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All of the conventional antipsychotic drugs can cause serious movement disorders called
The term ________ refers only to the size of the dose needed to elicit a given response. It has nothing to do with the maximal effect a drug can produce.
Typically the patient with acute dystonia develops _______________________, ____________________, and
severe spasm of the muscles of the tongue, face, neck, or back
Initial treatment consists of
__________________ medication administration for severe spasm of the muscle of the tongue, face, neck or back
oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; anticholinergic
Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism is treated with some of the drugs used for Parkinson’s disease. However, ______________ must not be used because it will counteract the beneficial effects of antipsychotic treatment.
________________ is characterized by pacing and squirming brought on by an uncontrollable need to
be in motion
The three drugs used to suppress symptoms of Akathisia include _____________, __________, and _______________.
beta blockers, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics
What is characterized by involuntary choreoathetoid movements of the tongue and face.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is characterized by _________________, _________, and
“lead-pipe” rigidity, sudden high fever, autonomic instability
Death can result from ___________,
_________, and __________________.
respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, dysrhythmias
Antipsychotics increase levels of prolactin, promoting _________________ (breast growth) and
Treatment modalities for depression include_________________________, ________________, and
- depression-specific psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
What are the most widely prescribed antidepressants
What precautions can be taken to reduce the chances of suicide in the depressed patient?
_______________________________, ______________________, and
Hospitalize the suicidal patient until the treatment has had time to reduce the suicide risk;
do not give the patient access to a large supply of antidepressants;
observe that the antidepressant medication is actually swallowed and not cheeked to save for another time when multiple drugs can be taken at one time
Symptoms of acute toxicity or overdose of a TCA drug include
- dysrhythmias, hyperthermia, flushing, dry mouth, dilation of the pupils, confusion, agitation,
- hallucination, seizures, coma
What is the mechanism of action of fluoxetine?
It produces selective inhibition of serotonin reuptake, intensifying transmission at serotonergic synapses, thereby promoting CNS excitation rather than sedation.
The risk of serotonin syndrome is increased by concurrent use of
an MAOI, ritonavir, other drugs that can increase fluoxetine levels
The function of monoamine oxidase in neurons is to
convert monoamine neurotransmitters (i.e., NE, serotonin, and dopamine) into inactive products
MAOIs can cause severe hypertension if the patient eats food rich in
Hypertensive crisis can be treated with intravenous (IV)
The most serious adverse effect of bupropion therapy is
The mainstays of drug therapy for bipolar disorder are ______________, __________________, and
lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine
Types of mood episodes seen in bipolar disorder include___________, ___________, _______________,
- Pure manic episode (euphoric mania),
- hypomanic episode (hypomania),
- major depressive episode (depression),
- mixed episode
The three major groups of drugs used to treat bipolar disorder include
mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics
Candidates for electroconvulsive therapy include patients with
psychotic depression, severe nonpsychotic depression, severe mania, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder
Patients receiving lithium therapy are advised to maintain a normal intake of foods containing which
The maintenance levels of lithium should be kept between
0.4 and 1 mEq/L
What are the mild analgesics of choice for a patient receiving lithium therapy?
Common side effects that occur at therapeutic levels of lithium therapy include
tremor, goiter, polyuria
Agents given to relieve anxiety are known as ____________ drugs or ____________.
Agents given to promote sleep are known as
The three principal indications for benzodiazepines are
anxiety, insomnia, seizure precautions
Withdrawal from long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine therapy can result in
panic, paranoia, delirium, hypertension, muscle twitches, outright convulsions
Treatment of the patient who overdoses on oral benzodiazepines includes
gastric lavage followed by ingestion of activated charcoal and a saline cathartic;
dialysis maybe helpful if symptoms are severe; the airway should be kept patent and respirations monitored;
blood pressure should be supported with intravenous (IV) fluids and norepinephrine as needed
________________ is the first representative of a new class of hypnotics, the pyrazolopyrimidines.
Barbiturates reduce ventilation through
depression of brainstem neurogenic respiratory drive, depression of chemoreceptive mechanisms that control respiratory drive
Because of its rapid onset of action, _____________ is an example of a drug that can be used for patients who have difficulty falling asleep
Because of its long duration of
action, ________________ is an example of a drug that is good for patients who have difficulty staying asleep.
The principal adverse effects of benzodiazepines are
daytime sedation, anterograde amnesia
The six major classes of primary anxiety disorders include
- generalized anxiety disorder,
- panic disorder,
- obsessive-compulsive disorder,
- phobic disorder,
- post-traumatic stress disorder,
- acute stress disorder
The two classes of drugs used most commonly for anxiety disorders are
benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Three distinct advantages of buspirone include
- it does not cause sedation, it has no abuse potential, it does not intensify the effects of central nervous
- system (CNS) depressants
Patients taking buspirone should be cautioned
against consuming which type of food
is a condition characterized by anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help might be unavailable in the event that a panic attack should occur.
Behavioral therapy is probably more important in the treatment of ___________ than for any other
Which class of drugs can benefit patients with performance anxiety?
Buspirone levels can be increased by which two drugs?