - Combustible metals (sodium, magnesium, titanium)
- K - combustible cooking oils and fats in kitchens
Ignition phase is?
Begins as a lighted match is placed next to a crumpled piece of paper
Growth phase is?
occurs as kindling starts to burn increasing the convection of hot gases upward
Fully developed phase is?
The phase that produces the maximum rate of burning
Decay phase is?
The period when the fire is running out of fuel
The temperature in the room reaches a point where combustible materials in the room ignite all at once. Approximately 1,000 degrees Far. to reach this point.
Rollover; is the flaming ignition of hot gases that are layered in a developing room or compartment fire. This is a precursor to Flashover
Thermal Layering is?
Gases rise as they are heated and form layers within a room.
Signs of backdraft are?
confined fire, puffing smoke, little visible flame, smoke that is pressurized, smoke stained windows, turbulent smoke, ugly yellowish smoke
Fire is described as?
A rapid chemical process that produces heat and light
Matter is made up of?
Atoms and molecules that exist in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas
the absorption of energy
IDLH stands for?
Immediately dangerous to life and health
The most evident by-product of fire is?
What do smoke particles consist of?
Unburned, partially burned, and completely burned substances. (Smoke vapors, toxic gases, smoke particles)
Incomplete combustion is?
A fire does not have an adequate supply of oxygen to consume all of the available fuel.
PASS stands for what, relating to SCBA?
Personal alert safety system
NFPA 1975 relates to?
Standard on Station/work uniforms for fire and emergency services
NFPA 1977 relates to?
Standard on protective clothing and equipment for wildland fire fighting
NFPA 1971 relates to?
Standard on protective ensembles for structural fire fighting and proximity fire fighting
Turnout gear has three layers, what are they?
- 1. outer shell
- 2. moisture barrier
- 3. thermal barrier
What is the normal outside air gas %?
21% O2, 78% Nitrogen, 1% other gases
Oxygen deficiency is at what %?
17%, 12%, 9%, and 6% oxygen causes what symptoms?
- 17%- lack of coordination
- 12%- headache, nausea, fatigue
- 9%- unconscious
- 6%- cardiac arrest, death
How are most fire deaths caused?
By smoke inhalation
The presence of a smoke alarm on each floor of the house reduces risk of death by what %?
Smoking in bed causes what percent of fires and what percent of fire deaths?
5.4% and 23%
Kitchen fires are responsible for what percentage of fires?
PSI for a tube module?
Describe the NFPA 704 Placard color, position, and significance.
- Red/ Flammable/Top diamond
- Blue/Health/Left diamond
- Yellow/Reactivity/Right diamond
- White/Misc., Special/Bottom diamond
In a HAZMAT incident what does SLUDGEM stand for?
- Gastric Disturbance
A small spill in a hazmat situation is considered small if?
It is less than 200 liters of liquid and 300kg of solids
Concentration can be described as?
How much medicine in a pill
PPE levels for HAZMAT are?
- Level A - Vapor protective
- Level B - Splash protective
- Level C - Protected from Dry Chemicals
- Level D - Bunker gear and regular uniform
AFD action plan for Hazmat is what?
- Action Plan
- Public Protective Action
- Control and Contain
Two types of corrosivity are?
Bases and Acids
What are 3 important safety factors in regards to radiation?
Time, Distance, Sheilding
MSDS stands for?
Material Safety Data Sheet
A PID detects?
A CGI detects ?
GC does what?
Breaks down gas into components
An FID detects?
For PPE to lose effectiveness it can be?
Degregated, penetrated, permeated
What are the main ways contaminants can spread?
people, animals, environment, equipment
The three ways to eliminate contamination are?
washing, dilution, Isolation
The triage acronym is?
- Treatment (RPMS=Respiratory, Pulse, Mental Status)
Types of rays from radiological terrorism are?
The department of homeland security color codes are?
- Red = Severe
- Orange = High
- Yellow = elevated
- Blue = guarded
- Green = Low
NFPA 1991 relates to?
Vapor protective PPE and performance standards
NFPA 1992 relates to?
Liquid splash PPE and performance standards
NFPA 1994 relates to?
Protective ensemble for 1st responders to CBRNE
DDDD as it relates to HAZMAT?
Dam, Dyke, Dilute, Divert
Types of Evidence in an arson investigation are?
Physical, Direct, Trace, Circumstantial, Demonstrative
Divisions refer to?
a geographic area
Groups refer to?
The limits of an ERG are?
Used only in the first 15 minutes of the incident
Types of shipping bills are?
- Bill of Lading - Roadway/Freight
- Weigh Bill - Rail
- Consist - Rail
- Air Bill - Airplane
- Dangerous Cargo Manifest - Marine Vessels
What are the routes of entry for a HAZMAT?
inhalation, injection, ingestion, absorption
DOT Placard colors mean?
- Red - Flammable
- Orange - Explosive
- Blue - Water Reactive
- White - Health Hazard
- Yellow - Oxidizer
- Green - Non-Flammable Gas
Another name for a non-bearing wall is?
A partition wall
There are 6 equipment types, what are they?
Rotating, Prying and Spreading, pushing or pulling, striking, cutting, multiple use
Tools most commonly used to force a padlock are?
Bolt cutters, duck billed lock breakers, bam-bam, and locking pliers and chain
First alarm fire will have what apparatus deployed?
- 3 engines
- 2 ladders
- 2 rescues
- 2 BC
- Squad 2
- Squad 1 or 3
There are thre types of fire service radios, what are they?
portable, mobile, base station
What do radio repeater systems compensate for?
topography interference and weak signals
Heat index have four levels of danger what are they and what are the corresponding temperatures?
- caution - 80-90
- extreme caution - 90-105
- danger - 105-130
- extreme danger - >130
What is usually the biggest problem at fire scenes?
What are the 4 types of communication centers and what does afd use?
- Stand alone
- Co-located - AFD
What are the requirements for communication centers?
Protection from natural disasters, equipped w/emergency generators, and secured so there's no unauthorized entry
Field operations center phone number is?
Alarm room phone number is?
Principles to follow for discipline are?
Just cause, time frame, documenting the discipline, informing the employee, double jeapordy
The most crucial part of discipline is?
CISM stands for what?
Critical incident stress management
What is your responsibility in regards to rehab?
It is to take care of self first, team second, and others third
Damage to tissue resulting from a prolonged exposure to cold.
Glucose is and is required for what?
blood sugar, and is carried throughout the body by the bloodstream and is needed to burn fat efficiently and release energy
There are three underground water main sizes what are they?
Shut-off valves are located where in an underground water system?
where underground mains meet distributor pipes.
What are the two major types of fire hydrants?
- 1. wet barrel
- 2. dry barrel
How often should fire hydrants be inspected?
Once a year
Two major sources of water are?
Municpal water system and Static water sources
How much water do mobile water supplies carry and what are they called?
Tankers or tenders carry 1000 - 3500 gallons of water
Overhaul is described as?
Completely extinguishing any remaining pockets of fire
A direct attack is?
FF using a straight stream to deliver water directly onto the base of the fire.
An indirect attack is?
FF removes as much heat as possible from the fire atmosphere. A FF sprays water at the ceiling for quick bursts which allows the FF to advance to the seat of the fire.
What patterns should be used when applying water?
T, O, Z
What are some master stream devices?
- Deck gun
- Portable monitor
- Ladder pipes
A master stream should never be directed into a building when?
When FF are operating inside
A safety lock on portable monitors prevents it from being lowered beyond a safe angel of?
In large buildings what should FF utilize in order not to get lost?
LPG or Propane when stored under pressure becomes a?
LPG expands at what ratio?
270:1 Cubic feet
LPG tanks should be stored upright so that what happens?
So that the pressure relief valve stays in the vapor space to discharge excess pressure and heat
If propane is inhaled what can it cause?
What additive is mixed with propane to give it a distinct odor?
Is propane heavier than air?
Yes, it flow along the ground or low lying areas
At a propane fire, where should FF be staged?
Uphill and upwind
What are the smoothbore tip sizes and what GPM's do each flow?
- 7/8 - 160
- 15/16 - 180
- 1 - 200
- 1-1/8 - 250
- 1-1/4 - 325
- Master Stream
- 1-3/8 - 500
- 1-1/2 - 600
- 1-3/4 - 800
- 2 - 1000
A forward hose lay is?
hydrant to the house
A reverse hose lay is?
Fire to hydrant
A 2-1/2 pre-connected Blitz line is used when?
- Advanced fire conditions
- Uknown location of fire
- Large undivided area
- Tons of Water
- Standpipe or sprinklers
What are the foam application techniques?
Class B ratio for foam solution is?
Foam concentrate makes ffing foam how?
produced by mixing water, air, and foam concentrate
The components of foam production are?
foam concentrate, water, foam proportioner, foam solution, finished foam
Foam tetrahedrom is?
Foam concentrate, mechanical agitation, air, water
The water stream from the hose on a vehicle fire should be no wider than what angle?
How should a vehicle be approached during a vehicle fire?
Moving in from the side at a 45deg angle
How far away should the nozzle be opened up when fighting a car fire?
How should the stream be swept at a car fire?
Sweep the bottom part of vehicle, extinguish the visible fire, undercarriage, cool shock absorbers, pistons, hydraulic struts, cool tires
Ventilate and ye shall _____ _____?
What does ventilation help to do?
Improves visibility, allows hot smoke and gasses out.
Fire flow calculation for combo attack is?
Fire flow calculation for direct attack is?
AFD extinguishers are?
- Dry Chem/ 30lb/20-A:80-B:C
- 2-1/2 Gallons/30lb water 2-A
Hydrants gpm, class, and colors are?
- Class AA Light blue >1500gpm
- Class A Green >1000-1499 gpm
- Class B Orange >500-999 gpm
- Class C Red <500
What is the 5 inch hose construction?
- Outerply - Duristaflex
- Centerply - Polyester fibers
- Innerply - Polyurethane
What do you do for suppression of a tire fire?
Let it burn, Bury it, Drown it
Salvage is described as?
Efforts to protect property and belongings from damage particularly from smoke and water
Lighting and equipment at a fire scene operate on how many volts?
Generators should have what special peice to prevent FF's from receiving a potentially fatal shock?
GFI or Ground fault interrupters
Portable lights range from _____ to ______ watts?
300 - 1500
What class of extinguisher should be used when energized equipment is involved?
Class C extinguisher
What is the primary objective of a residential sprinkler system?
To protect occupants and control incipient fires
Standpipe systems consist of what?
inlets, pipes, outlets for fire hoses to provide water for fire fighting purposes
OS&Y or Post indicator should be locked in what position?
What are the types of main sprinkler system valves, what are they?
A flow switch connect the sprinkler system to what?
The fire alarm
Sprinkler heads are composed of a body which includes what?
orifice, releasing mechanism, and a deflector
How big is the standard sprinkler head orifice?
What are the types of mounting positions for sprinkler heads?
- horizontal (sidewall)
What are the types of release mechanisms on sprinkler systems?
- frangible bulb
- chemical pellet
What is the most common type of fire suppression system?
automatic sprinkler system
What is the major advantage of having a sprinkler system?
It acts as a fire depression and fire detection system
A water motor gong does what?
It notifies the ff that water is flowing from a sprinkler system
What are the four major components of an automatic sprinkler system?
- Sprinkler heads
- control valves
- water supply
An auxillary fire alarm system is described as?
A fire alarm system tied into a master alarm box located outside the building
A proprietary alarm system is described as?
A fire alarm connected directly to a monitoring site that is owned and operated by the buildings owner
A central station fire alarm is described as?
a 3rd party off-site monitoring facility that monitors multiple alarm systems
Malicious false alarms can be describes as?
individuals deliberately activate a fire alarm when there is no fire, causing disturbance
Unwanted alarms can be described as?
an alarm system is activated by a condition that is not really an emergency
Nuissance alarms can be described as?
improper functioning of an alarm system or one of its components
Fire alarm systems can control other systems such as?
Rehabilitate is described as?
Restoring someone or something to a condition of health or to a state of useful constructive activity
Emergency incident rehab is described as?
FF's and other emergency workers who are exhausted, thirsty, hungry, ill injured, or emotionally upset can take a break fro rest, food, fluids, and medical monitoring
The "SAID" principles is?
Specific adaptation to imposed demands: identifies the need for training that mimics the type of work to be performed
Dehydration is described as?
A state in which fluid losses are greater than fluid intake into the body. FF can lose as much as 2 quarts of fluid in less than an hour
Hypothermia occurs when?
When the body temp drops below 95deg Far
What are the 4 components of revitalization?
- fluid replacement
- temperature stabilization
Rehab operations should be initiated at what temperature?
90 deg. Far.
Vision of AFD
We are dedicated to providing total quality service to enhance the lives of those in our community
AFD Mission statement is?
AFD will save lives, protect property and the environment with an emphasis on safety and survival
BC's are located at what stations?
Where is FOC located?
HAZMAT is at what stations?
What station houses QI?
HTR Squad is at what station?
Three designated areas at an inicident are?
IC post, Rehab sector, and staging
What are the four section chiefs at major IMS operations?
AFD command modes are?
- Nothing showing- investigation
- Fast attack- mobile command
- Command mode- stationary command post
Command is directly responsible for?
Determining strategy, selecting incident tactics, setting action plan, developing ICS organization, managing resources, coordinating resource activities, providing scene safety, releasing info about the incident, coordinating w/outside agencies
CISD stands for?
Critical incident stress debriefing
The 6 functions of Rehab are?
- Medical monitoring
- Medical monitoring and treatment
Freelancing is described as?
acting independently of a superiors orders of fire fire department SOP's
EAP stands for?
Employee assistance program
Buddy system is?
At least two ff work together and are in constant communication w/each other
RIC or RIT stands for?
Rapid intervention crew has a sole responsibility to provide emergency assistance to crews working inside a hazardous area
FF guidelines are?
- Be safe
- Follow orders
- work as a team
- think and follow the golden rule
Training and performance qualifications
Safety and Health (Medical Requirements, Med eval)
- A set of guidelines that a department establishes for ff.
- Regulations and policies and procedures are forms of this
Division of labor is?
- A way of breaking down an incident into a smaller task.
- IE. engine co, ladder co
Unity of Command is?
each ff answers to only one supervisor, each supervisor answers to only one boss... etc..
Span of control is described as?
The number of people a person can supervise effectively
A successful training program addresses four major components, what are they?
standards and procedures, personnel, training & equipment
How many FF initiatives are there?
PPE acts as a _____ _____ and adds ___lbs?
What is the second leading cause of ff deaths?
What are the 3 D's and 2 A's
- Attention to detail
The mission of AFD training division is?
The mission of the AFD training department is to provide and facilitate training opportunities to both FF, civilians, and surrounding communities that maximize preparedness for community emergency needs
3 FF safety programs are?
- Stop, drop, and roll
- Installation and maintenance of smoke alarms
EDITH stands for?
Exit drils in the Home
How should smoke alarms be mounted?
4 inches from the wall on a ceiling. If not on a ceiling mount it should be 4-12 inches from the ceiling as high as possible on the wall
Smoke alarms should not be near what?
kitchens, fire places, garages, near windows, exterior doors or heating & air conditioning units
Smoke alarms should be tested how often? How often should the battery be changed?
A ladder generally requires an addtional ___ ft. for every 15 ft of vertical height?
Ratio for height and distance from the structure is?
4 to 1
2 Techniques for raising a ladder are?
Before dismounting on a roof a ff should?
Sound the roof
To secure yourself to a ladder in order to work us a _____ _____or _____ _____ technique.
When working on ladder before work begins you need to do four things, what are they?
- Lock the dawgs
- Tie the halyard
- Check the climbing angle
- Buck the ladder
Most portable ladders are designed to support the weight of?
Only one ff per ______ section on an extension ladder.
During rescue before the ladder gets to the window the ff should try and?
Make verbal contact
When should service tests for ladders be conducted?
Before the ladder is put in use and every year the ladder remains in use.
How far should ladders be from power lines when raising them?
A proper climbing angle is what?
Portable ladders are also called?
Generally fire service portable ladders are limited to a max of _______ ft.
NFPA 1901 is in regards to what?
Standard for automotive fire apparatus
Aerial ladders must have a working length of at least ____ft. and at least ____ sections.
A carrying platform or bucket ladder must have ______sections and may be articulating or telescoping
An elevating platform apparatus that is 110 ft or less must have a _____ _____ ______ and ____ _____ ____ ______
- prepiped waterway
- permanently mounted monitor nozzle