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2011-10-02 20:04:21

intro to physiology
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  1. list the 3 types of membrane transport
    • passive diffusion-moves from high concentration to low
    • facilitated diffusion-same as passive diffusion except their is a protein carrier molecule
    • active transport-moves against concentration gradient. requires energy and molecule
  2. Function of the cell membrane
    serves as a selective barrier between the extracellular and intracellular spaces
  3. function of the nucleus
    Controls the cells activity and contains genetic material
  4. Function of the nuclear membrane
    binds the nucleus and made of 2 lipid bilayer membranes
  5. function of the nucleolus
    lives within the nucleus and assembles the ribosomes
  6. function of the cytoplasm
    mass surrounding the cell. contains the organelles needed for the cells basic functions
  7. what's the function of the LEFT side of the heart
    pumps blood to all organs
  8. what's the function of the RIGHT side of the heart
    pumps venous blood nthrough the lungs where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen.
  9. What's the difference between the atria and the ventricles?
    the atria primer pumps which increase the effectiveness of ventricular pumping, while the ventricles function as pumps for propulsion of blood
  10. What is the purpose of the CVS valves
    prevents backflow of blood into the atrium
  11. Name the major valves of the heart
    • Pulmonary
    • Tricuspid (R AV valve)-3 cusps
    • Aortic
    • Mitral (L AV valve)-2 cusps
    • Semilunar valve (pulmonary valve)
  12. All arteries carry oxygenated blood except for ___
    The pulmonary artery
  13. describe the blood flow of the heart
    • R atrium
    • R AV valve (tricuspid valve)
    • R ventricle
    • R pulmonary valve
    • pulmoary artery
    • lungs
    • pulmonary vein
    • L atrium
    • LAV valve
  14. What regulates blood pressure
  15. What drains blood from capillaries
  16. Whats the difference between the CARDIOVASCULAR and LYMPHATIC system?
    • lymph capillaries dont have tight junctions between endothelial cells, as blood capillaries do.
    • lymph capillaries have fine filaments that anchor the lymph vessels to the surrounding connecting tissue.
  17. What does the lymphatic system produce?
    lymphocytes and antibodies
  18. Whats the major function of the RESPIRATORY system
    supplying red blood cells(erythrocytes) with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
  19. Where in the lungs does the exchange of gases (oxygen & carbon dioxide) take place?
  20. 2 aspects of respiration
    • inspiration- breath in
    • expiration- breath out
  21. What happens during hyperventilation
    • carbon dioxide decreases-cause of rapid breathing
    • PH increases-cause H ions & bicarbonate form (H2CO3)
  22. What happens during hypoventilation
    • carbon dioxide increases-cause no rapid breathing
    • PH decreases-cause of rise in concentration of H ions
  23. Classify the mammals based on what they eat
    • carnivores (dogs, cats)-eat meat
    • omnivores (humans, pigs)-both meat and plants
    • herbivores- plant eaters
    • complex(4 chamber stomach)ruminants (cattle sheep)
    • simple stomach(horse)
  24. Whats the purpose of having a bony skeleton
    • Protection
    • reservoir for minerals (calcium & phosphorus)
    • manufactures blood cells
  25. Name 3 main functions
    • Cranial cavity protects the brain
    • thoracic cavity protects heart and lungs
    • forms bony cavity
  26. Whats the function of the muscular system
    causes the body to move when its muscles contract
  27. What is a hormone?
    chemical substance secreted into circulation by a ductless gland and carried in the blood to another area of the body where it gives a biological response
  28. Where are the following released from:
    Steroid hormone
    Peptide hormone
    Amino acid derived hormones
    • steroid hormone-derived from cholesterol
    • peptide hormone-produced from the pituitary gland
    • amino acid- derived from tyrosine in the throid gland
  29. Major glands of the Endocrine system
    • anterior and posterior pituitary gland
    • hypothalamus
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid gland
    • adrenal gland
    • pancreas
    • ovaries
    • testes
  30. Major organs of Renal system
    • 2 kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  31. Major functions of the RENAL system
    • produce hormones
    • excrete subtances like drugs
    • maintain blood volume
    • help regulate PH of body fluids
  32. Nephrons are replaceable.
    True or False
    False...they are irreplaceable. they rest until recruited which happens when another nephron becomes dysfunctional
  33. Name the gametes produced by the (fe)male gonads
    • ovary-ova
    • testes-sperm
  34. What is the main function of the NERVOUS system
    control and organize activities of the body
  35. What is the functional unit of the nervous system
    neuron or nerve cell
  36. What are the 2 major parts of the NERVOUS system
    • CNS- central nervous system
    • PNS-peripheral nervous system
  37. Whats organs are each part of the NERVOUS system
    • CNS- brain & spinal cord
    • PNS- all structures outside the CNS
  38. What % of the body is made up of water
    • 60%
    • 40% inside the cells/20% outside the cells
  39. Where is the water located
    in extracelluar fluid which includes plasma and fluid bathing the tissues
  40. what is negative feedback
    the body recieves input and produce a subsequent action that contradicts the input
  41. what is micturition
    emptying of the urinary bladder
  42. Each nephron is comprised of what
    • glomerulus,
    • Bowman's capsule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of Henle
    • distal convoluted tubule
  43. what makes blood red
    hemoglobin in erythrocytes
  44. smallest unit of skeletal muscle
    muscle fiber
  45. what muscle is attached to the skeleton that cause the body to move
  46. what part of the neuron recieves impulses
  47. 2 neurons communicate at a specialized junction called synapse and release what?
  48. what are examples of stimuli of the PNS
    • light
    • temp
    • fullness
    • pain
  49. what is the process of forming sperm
  50. what are the 8 systems of the body
    • renal
    • digestive
    • cardiovascular
    • reproductive
    • muscular
    • skeletal
    • nervous
    • respiratory
  51. what are the 4 basic types of cells
    • epithelial
    • muscle
    • connective tissue
    • nerve
  52. how many nephrons does the dog kidney have
  53. thrombocytes: what are the and what do they do
    • platelets
    • help in blood coagulation
  54. Erythrocytes: what are they and what do they do
    • red blood cells
    • transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and assist in the transportation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the tissues to the lungs.
  55. Leukocytes: what are they and what do they do
    • white blood cells
    • help fight infection against disease
  56. what do ribosomes do
    synthesis protein
  57. what organ synthesizes the proteins
    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  58. what is the function of the mitochondria
    • the "powerhouse"
    • provides the cell with energy neccesary for functioning
  59. what is the function of the neutrophils
    • "2nd line of defense"
    • infiltrate injured tissue by moving blood out through capillary walls
  60. PCV
    packed cell volume or hemotocrit
  61. endocytosis
    Process by which extracellular material enters a cell
  62. Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of large foreign microorganisms and other cells into the cytoplasm of the cell
  63. Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis of dissolved soluble molecules into the cytoplasm of the cell
  64. Exocytosis
    Process by which the contents of a cytoplasmic vesicle exit the cell
  65. whats the normal hematocrit levels in a horse and dog and what % would signify anemia
    • horse 35%
    • dog 46%
    • cat 37%
    • anemia = value onder 30%
  66. whats the point of fluid in the pluera cavity
    to lubricate reducing friction between the lungs and other structures in the thorax and facilitating movement of the lungs
  67. what organ secretes bile & synthesizes plasma proteins such as albunim?
  68. what is anemia
    a decrease in RBC's content and HB content
  69. what are the major plasma proteins
    albumin, fibrinogen,and glubulins
  70. what does the ENDOCRINE system secrete
  71. whats the function of the CARDIOVASCULAR system
    transport of nutrients and oxygen and waste products for metabolism
  72. what chemistry values are helpful indicators of liveer problems
    low serum proteins (hypoproteinemia)
  73. what causes blood vessels to dialate during inflammation
    in response to bacteria and toxins in the tissue, tissue mast cells and basophils secrete histamines. Histamines causes blood vessells to dialate, which increases blood flow to infected area.
  74. what is leukopenia
    a decrease in the number of leukocytes
  75. what is leukocytosis
    an increase in leukocytes
  76. what is leukemia
    an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal leukocytes and their precursors
  77. wht is polycythemia
    an abnormal increase in the number of circulation red blood cells
  78. what tubes/chemicals prevent blood clotting
    • coating tubes with silicone
    • adding chelating that remove calcium
    • add heparin
  79. why is calcium important
    for blood coagulation
  80. what is homeostasis
    maintenance of relatively constant conditions in their cellular enviroments
  81. mitochondria
    cells power house/supplies chemical energy
  82. lysosomes
    help break down waste products and aid in digestion