SOG's

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SOG's
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2011-10-02 20:07:13
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SOG's Questions 61-86 are wildland
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  1. What are the six main functions of the engine company?
    • 1. Search, rescue and treatment
    • 2. Initial Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) duties
    • 3. Stretch Hoselines
    • 4. Operate Nozzles
    • 5. Pump hoselines
    • 6. Loss control
  2. What are the Ladder company functions?
    • 1. Search and rescue
    • 2. Ventilation
    • 3. Forcible entry
    • 4. Raise ladders
    • 5. Provide access/check fire extension
    • 6. Utility control
    • 7. Operate aerial master streams
    • 8. Perform overhaul
    • 9. Extrication
    • 10. Loss control
    • 11. Provide lighting
  3. What are the 5 main Rescue Company functions?
    • 1. Transportation of sick and injured to hospitals
    • 2. Initial Rapid Intervention (IRIT) duties
    • 3. Search, Rescue and Treatment
    • 4. Utility Control (gas and electric)
    • 5. General firefighting duties assigned by command
  4. What are the HAZMAT Squad functions?
    • 1. Safety
    • 2. Accountability
    • 3. Rehab
  5. AFD Risk Management Plan states?
    • We may risk a lot to protect savable lives
    • We may risk a little to protect savable property
    • We will risk nothing to save what is already lost
  6. When are exterior streams not to be operated on the fire ground?
    When there are interior crews operating
  7. A hazard zone is defined as?
    any area that requires an SCBA, charged hoseline, special protective clothing, or in which firefighting personnel are at risk of becoming lost, trapped, or injured by the environment or structure.
  8. The warm zone is defined as?
    Just outside the hazard zone
  9. Cold zone is defined as?
    outside of the warm zone where no one is at risk because of the incident
  10. A 100' length of unprotected steel expands 9" when heated to what temperature?
    1,100 degrees
  11. The signs of building collapse may include?
    • 1. Cracks in exterior walls
    • 2. Bulges in exterior walls
    • 3. Sounds of structural movement--creaking, groaning, snapping etc.
    • 4. Smoke or water leaking through walls
    • 5. Flexible movement of any floor or roof where firefighters walk.
    • 6. Interior or exterior bearing walls or columns are leaning, twisting, or flexing.
    • 7. Sagging or otherwise distorted roof lines.
    • 8. Time of fire involvement.
  12. The 4 attributes of smoke are?
    • 1. Volume
    • 2. Velocity
    • 3. Density
    • 4. Color
  13. There are two fireground strategies, what are they?
    • 1. Offensive
    • 2. Defensive
  14. Tactical priority benchmarks are?
    • 1. All clear
    • 2. Fire under control
    • 3. Loss Stopped
  15. What is the permissible exposure limit for CO at a given level of exertion?
    • 120 ppm for 20 minutes
    • 90 ppm for 30 minutes
    • 55 ppm for 60 minutes
  16. At what point are afd personnel allowed to remove their SCBA's with an atomsphere containing CO?
    120 ppm
  17. When are SCBA evaluations for members of the operations division?
    Once a year as the commander of the Battalion section or division determines its necessary.
  18. A full protective clothing ensemble includes what?
    turnout coat and pants, Nomex hood, firefighting boots, firefighting gloves, a helmet with faceshield, and goggles.
  19. Rehab sector is to provide?
    • Physical assessment
    • Rest, hydration, and refreshments
    • Medical evaluation and treatment of injuries
    • Monitoring of physical condition
    • Transportation to medical facilities
    • Initial stress support assessment
    • Reassignment
  20. Rehab sections are?
    • 1. Entry point
    • 2. Hydration and replenishment
    • 3. Medical treatment and transport
    • 4. Medical Reassignment
  21. Highrise emergency response will be categorized as?
    • 1. Fire alarm activation
    • 2. Report of smoke and or fire
    • 3. Determination or a working fire and or sprinkler system activation by initial responding units.
  22. Highrise Fire alarm organization
    • Incident Command- BC
    • Attack- Engine
    • Lobby control- Ladder
  23. For a report of fire or smoke in a highrise building what will the dispatch consist of?
    • 4 engines
    • 3 ladders
    • 3 rescues
    • Squad 1 or 3 and Squad 2
    • 78
    • 3 BC's
  24. At a highrise incident the BC's arriving in order of 1-4 are designated as?
    • 1. Assume and establish command in the Lobby
    • 2. Take position in the designated attack stairwell and assume role of Fire Attack Branch director.
    • 3. Join the first in the Lobby and assume the role of Support Officer (Incident accountability)
    • 4. Establishes a command post outside the stucture and assumes command of the incident. The first BC is then reassigned as the Systems Branch Director and the third BC will asssume the role of Accountability branch manager.
  25. Resource division is located where in a highrise incident?
    Two floors below the fire floor.
  26. The EMS branch is located where in a highrise incident?
    3 floors below the fire
  27. The service branch (or rehab) is located where in a highrise incident?
    3 floors below the fire
  28. Fire floor attack group is comprised of what companies?
    Two engines and a rescue. 3 firefighters and engine officer will advance the 2-1/2" attack line, the other engine officer and ff are IRIT in the stairwell, and the rescue driver and officer conduct a primary search.
  29. Equipment that needs to be taken with the attack group in a highrise incident are?
    Standpipe kit (60deg elbow, in-line pressure gauge, 1-1/8" solid tip nozzle, 18" pipe wrench, door chocks, latch straps, chalk, spanner wrenches, 150' of 2-1/2" hose, forcible entry tools, pike pole, thermal imaging camera, 100' of search rope, Spare SCBA bottles.
  30. Phase 1 elevator operations call elevators where?
    To the Ground floor
  31. Elevators have three modes in phase one operations, what are they?
    • Off
    • On
    • Bypass
  32. Inside the elevator for phase two there are 3 positions for the key switch, what are they?
    • Off
    • On
    • Hold
  33. Class 1 Standpipes are designed for whose use?
    • Firefighters
    • It provides a 2-1/2" outlet and rated at 500 gpm
  34. Class 2 standpipes are designed for who to use?
    • Occupant use
    • It provides 1-1/2" and only rated for 100gpm.
  35. Class 3 standpipes are designed for who to use?
    For both the occupant and the firefighter. It provides 2-1/2" and a 1-1/2" outlets
  36. What psi do standpipes systems require?
    65 psi
  37. What is core construction considered to be?
    All systems operate in the middle of the building
  38. What floor does fire attack set up?
    The standpipe operations should be set up on the floor below the fire
  39. The first step in using a portable ladder should be?
    Selecting the appropriate ladder
  40. Selecting the appropriate ladder requires a ff to do what?
    Estimate the height of the window or roof line
  41. How many rungs should be above the roof line when setting up a ladder?
    5
  42. What kind of ladders and how many feet should a pumper have?
    • 1 Roof
    • 1 Extension 12 ft or longer
    • 1 attic
  43. What kind of ladders and how many feet should a ladder have?
    • A total of 115ft
    • 1 attic
    • 2 roof
    • 2 extension
  44. What kind of ladders and how many feet should a quint have?
    • A total of 85ft
    • 1 attic
    • 1 roof
    • 1 extension
  45. Preincident Plans should be made available to who?
    The plans should be made available to all units that would respond to that location.
  46. What is the preincident plan inteneded to do for the IC?
    Help him make an informed decision
  47. MSDS stands for what?
    Material Safety data sheet
  48. An incident plan usually includes 1 or more diagrams that show details of building location and what else?
    Access routes, entry points, exposures, hydrants, and alternative water supplies. Also special hazards, dimensions, occupancy, and construction type.
  49. NFPA 1620 talks about what?
    Recomended Practice for Preincident Planning
  50. A target hazard is described as what?
    Properties that pose an increased risk to firefighters. Usually and particularly larger buildings present unusual risks.
  51. An exposure is described as?
    any other building or item that might be in danger if an incident occurs in another building or area.
  52. Fire load is described as?
    the amount of combustible material along with the rate of heat release.
  53. Conflagration is?
    A large fire involving multiple structures
  54. A preincident survey is?
    Information gathered that goes into a preincident plan
  55. A preincident survey should be done with what from the owner and or occupant?
    Knowledge and cooperation
  56. Preincident survey starts and ends where?
    Starts outside and moves to the inside. It should be conducted from top to bottom.
  57. A sizeup is describes as?
    An ongoing observation and evaluation of factors that are used to develop objectives, strategies, and tactics of fire suppression.
  58. What is NFPA 220 about?
    Standards on building construction
  59. Hitches are used for what?
    knots that wrap around an object and secure the working end to an object so that it can be lifted
  60. Loop knots are used for?
    hoisting, rescuing, anchoring
  61. Bends are used for what?
    They are used to join two ropes together
  62. What three things need to be done to a knot?
    Set, dress, and safety
  63. NFPA 1006 talks about?
    Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications
  64. NFPA1670 talks about?
    Operations and training for technical search and rescue incidents
  65. Watch Out Situations are?
    • 1. Fire not scouted and sized up
    • 2. In country not seen in daylight
    • 3. Safety zones and escape routes not identified
    • 4. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior
    • 5. uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards
    • 6. Instructions and assignment not clear
    • 7. No communication link with crew members or supervisor
    • 8. Constructing line w/out safe anchor point
    • 9. Building a fire line downhill with fire below
    • 10. Attempting frontal assault on fire
    • 11. Unburned fuel between you and fire
    • 12. Cannot see main fire; not in contact with someone who can
    • 13. On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below
    • 14. Weather becoming hotter and drier
    • 15. Wind increases and/or changes direction
    • 16. Getting frequent spot fires accross the line
    • 17. Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult
    • 18. Taking a nap near the fireline.
  66. Standard FF orders are?
    • 1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts
    • 2. Know what your fire is doing at all times
    • 3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.
    • 4. Identify escape routes and safety zones and make them known.
    • 5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger
    • 6. Be alert, keep calm. Think clearly, Act decisively
    • 7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces
    • 8. Give clear instructions and be sure they are understood
    • 9. Maintain control of your forces at all time
    • 10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.
  67. Visual indicators of a stable atmosphere are?
    Cloud in layers, stratus type clouds, smoke column drifts apart after limited rise, poor visibility due to smoke or haze, fog layers, steady winds.
  68. What are the 4 types of inversion?
    Nighttime, Valley winds, Sea and land breezes
  69. Critical fire conditions are?
    Strong shifting winds, very low RH, high temperature, unstable atmosphere, dry lightining
  70. Examples of weather phenomena are?
    Cold fronts, foehn winds, thunderstorms, dust devils, firewhirls.
  71. Extreme fire behavior consists of?
    4 elements including rapid rate of fire spread, intense burning, spotting, and crowning
  72. What seven factors within the fire environment must be monitored?
    Fuel characteristics, fuel moisture, fuel temperature, topography, atmospheric stability, and fire behavior
  73. Steep slopes are considered steep if the are greater than what angle?
    50degrees
  74. What are the methods of attacking a wildland fire?
    Direct, Indirect, Flanking/Parallel
  75. What are the methods of communication?
    Hand signals, written, use of runners, mirrors, whistles or airhorns, adn two way radios
  76. Boneyarding or Bone piling is used in what stage?
    Mop up
  77. What are the 3 categories of tactical plans for a wildland fire?
    Defensive mode, Offensive mode, Combined mode
  78. What are the 5 teamwork guidelines?
    know yourself, seek improvement, be technically and tactically proficient, set the example for others, keep leader informed, and be a team member not a yes man
  79. Firing devices are?
    A drip torch, fusee, or berry gun
  80. Types of water hose in wildland are?
    • GHT=3/4"
    • NPSH=1"
    • NH=1-1/2"
  81. Simple hose lays are?
    Pump to nozzle with no junctions
  82. A progressive hose lay is?
    Trunk 1-1/2" with a lateral 1"
  83. Signs of damage of a fire shelter are?
    Visible dark gray stains, aluminum particles at bottom of the bag, tears >1/4", Dents or punctures in foil one inch wide, 1/2" of foil missing
  84. Site preparation includes what for fire shelter deployment?
    Lowest point, greatest distance from fuels, smooth surface, texture of shelter seal, utilize heat barriers, remove ground fuels 4'x8', deploy in a group
  85. The risk management process in wildland fires is?
    Situation awareness, hazard assessment, hazard control, decision point, evaluate
  86. 3 fuel characteristics are?
    Fuel type, fuel loading, fuel availability
  87. The 6 major fuel typs are?
    Grass, Grass shrub, Shrub, Timber understory, Timber litter, Slash-Blowdown
  88. Fuel characteristics that influence fire behavior are?
    Fuel type, fuel loading, fuel availability, and fuel arrangement
  89. What are fuel classes or categories for size?
    • 1 hr = 0"- 1/4"
    • 10hr = 1/4"- 1"
    • 100hr = 1"- 3"
    • 1000hr = 3"- 8"
  90. A stable atmosphere resists what kind of motion?
    Upward motion
  91. FF survival is best when what is practiced?
    Prevention
  92. What are the 4 keys to FF survival?
    Develop a survival attitude, know equipment, know your crew, know your district
  93. A 6 point fireground size-up includes what?
    Occupancy, location of fire, egress when things go wrong, fire affects on the building, occupants location, way to entry
  94. RIT essential equipment is?
    TIC, RIT pack and tag line, PPE, forcible entry tools, and hand lights.

    optional equipment are wire cutters, webbing, flashlight, knife
  95. Emergency traffic is?
    a report of emergency conditions
  96. Mayday is?
    Firefighter in trouble
  97. What does the 2nd searching ff reaching the victim do?
    Checks immediate area, locates 2nd means of egress, removes hazard from immediate area, illuminates work area
  98. Managing a mayday consists of what?
    Stop! get oriented, communicate w/crew, Alert command-mayday, solve your problem, activate your pass, solve your problem, conserve your air
  99. Emergency escape techniques are?
    Follow hose line, locate door or window, perform a wall breach, perform emergency exit
  100. You get out alive during a mayday by?
    prevention, stay low, stay calm, stay oriented, never give up.
  101. 3 types of ff rescue are?
    assisting a member of your own crew, assisting a ff encountered during interior operations, assisting a ff as part of a RIT
  102. 3 Stages of FF rescue are?
    searching for ff, assessing and stabilizing a ff, removing the ff
  103. When searching for a FF you should do what?
    Use a systematic search, speed is critical, perform search and size-up (lunar), have a plan
  104. Search techniques are?
    Conventional, pass assisted, radio assisted, rope assisted, TIC assisted
  105. When a mayday is called what is the mneumonic used for information to be relayed?
    • Last known location
    • Unit ID#
    • Name
    • Assignment
    • Resources needed
  106. What are the 4 reasons we need RIT?
    Fireground is dynamic, inadequate preparation, standards and regulations, safety for ff
  107. 2 exceptions to the 2 in 2 out rule are?
    Incipient stage fire and immediate action to save a life
  108. RIT Packs are with QI, BC, or Squads
  109. RIT does what when first assigned to be RIT?
    360 recon, widen openings, ground ladders, unblock egress, monitor radio
  110. RIT Team consists of what team members?
    RIT officer, Navigation/Air Supply, 2 Searching FF
  111. 1st FF responsibility on a RIT team are?
    Secure pass, advise team ff located, checks ff air supply, checks for wires and injuries, converts ff for removal
  112. What should happen after a ff says ready?
    a pause to let the other ff respond
  113. Take a minute to what?
    Make a minute
  114. Denver drill is for what?
    restricted window rescue
  115. The Nance drill is for what?
    FF fallen through the floor
  116. Where is VES done?
    Away from the fire, away from hose
  117. When is VES done?
    When someone has come out of the building where the fire is and tells you their son is still inside in the bedroom, (can see person from the window). Urgent rescue profile
  118. VES is only done on what type of structures?
    Residential
  119. Bottlenecks tend to occur where at fires?
    The front door
  120. VES is a search for?
    life
  121. What is the Equipment needed for VES?
    radio, 6' pike pole, Irons, TIC
  122. VES stands for what?
    Vent, Enter, Search
  123. The best chance of survival is?
    • 1. You
    • 2. Team
    • 3. RIT
  124. During a RIT operation other crews should?
    Complete their assigned tasks
  125. RIT benchmarks are?
    RIT entering the structure, ff located, air supply secured, RIT exiting the structure, RIT out of the structure and PAR
  126. What are 3 FF constants?
    Complacency, Peer pressure, less fireground experience means more training.
  127. What is the procedure to perform a VES?
    • 2 ff one on the outside one on the inside. Vent the window entirely, sound the floor, place the pike pole on window sill for life line out. Go directly to the door, look in the hall for victim and shut the door. locate victim and communicate the victim is located. Exit the room and give a CAN report
    • Conditions
    • Actions
    • Needs
  128. What are the priorities of a search?
    • 1. Around the fire
    • 2. The rest of the fire floor
    • 3. The floor above the fire floor
    • 4. The top floor down
    • 5. Then below the fire floor
  129. Who is the best to get information from at a fire incident?
    From escapees that have just come out of the building
  130. How should partners remain in contact with each other?
    Direct visual, voice, physical
  131. What is the most important element of search and rescue?
    Time
  132. What senses should FF use when searching for a victim?
    • Sight
    • Touch
    • Sound
  133. What should a ff do every few seconds when searching for a victim?
    Yell out is anyone there and hold breath and listen for a response
  134. A search is described as what?
    a player looking for victims who need assistance to leave a dangerous area
  135. Rescue is described how?
    The physical removal of a person from confinement or danger
  136. A FF should rescue who first?
    Victims in the most immediate danger
  137. Where are the occupants in the most immediate danger?
    • Close to the fire
    • Above the fire
    • In the path of the fire
  138. A search and rescue size-up includes what 7 elements?
    • occupancy
    • size of building
    • construction type
    • time of day and day of the week
    • # of occupants
    • degree of risk
    • ability of occupants to exit on their own
  139. Search and Rescue equipment are?
    PPE, Radio, Handlight, Forcible Entry Tools, Hose Lines, TIC, Ladders, Long ropes, Enough Air
  140. 3 Rescue Techniques are?
    • Assists
    • Drags
    • Carries
  141. The two major structural support systems for roofs are?
    • Solid beam
    • Truss construction
  142. What are gusset plates
    Connecting plates
  143. What are 3 roof designs?
    • Flat roof
    • Pitched roof
    • Arched roof
  144. Parapet walls are?
    Walls that extend above the normal roofline
  145. Kerf Cuts are?
    cuts as wide as the saw blade to examine smoke
  146. Tools used in ventilation are?
    Irons, pry bars, tin cutters, pike poles, saws, ppv, and other hooks
  147. Types of ventilation roof cuts are?
    Rectangular or square cuts, Louver cut, Triangular cut, peak cut, trench cut
  148. NIOSH says the percent of lightweight construction in the US is?
    60%
  149. Benchmarks for ventilation are?
    • Ventilation team on the roof
    • Ventilation complete (Watch for falling debris)
    • Ventilation team off the roof and PAR
  150. What apparatus carry TICs?
    • 78's
    • Ladders
    • Squad 2
  151. TIC can withstand what temperature?
    700 deg F
  152. At what point do you use a ladder for rescue?
    Last option for rescue
  153. What do the TIC lights mean?
    • Full charge, 3 hours Green light
    • 1/2 charge, 90 minutes yellow light
    • 1/4 charge, 45 minutes red light
    • 5-15 min charge red flashes
  154. When using hydraulic ventilation how far should the nozzle be inside the opening?
    2-4 ft
  155. How much air can hydraulic ventilation move in one minute?
    Several thousand
  156. What are the basic indicators of roof collapse?
    Spongy feeling, visible saggings, walls and roof assembly separating, structural failure in portion of a building, any sudden increase in the intensity of the fire
  157. Roof covering is?
    weather resistant surfaceof the roof and may have several layers
  158. Roof decking is?
    A rigid layer made of wooden boards, plywood sheets, or metal panels
  159. How far should a PPV fan be placed outside the door?
    12-15ft
  160. How can a ff increase the efficiency of the ppv?
    close all the doors to unaffected areas of the structure
  161. The biggest concern when using a ppv is what?
    fire spread if used in the wrong way.
  162. Two types of ventilation are?
    • Horizontal
    • Vertical
  163. Ventilation is described as?
    The process of removing smoke, heat, and toxic gases from a burning building and replacing them w/cooler, cleaner more oxygen rich air.
  164. Chase is?
    An open space within a wall where wires and pipes can run
  165. Seat of the fire is described as?
    The main area of the fire
  166. What 3 major tactical priorties are directly related to ventilation?
    life safety, fire containment, property conservation
  167. What factors should be considered when ventilating?
    size of fire, stage of combustion, location of fire w/in a building, available ventilation options
  168. A primary cut for ventilation should be located where?
    Over the seat of the fire
  169. A secondary cut for ventilation should be used how?
    limiting fire spread
  170. 3 types of mechanical ventilation are?
    • NPV
    • PPV
    • Hydraulic
  171. Pitch is calculated how?
    The rate of run to the rate of rise
  172. The objectives of vertical ventilation are?
    Provide the largest opening, put in appropriate location, use least amount of time, use safest technique
  173. Types of existing roof openings are?
    monitor, ventilator, scuttle hatch, stairway door w/skylight
  174. Flashover is what?
    The sudden ignition of all combustible objects in a room
  175. Propane, Methane, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Cyanide have what ignition temps and what flammable ranges?
    • Propane 896/ 2.1-9.5%
    • Methane 1076/ 5-15%
    • Carbon Monoxide 1128/ 12.5-74%
    • Hydrogen Cyanide 1000/ 5.6-40%
  176. Permit required confined space is?
    • 1. has a potential for hazardous atmosphere
    • 2. contains material for engulfment or entrapment
    • 3. has internal covering walls that could trap or asphyxiate
  177. A low angle rescue is considered low angle when?
    The angle is < 30 degrees
  178. A high angle rescue is considered high when?
    The angle is > 30 degrees
  179. For HTR rescue what are the zones cold, warm, and hot zones sectioned off at in feet?
    • 0-50 hot
    • 50-100 warm
    • 100-150 cold
  180. NFPA 1670 is for what?
    Wilderness Search and Rescue
  181. How many deaths occur from flash floods every year?
    200
  182. Water Velocity is calculated how?
    Water force X 2
  183. What is a Helical flow?
    Circular flow near the bank
  184. What is a Laminar flow?
    Straightest and fastest
  185. Terminology for river rescue is?
    Facing down river/ River righ, left, upstream, downstream
  186. PPE for swift water is?
    PFD, whistle, knife, and tennis shoes
  187. If you are 5 ft away from water you must have what?
    PFD
  188. In a swift water situation, if you are on a slope you must be on?
    Belay
  189. A throw line is how long and how thick?
    75 ft long and 12mm thick
  190. Swift water rescue techniques are?
    Reach, Throw, Row, Go and Tow, Helo
  191. Who gives the flashflood warnings?
    National Weather Service
  192. Spoil pile is?
    Soil removed from a trench and placed in a pile
  193. Shoring is?
    Stabalized sides of an excavation site
  194. Some arroyos in ABQ are?
    Embudo Arroyo, Hahn arroyo, Bear canyon arroyo, Tramway channel
  195. Confined space IDLH types are?
    O2 deficient, Flamable, Toxic
  196. What is the most important attribute of smoke?
    Density
  197. Unfinished wood emits what color of smoke?
    Brown
  198. Smoke through a door:
    a. smoke exits, thins but still fills the door
    b. smoke rises and the opening clears
    c. smoke exits through the top half and clean air enters through the bottom half
    • a. Fire is below you
    • b. Fire is above you
    • c. Fire is on the same level
  199. Methods of fire extinguishment are?
    Remove the fuel, Cool the burning fuel, Break the chemical reaction, Remove the O2
  200. Helmet & Rockers ranks are?
    • FF2/black/yellow
    • FF1/black/black
    • Dr./black/black
    • LT./balck/red
    • Cap./black/white
    • Com./white/white
  201. BLEVE stands for?
    Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
  202. What are the key attributes of smoke?
    • Density
    • Color
    • Velocity
    • Volume
  203. What PSI do we hold in our cylinders?
    4500
  204. How many liters are in the air cylinder?
    1274
  205. Cascade systems or compressors are used to do what?
    Fill air bottles
  206. Hydrostatic testing for air cylinders should occur when?
    Every 5 years
  207. The pathway of air in an SCBA is?
    Cylinder shut off valve, high pressure airline, regulator, face piece
  208. Ignition Temperature is describe as?
    The minimum temperature required to begin self contained combustion independent of a heating source
  209. Mechanical energy is converted to heat when?
    two materials rubbing against each other creating friction and producing heat
  210. Electrical energy is converted to heat when?
    electricity flows through a wire or any other conductive material
  211. The fire triangle is?
    • O2
    • heat
    • fuel
  212. The fire tetrahedron is?
    • O2
    • heat
    • fuel
    • chemical and chain reaction
  213. Oxidation is?
    The process that oxygen combines w/another chemical to create a new compound
  214. Combustion is?
    a rapid chemical process in which the combination of a substance with oxygen produces heat and light, or fire
  215. Pyrolysis is?
    The decomposition of material brought about by heat in the absence of oxygen
  216. Conduction is?
    Is the process of transferring heat through matter by movement of the kinetic energy form one particle to another
  217. Convection is described as?
    The circulatory movement that occurs in a gas or fluid w/areas of differing temperature owing to the variation of the density and the action of gravity
  218. Plume is described as?
    Heated gases and smoke that rises in the air
  219. Radiation is described as?
    The transfer of heat through emission of energy in the form of invisible waves
  220. The five classes of fires are?
    • A - Ordinary solid combustible materials (wood, paper, &cloth)
    • B - Flammable or combustible liquids (gas, oil, kerosene)
    • C - Energized electrical equipment
    • D - Combustible metals (sodium, magnesium, titanium)
    • K - combustible cooking oils and fats in kitchens
  221. Ignition phase is?
    Begins as a lighted match is placed next to a crumpled piece of paper
  222. Growth phase is?
    occurs as kindling starts to burn increasing the convection of hot gases upward
  223. Fully developed phase is?
    The phase that produces the maximum rate of burning
  224. Decay phase is?
    The period when the fire is running out of fuel
  225. Flashover is?
    The temperature in the room reaches a point where combustible materials in the room ignite all at once. Approximately 1,000 degrees Far. to reach this point.
  226. Flameover is?
    Rollover; is the flaming ignition of hot gases that are layered in a developing room or compartment fire. This is a precursor to Flashover
  227. Thermal Layering is?
    Gases rise as they are heated and form layers within a room.
  228. Signs of backdraft are?
    confined fire, puffing smoke, little visible flame, smoke that is pressurized, smoke stained windows, turbulent smoke, ugly yellowish smoke
  229. Fire is described as?
    A rapid chemical process that produces heat and light
  230. Matter is made up of?
    Atoms and molecules that exist in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas
  231. Exothermic is?
    releasing energy
  232. Endothermic is?
    the absorption of energy
  233. IDLH stands for?
    Immediately dangerous to life and health
  234. The most evident by-product of fire is?
    Smoke
  235. What do smoke particles consist of?
    Unburned, partially burned, and completely burned substances. (Smoke vapors, toxic gases, smoke particles)
  236. Incomplete combustion is?
    A fire does not have an adequate supply of oxygen to consume all of the available fuel.
  237. PASS stands for what, relating to SCBA?
    Personal alert safety system
  238. NFPA 1975 relates to?
    Standard on Station/work uniforms for fire and emergency services
  239. NFPA 1977 relates to?
    Standard on protective clothing and equipment for wildland fire fighting
  240. NFPA 1971 relates to?
    Standard on protective ensembles for structural fire fighting and proximity fire fighting
  241. Turnout gear has three layers, what are they?
    • 1. outer shell
    • 2. moisture barrier
    • 3. thermal barrier
  242. What is the normal outside air gas %?
    21% O2, 78% Nitrogen, 1% other gases
  243. Oxygen deficiency is at what %?
    19.5%
  244. 17%, 12%, 9%, and 6% oxygen causes what symptoms?
    • 17%- lack of coordination
    • 12%- headache, nausea, fatigue
    • 9%- unconscious
    • 6%- cardiac arrest, death
  245. How are most fire deaths caused?
    By smoke inhalation
  246. The presence of a smoke alarm on each floor of the house reduces risk of death by what %?
    50%
  247. Smoking in bed causes what percent of fires and what percent of fire deaths?
    5.4% and 23%
  248. Kitchen fires are responsible for what percentage of fires?
    22%
  249. PSI for a tube module?
    5,000-6,000
  250. Describe the NFPA 704 Placard color, position, and significance.
    • Red/ Flammable/Top diamond
    • Blue/Health/Left diamond
    • Yellow/Reactivity/Right diamond
    • White/Misc., Special/Bottom diamond
  251. In a HAZMAT incident what does SLUDGEM stand for?
    • Salivation
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Defacation
    • Gastric Disturbance
    • Emesis
    • Miosis
  252. A small spill in a hazmat situation is considered small if?
    It is less than 200 liters of liquid and 300kg of solids
  253. Concentration can be described as?
    How much medicine in a pill
  254. PPE levels for HAZMAT are?
    • Level A - Vapor protective
    • Level B - Splash protective
    • Level C - Protected from Dry Chemicals
    • Level D - Bunker gear and regular uniform
  255. AFD action plan for Hazmat is what?
    • Safety
    • Identify
    • Notify
    • Command
    • Action Plan
    • Public Protective Action
    • Control and Contain
    • PPE
    • Decontamination
    • Disposal
    • Document
  256. Two types of corrosivity are?
    Bases and Acids
  257. What are 3 important safety factors in regards to radiation?
    Time, Distance, Sheilding
  258. MSDS stands for?
    Material Safety Data Sheet
  259. A PID detects?
    vaprous chemicals
  260. A CGI detects ?
    flammable atmosphere
  261. GC does what?
    Breaks down gas into components
  262. An FID detects?
    Vaprous chemicals
  263. For PPE to lose effectiveness it can be?
    Degregated, penetrated, permeated
  264. What are the main ways contaminants can spread?
    people, animals, environment, equipment
  265. The three ways to eliminate contamination are?
    washing, dilution, Isolation
  266. The triage acronym is?
    • Simple
    • Triage
    • and
    • Rapid
    • Treatment (RPMS=Respiratory, Pulse, Mental Status)
  267. Types of rays from radiological terrorism are?
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Gamma
  268. The department of homeland security color codes are?
    • Red = Severe
    • Orange = High
    • Yellow = elevated
    • Blue = guarded
    • Green = Low
  269. NFPA 1991 relates to?
    Vapor protective PPE and performance standards
  270. NFPA 1992 relates to?
    Liquid splash PPE and performance standards
  271. NFPA 1994 relates to?
    Protective ensemble for 1st responders to CBRNE
  272. DDDD as it relates to HAZMAT?
    Dam, Dyke, Dilute, Divert
  273. Types of Evidence in an arson investigation are?
    Physical, Direct, Trace, Circumstantial, Demonstrative
  274. Divisions refer to?
    a geographic area
  275. Groups refer to?
    task oriented
  276. The limits of an ERG are?
    Used only in the first 15 minutes of the incident
  277. Types of shipping bills are?
    • Bill of Lading - Roadway/Freight
    • Weigh Bill - Rail
    • Consist - Rail
    • Air Bill - Airplane
    • Dangerous Cargo Manifest - Marine Vessels
  278. What are the routes of entry for a HAZMAT?
    inhalation, injection, ingestion, absorption
  279. DOT Placard colors mean?
    • Red - Flammable
    • Orange - Explosive
    • Blue - Water Reactive
    • White - Health Hazard
    • Yellow - Oxidizer
    • Green - Non-Flammable Gas
  280. Another name for a non-bearing wall is?
    A partition wall
  281. There are 6 equipment types, what are they?
    Rotating, Prying and Spreading, pushing or pulling, striking, cutting, multiple use
  282. Tools most commonly used to force a padlock are?
    Bolt cutters, duck billed lock breakers, bam-bam, and locking pliers and chain
  283. First alarm fire will have what apparatus deployed?
    • 3 engines
    • 2 ladders
    • 2 rescues
    • 2 BC
    • Squad 2
    • Squad 1 or 3
  284. There are thre types of fire service radios, what are they?
    portable, mobile, base station
  285. What do radio repeater systems compensate for?
    topography interference and weak signals
  286. Heat index have four levels of danger what are they and what are the corresponding temperatures?
    • caution - 80-90
    • extreme caution - 90-105
    • danger - 105-130
    • extreme danger - >130
  287. What is usually the biggest problem at fire scenes?
    Communication
  288. What are the 4 types of communication centers and what does afd use?
    • Stand alone
    • Regional
    • Co-located - AFD
    • Integrated
  289. What are the requirements for communication centers?
    Protection from natural disasters, equipped w/emergency generators, and secured so there's no unauthorized entry
  290. Field operations center phone number is?
    836-8740
  291. Alarm room phone number is?
    833-7391
  292. Principles to follow for discipline are?
    Just cause, time frame, documenting the discipline, informing the employee, double jeapordy
  293. The most crucial part of discipline is?
    Just cause
  294. CISM stands for what?
    Critical incident stress management
  295. What is your responsibility in regards to rehab?
    It is to take care of self first, team second, and others third
  296. Frostbite is?
    Damage to tissue resulting from a prolonged exposure to cold.
  297. Glucose is and is required for what?
    blood sugar, and is carried throughout the body by the bloodstream and is needed to burn fat efficiently and release energy
  298. There are three underground water main sizes what are they?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Distributors
  299. Shut-off valves are located where in an underground water system?
    where underground mains meet distributor pipes.
  300. What are the two major types of fire hydrants?
    • 1. wet barrel
    • 2. dry barrel
  301. How often should fire hydrants be inspected?
    Once a year
  302. Two major sources of water are?
    Municpal water system and Static water sources
  303. How much water do mobile water supplies carry and what are they called?
    Tankers or tenders carry 1000 - 3500 gallons of water
  304. Overhaul is described as?
    Completely extinguishing any remaining pockets of fire
  305. A direct attack is?
    FF using a straight stream to deliver water directly onto the base of the fire.
  306. An indirect attack is?
    FF removes as much heat as possible from the fire atmosphere. A FF sprays water at the ceiling for quick bursts which allows the FF to advance to the seat of the fire.
  307. What patterns should be used when applying water?
    T, O, Z
  308. What are some master stream devices?
    • Deck gun
    • Portable monitor
    • Ladder pipes
  309. A master stream should never be directed into a building when?
    When FF are operating inside
  310. A safety lock on portable monitors prevents it from being lowered beyond a safe angel of?
    35deg.
  311. In large buildings what should FF utilize in order not to get lost?
    Tag lines
  312. LPG or Propane when stored under pressure becomes a?
    Liquid
  313. LPG expands at what ratio?
    270:1 Cubic feet
  314. LPG tanks should be stored upright so that what happens?
    So that the pressure relief valve stays in the vapor space to discharge excess pressure and heat
  315. If propane is inhaled what can it cause?
    asphyxiation
  316. What additive is mixed with propane to give it a distinct odor?
    Mercaptan
  317. Is propane heavier than air?
    Yes, it flow along the ground or low lying areas
  318. At a propane fire, where should FF be staged?
    Uphill and upwind
  319. What are the smoothbore tip sizes and what GPM's do each flow?
    • 7/8 - 160
    • 15/16 - 180
    • 1 - 200
    • 1-1/8 - 250
    • 1-1/4 - 325

    • Master Stream
    • 1-3/8 - 500
    • 1-1/2 - 600
    • 1-3/4 - 800
    • 2 - 1000
  320. A forward hose lay is?
    hydrant to the house
  321. A reverse hose lay is?
    Fire to hydrant
  322. A 2-1/2 pre-connected Blitz line is used when?
    • Advanced fire conditions
    • Defensive
    • Uknown location of fire
    • Large undivided area
    • Tons of Water
    • Standpipe or sprinklers
  323. What are the foam application techniques?
    • Sweep
    • Raindown
    • Bankshot
  324. Class B ratio for foam solution is?
    3-6%
  325. Foam concentrate makes ffing foam how?
    produced by mixing water, air, and foam concentrate
  326. The components of foam production are?
    foam concentrate, water, foam proportioner, foam solution, finished foam
  327. Foam tetrahedrom is?
    Foam concentrate, mechanical agitation, air, water
  328. The water stream from the hose on a vehicle fire should be no wider than what angle?
    30deg.
  329. How should a vehicle be approached during a vehicle fire?
    Moving in from the side at a 45deg angle
  330. How far away should the nozzle be opened up when fighting a car fire?
    30 feet
  331. How should the stream be swept at a car fire?
    Sweep the bottom part of vehicle, extinguish the visible fire, undercarriage, cool shock absorbers, pistons, hydraulic struts, cool tires
  332. Ventilate and ye shall _____ _____?
    shall live
  333. What does ventilation help to do?
    Improves visibility, allows hot smoke and gasses out.
  334. Fire flow calculation for combo attack is?
    LxWxH/100
  335. Fire flow calculation for direct attack is?
    LxW/3
  336. AFD extinguishers are?
    • Dry Chem/ 30lb/20-A:80-B:C
    • 2-1/2 Gallons/30lb water 2-A
    • CO2/15lb/10-B:C
  337. Hydrants gpm, class, and colors are?
    • Class AA Light blue >1500gpm
    • Class A Green >1000-1499 gpm
    • Class B Orange >500-999 gpm
    • Class C Red <500
  338. What is the 5 inch hose construction?
    • Outerply - Duristaflex
    • Centerply - Polyester fibers
    • Innerply - Polyurethane
  339. What do you do for suppression of a tire fire?
    Let it burn, Bury it, Drown it
  340. Salvage is described as?
    Efforts to protect property and belongings from damage particularly from smoke and water
  341. Lighting and equipment at a fire scene operate on how many volts?
    110
  342. Generators should have what special peice to prevent FF's from receiving a potentially fatal shock?
    GFI or Ground fault interrupters
  343. Portable lights range from _____ to ______ watts?
    300 - 1500
  344. What class of extinguisher should be used when energized equipment is involved?
    Class C extinguisher
  345. What is the primary objective of a residential sprinkler system?
    To protect occupants and control incipient fires
  346. Standpipe systems consist of what?
    inlets, pipes, outlets for fire hoses to provide water for fire fighting purposes
  347. OS&Y or Post indicator should be locked in what position?
    open
  348. What are the types of main sprinkler system valves, what are they?
    • Wet
    • Dry
    • Precaution
    • Deluge
  349. A flow switch connect the sprinkler system to what?
    The fire alarm
  350. Sprinkler heads are composed of a body which includes what?
    orifice, releasing mechanism, and a deflector
  351. How big is the standard sprinkler head orifice?
    1/2"
  352. What are the types of mounting positions for sprinkler heads?
    • upright
    • pendant
    • horizontal (sidewall)
  353. What are the types of release mechanisms on sprinkler systems?
    • fusible
    • frangible bulb
    • chemical pellet
    • deluge
  354. What is the most common type of fire suppression system?
    automatic sprinkler system
  355. What is the major advantage of having a sprinkler system?
    It acts as a fire depression and fire detection system
  356. A water motor gong does what?
    It notifies the ff that water is flowing from a sprinkler system
  357. What are the four major components of an automatic sprinkler system?
    • Sprinkler heads
    • piping
    • control valves
    • water supply
  358. An auxillary fire alarm system is described as?
    A fire alarm system tied into a master alarm box located outside the building
  359. A proprietary alarm system is described as?
    A fire alarm connected directly to a monitoring site that is owned and operated by the buildings owner
  360. A central station fire alarm is described as?
    a 3rd party off-site monitoring facility that monitors multiple alarm systems
  361. Malicious false alarms can be describes as?
    individuals deliberately activate a fire alarm when there is no fire, causing disturbance
  362. Unwanted alarms can be described as?
    an alarm system is activated by a condition that is not really an emergency
  363. Nuissance alarms can be described as?
    improper functioning of an alarm system or one of its components
  364. Fire alarm systems can control other systems such as?
    • fire doors
    • elevators
    • HVAC
  365. Rehabilitate is described as?
    Restoring someone or something to a condition of health or to a state of useful constructive activity
  366. Emergency incident rehab is described as?
    FF's and other emergency workers who are exhausted, thirsty, hungry, ill injured, or emotionally upset can take a break fro rest, food, fluids, and medical monitoring
  367. The "SAID" principles is?
    Specific adaptation to imposed demands: identifies the need for training that mimics the type of work to be performed
  368. Dehydration is described as?
    A state in which fluid losses are greater than fluid intake into the body. FF can lose as much as 2 quarts of fluid in less than an hour
  369. Hypothermia occurs when?
    When the body temp drops below 95deg Far
  370. What are the 4 components of revitalization?
    • Rest
    • fluid replacement
    • nutrition
    • temperature stabilization
  371. Rehab operations should be initiated at what temperature?
    90 deg. Far.
  372. Vision of AFD
    We are dedicated to providing total quality service to enhance the lives of those in our community
  373. AFD Mission statement is?
    AFD will save lives, protect property and the environment with an emphasis on safety and survival
  374. BC's are located at what stations?
    • 4
    • 5
    • 17
    • 20
  375. Where is FOC located?
    Station 17
  376. HAZMAT is at what stations?
    • 4
    • 13
  377. What station houses QI?
    19
  378. HTR Squad is at what station?
    3
  379. Three designated areas at an inicident are?
    IC post, Rehab sector, and staging
  380. Command staff are?
    • Safety officer
    • Liason
    • PIO
  381. What are the four section chiefs at major IMS operations?
    • Finance
    • Logistics
    • Planning
    • Operations
  382. AFD command modes are?
    • Nothing showing- investigation
    • Fast attack- mobile command
    • Command mode- stationary command post
  383. Command is directly responsible for?
    Determining strategy, selecting incident tactics, setting action plan, developing ICS organization, managing resources, coordinating resource activities, providing scene safety, releasing info about the incident, coordinating w/outside agencies
  384. CISD stands for?
    Critical incident stress debriefing
  385. The 6 functions of Rehab are?
    • Medical monitoring
    • Revitalization
    • Medical monitoring and treatment
    • Transportation
    • CISM
    • Reassignment
  386. Freelancing is described as?
    acting independently of a superiors orders of fire fire department SOP's
  387. EAP stands for?
    Employee assistance program
  388. Buddy system is?
    At least two ff work together and are in constant communication w/each other
  389. RIC or RIT stands for?
    Rapid intervention crew has a sole responsibility to provide emergency assistance to crews working inside a hazardous area
  390. FF guidelines are?
    • Be safe
    • Follow orders
    • work as a team
    • think and follow the golden rule
  391. NFPA 1001
    Training and performance qualifications
  392. NFPA 1500
    Safety and Health (Medical Requirements, Med eval)
  393. Discipline
    • A set of guidelines that a department establishes for ff.
    • Regulations and policies and procedures are forms of this
  394. Division of labor is?
    • A way of breaking down an incident into a smaller task.
    • IE. engine co, ladder co
  395. Unity of Command is?
    each ff answers to only one supervisor, each supervisor answers to only one boss... etc..
  396. Span of control is described as?
    The number of people a person can supervise effectively
  397. A successful training program addresses four major components, what are they?
    standards and procedures, personnel, training & equipment
  398. How many FF initiatives are there?
    16
  399. PPE acts as a _____ _____ and adds ___lbs?
    • Vapor barrier
    • 40
  400. What is the second leading cause of ff deaths?
    MVA's
  401. What are the 3 D's and 2 A's
    • Discipline
    • Desire
    • Dedication
    • Attitude
    • Attention to detail
  402. The mission of AFD training division is?
    The mission of the AFD training department is to provide and facilitate training opportunities to both FF, civilians, and surrounding communities that maximize preparedness for community emergency needs
  403. 3 FF safety programs are?
    • Stop, drop, and roll
    • EDITH
    • Installation and maintenance of smoke alarms
  404. EDITH stands for?
    Exit drils in the Home
  405. How should smoke alarms be mounted?
    4 inches from the wall on a ceiling. If not on a ceiling mount it should be 4-12 inches from the ceiling as high as possible on the wall
  406. Smoke alarms should not be near what?
    kitchens, fire places, garages, near windows, exterior doors or heating & air conditioning units
  407. Smoke alarms should be tested how often? How often should the battery be changed?
    • once a month
    • twice a year
  408. A ladder generally requires an addtional ___ ft. for every 15 ft of vertical height?
    1
  409. Ratio for height and distance from the structure is?
    4 to 1
  410. 2 Techniques for raising a ladder are?
    • A beam raise
    • A rung raise
  411. Before dismounting on a roof a ff should?
    Sound the roof
  412. To secure yourself to a ladder in order to work us a _____ _____or _____ _____ technique.
    • Leg lock
    • Ladder belt
  413. When working on ladder before work begins you need to do four things, what are they?
    • Lock the dawgs
    • Tie the halyard
    • Check the climbing angle
    • Buck the ladder
  414. Most portable ladders are designed to support the weight of?
    750 lbs.
  415. Only one ff per ______ section on an extension ladder.
    1
  416. During rescue before the ladder gets to the window the ff should try and?
    Make verbal contact
  417. When should service tests for ladders be conducted?
    Before the ladder is put in use and every year the ladder remains in use.
  418. How far should ladders be from power lines when raising them?
    10 feet
  419. A proper climbing angle is what?
    75 deg
  420. Portable ladders are also called?
    Ground ladders
  421. Generally fire service portable ladders are limited to a max of _______ ft.
    50
  422. NFPA 1901 is in regards to what?
    Standard for automotive fire apparatus
  423. Aerial ladders must have a working length of at least ____ft. and at least ____ sections.
    • 50 ft
    • 2
  424. A carrying platform or bucket ladder must have ______sections and may be articulating or telescoping
    2
  425. An elevating platform apparatus that is 110 ft or less must have a _____ _____ ______ and ____ _____ ____ ______
    • prepiped waterway
    • permanently mounted monitor nozzle

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