Psychosis, Depression, Bipolar, Anxiety

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LaurenFleming
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98715
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Psychosis, Depression, Bipolar, Anxiety
Updated:
2011-08-28 12:37:35
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N300
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Final
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  1. All of the conventional antipsychotic drugs can cause serious movement disorders called
    extrapyramidal symptoms
  2. The term ________ refers only to the size of the dose needed to elicit a given response. It has nothing to do with the maximal effect a drug can produce.
    Potency
  3. Typically the patient with acute dystonia develops _______________________, ____________________, and
    ___________________.
    severe spasm of the muscles of the tongue, face, neck, or back
  4. Initial treatment consists of
    __________________ medication administration for severe spasm of the muscle of the tongue, face, neck or back
    oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; anticholinergic
  5. Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism is treated with some of the drugs used for Parkinson’s disease. However, ______________ must not be used because it will counteract the beneficial effects of antipsychotic treatment.
    levodopa
  6. ________________ is characterized by pacing and squirming brought on by an uncontrollable need to
    be in motion
    Akathisia;
  7. The three drugs used to suppress symptoms of Akathisia include _____________, __________, and _______________.
    beta blockers, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics
  8. What is characterized by involuntary choreoathetoid movements of the tongue and face.
    Tardive dyskinesia
  9. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is characterized by _________________, _________, and
    ________________.
    “lead-pipe” rigidity, sudden high fever, autonomic instability
  10. Death can result from ___________,
    _________, and __________________.
    respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, dysrhythmias
  11. Antipsychotics increase levels of prolactin, promoting _________________ (breast growth) and
    _______________.
    gynecomastia, galactorrhea
  12. Treatment modalities for depression include_________________________, ________________, and
    _______________________.
    • pharmacology,
    • depression-specific psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
  13. What are the most widely prescribed antidepressants
    SSRIs
  14. What precautions can be taken to reduce the chances of suicide in the depressed patient?
    _______________________________, ______________________, and
    _______________________.
    Hospitalize the suicidal patient until the treatment has had time to reduce the suicide risk;

    do not give the patient access to a large supply of antidepressants;

    observe that the antidepressant medication is actually swallowed and not cheeked to save for another time when multiple drugs can be taken at one time
  15. Symptoms of acute toxicity or overdose of a TCA drug include
    • dysrhythmias, hyperthermia, flushing, dry mouth, dilation of the pupils, confusion, agitation,
    • hallucination, seizures, coma
  16. What is the mechanism of action of fluoxetine?
    It produces selective inhibition of serotonin reuptake, intensifying transmission at serotonergic synapses, thereby promoting CNS excitation rather than sedation.
  17. The risk of serotonin syndrome is increased by concurrent use of
    an MAOI, ritonavir, other drugs that can increase fluoxetine levels
  18. The function of monoamine oxidase in neurons is to
    convert monoamine neurotransmitters (i.e., NE, serotonin, and dopamine) into inactive products
  19. MAOIs can cause severe hypertension if the patient eats food rich in
    tyramine
  20. Hypertensive crisis can be treated with intravenous (IV)
    phentolamine
  21. The most serious adverse effect of bupropion therapy is
    seizures
  22. The mainstays of drug therapy for bipolar disorder are ______________, __________________, and
    ______________________.
    lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine
  23. Types of mood episodes seen in bipolar disorder include___________, ___________, _______________,
    and__________________________.
    • Pure manic episode (euphoric mania),
    • hypomanic episode (hypomania),
    • major depressive episode (depression),
    • mixed episode
  24. The three major groups of drugs used to treat bipolar disorder include
    mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics
  25. Candidates for electroconvulsive therapy include patients with
    psychotic depression, severe nonpsychotic depression, severe mania, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder
  26. Patients receiving lithium therapy are advised to maintain a normal intake of foods containing which
    electrolyte
    Sodium
  27. The maintenance levels of lithium should be kept between
    0.4 and 1 mEq/L
  28. What are the mild analgesics of choice for a patient receiving lithium therapy?
    aspirin, sulindac
  29. Common side effects that occur at therapeutic levels of lithium therapy include
    tremor, goiter, polyuria
  30. Agents given to relieve anxiety are known as ____________ drugs or ____________.
    antianxiety, anxiolytics
  31. Agents given to promote sleep are known as
    tranquilizers
  32. The three principal indications for benzodiazepines are
    anxiety, insomnia, seizure precautions
  33. Withdrawal from long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine therapy can result in
    panic, paranoia, delirium, hypertension, muscle twitches, outright convulsions
  34. Treatment of the patient who overdoses on oral benzodiazepines includes
    gastric lavage followed by ingestion of activated charcoal and a saline cathartic;

    dialysis maybe helpful if symptoms are severe; the airway should be kept patent and respirations monitored;

    blood pressure should be supported with intravenous (IV) fluids and norepinephrine as needed
  35. ________________ is the first representative of a new class of hypnotics, the pyrazolopyrimidines.
    Zaleplon
  36. Barbiturates reduce ventilation through
    depression of brainstem neurogenic respiratory drive, depression of chemoreceptive mechanisms that control respiratory drive
  37. Because of its rapid onset of action, _____________ is an example of a drug that can be used for patients who have difficulty falling asleep
    zolpidem;
  38. Because of its long duration of
    action, ________________ is an example of a drug that is good for patients who have difficulty staying asleep.
    estazolam
  39. The principal adverse effects of benzodiazepines are
    daytime sedation, anterograde amnesia
  40. The six major classes of primary anxiety disorders include
    • generalized anxiety disorder,
    • panic disorder,
    • obsessive-compulsive disorder,
    • phobic disorder,
    • post-traumatic stress disorder,
    • acute stress disorder
  41. The two classes of drugs used most commonly for anxiety disorders are
    benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  42. Three distinct advantages of buspirone include
    • it does not cause sedation, it has no abuse potential, it does not intensify the effects of central nervous
    • system (CNS) depressants
  43. Patients taking buspirone should be cautioned
    against consuming which type of food
    grapefruit juice
  44. Agoraphobia
    is a condition characterized by anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help might be unavailable in the event that a panic attack should occur.
  45. Behavioral therapy is probably more important in the treatment of ___________ than for any other
    psychiatric disorder.
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
  46. Which class of drugs can benefit patients with performance anxiety?
    beta blockers
  47. Buspirone levels can be increased by which two drugs?
    erythromycin, ketoconazole

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