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In reducing cholesterol levels, it is more important to reduce the intake of ______ than to reduce the intake of cholesterol itself.
There are __________ major classes of plasma lipoproteins.
Of all the lipoproteins, __________ make the greatest contribution to coronary atherosclerosis.
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
Macrophages that engulf more and more cholesterol and become large and vacuolated are called ______________
How long must treatment for high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol continue?
Metabolic syndrome arises from
The most dangerous side effect of statins is
The principal response to bile sequestrants is a
reduction in LDL levels
All of the drugs discussed in this chapter carry the significant risk factor of
Formation of an arterial thrombus begins with _________________,
adhesion of platelets to the arterial wall (adhesion is stimulated by damage to the wall or rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque)
whereas venous thrombi develop at sites where_________________.
blood flow is slow. Stagnation of blood initiates the coagulation cascade, resulting in the production of fibrin, which enmeshes red blood cells and platelets to form the thrombus.
Anticoagulant drugs disrupt the_________________
antiplatelet drugs inhibit__________________,
thrombolytic drugs promote____________.
lysis of fibrin, thereby causing dissolution of thrombi
By promoting the inactivation of ______and factor________, heparin ultimately suppresses
formation of fibrin
Which is the preferred anticoagulant for use during pregnancy?
The antidote for severe heparin overdose is
Advantages of low-molecular-weight heparins include
_____________, _________________, ____________________, and
Low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparins can be given on a fixed-dose schedule and do not require aPTT monitoring;
they can be used at home;
they are much less likely cause thrombocytopenia;
they are now considered first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
The prototype for the oral anticoagulant group is
Heparin and warfarin decrease fibrin formation. Heparin inactivates ____________________ and _________________, whereas warfarin
thrombin, factor Xa,
inhibits synthesis of clotting factors
________________ is approved for prevention of thrombotic stroke.