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parallel instance referred to because it helps the process of explanation
People/Object in Analogy
must have something in common if compared. if they are being compared they must have other things in common as well
Analogy Purposes in Politics
- show a politician's ideological position, make predictions, provide explanations, restructure our knowledge
- influence public opinion, fight battles, win wards, start and finish political relationships.
Source and Target
users more familiar with source, mapping features of source onto target, may map features known about a politician to make predictions about other politicians associated with the target. often based on emotion, politicians map happiness/sadness onto a target.
- -manage to avoid by slyness
- -circumventing or avoiding answering directly
- -avoiding facing up to difficult discourse issues
- -refusing to answer a question w/w/out explanining
Features of Evasion 1-6
- -ignoring the question
- -acknowledging the question without answering it
- -questioning the question
- -attacking the question
- -stating that the question that was asked has already been answered
Features of Evasion 7-11
- -declining to answer
- -repeating the answer from a previous question to make a point
- -with yes/no question, providing a response not on the positive/negative spectrum
- -with who-questions, delimiting an answer to see whether they satisfy the propositional organization of the question.
- -in a discourse, respondent's answer, and questioner's response to the answer shows potential evasion.
- more words than necessary
- attempting to avoid an awkward or sensitive word
- attract criticism in some cultures
- thru circum. politicians are able to avoid the obvious and save face.
- able to make relevant or irrelevant additions to points being made, and can elaborate, their group is good
- selection, mentioning only useful information
- selection and exaggeration used to stretch the truth.
Linguistic Markers of Spin
- Voice is used to either give participants more/less prominence or to entirely omit the participant.
- Active vs. passive. Active voice usually gives prominence to political actor whereas passive voice gives less prominence to the political actor (Beard 2000:30).
- Use of proper names
- Use of physical verbs and/or verbs denoting emotional valence
- Use of Adjective of Quality in attributive positions
- Use of 'slang' nouns
- Use of pun (playing with the different meanings of a word or bringing together two or more words with the same or similar form but different meanings.
- involves taking a political issue and protracting or making an even bigger issue out of it.
- It may involve interpreting an issue in a way suitable to a politician and often unsuitable and/or hurtful to his/her political opponent During spinning, politicians give the most sensationalist portrayals of political events.
- They may put the best or worst possible construction on political events and speeches.
- A spin-doctor's aim is often to fool or deceive political actors' opponents or the general public about a political issue.
- Celebrate a success
- Ridicule an opponent's failure
- Down-play the spinner's party's failure,
- The main focus of a story determines how the spinning is doctored.
- figurative language that draws comparison
- vividly portray the situation created between 2 politicians or ideological positions.
- characterize events and characters and create an atmosphere that allows the recipients to live through the experience of the describer.